Entrepreneurship:Past, Present and Future       Shaker A. ZahraCarlson School of Management   University of Minnesota
Some General Observations Progress has been startling, with greater acceptance and diffusion  of entrepreneurship program...
Some General Observations The production of entrepreneurship knowledge and scholarship  is a worldwide enterprise, with p...
Agenda Key shifts in entrepreneurship research:   – Milestones & major transitions   – Where are we? Some emerging issue...
Studying Entrepreneurship                                                 Use of Archival data                            ...
Studying Entrepreneurship                 Ivy League   Big 10       Large State/   Balanced                               ...
The Way We Were The “Babson” Clinical Tradition   –   Phenomenon driven   –   Descriptive   –   Process oriented (without...
Where We Are! A shift occurred with the creation of:     –   The Babson Research Conference     –   Academy of Management...
Going Beyond Individual Entrepreneurship The recognition of corporate entrepreneurship as an integral part  of the field:...
Redefining the Field around OpportunityOpportunity     Opportunity                 Opportunity      OpportunityDiscovery  ...
Where Are We? Hard to tell Fragmentation is commonplace    – Gartner: We are in different tents Entrepreneurship: A fie...
Some Promising Developments   Questioning how we count things.   Rediscovery of the Entrepreneur   Greater attention to...
Rediscovery of Entrepreneur From traits to intangibles   –   Cognition   –   Identity                                    ...
Dimensions of Context       Dimensions                 What does it Mean?Spatial              The physical setting or loca...
Concerns about Contextualization Theory-free research Generalizability is sacrificed. There is a belief that context-fre...
So, How do the Differences look like?                                           Entrepreneurship ResearchVariables        ...
Entrepreneurial Orientation EO as a reflection of   –   Proactiveness   –   Innovativeness   –   Risk Taking   –   Autonomy
Entrepreneurial Orientation We need to reassess the value added of investing  resources into the study of EO. If we are ...
Entrepreneurial (dis)Orienation EO: a mishmash of many constructs. Disposition to be entrepreneurial does not really  me...
From EO to Capability? Capabilities are closer to managerial action. We can gauge multiple capabilities. WE can look in...
What Passes for Entrepreneurship?
Why do these Dimensions Matter?                 What does it mean?         Strategic         Example indicatorsDimension  ...
Why do these Dimensions Matter?                   How many               Resource          Number of start-ups         ...
Formal vs. Informal EntrepreneurshipLegitimacy                       Formality                     Formal                 ...
Informal Entrepreneurship                                   Employment                                   Training         ...
Dark Side of Entrepreneurship   Influence, control and abuse of power.     – Corruption     – Misallocation of resources...
The Social Impact of Entrepreneurship  Venture                   Potential Impact   Type                      Positive    ...
Types of Social Innovations                              Market                    (internet micro-financing)             ...
Opportunity Exploitation:           Coverage in the LiteratureVariable                                    CoverageMode of ...
What Does Exploitation Mean? Refers to those activities that transform an opportunity into a  source of value. Opportuni...
Role of National Policies What role should the state play in promoting  entrepreneurship? What should national policies ...
Studying Microfoundations Microfoundations refer to individual cognitions, attitudes,  beliefs, motivations, and behavior...
From Micro-Foundations to Macro-Structure                            New FirmsIndividual-    Micro-      With Varying    N...
Studying Entrepreneurship                                                 Use of Archival data                            ...
Studying Entrepreneurship                 Ivy League   Big 10       Large State/   Balanced                               ...
Conclusion   We have come far but we continue to struggle with fundamental questions:     – Is there a unifying framework...
Thank you
Social Entrepreneurship Vs. Social InnovationDimensions          Social Entrepreneurship      Social InnovationsFocus     ...
Entrepreneurship:  Productive, Unproductive & CounterproductiveLocus                              Individual         Corpo...
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Entrepreneurship past present future 2012 Shaker Zahra EGEPE

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Na Assembleia da Anegepe, evento pré congresso do EGEPE, o Prof. Shaker Zahra nos trouxe sua visão sobre as tendências de pesquisa em empreendedorismo no mundo. Mar/2012, Florianópolis.

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Entrepreneurship past present future 2012 Shaker Zahra EGEPE

  1. 1. Entrepreneurship:Past, Present and Future Shaker A. ZahraCarlson School of Management University of Minnesota
  2. 2. Some General Observations Progress has been startling, with greater acceptance and diffusion of entrepreneurship programs & centers. Newcomers from outside the field have enriched the field and redefined it. Theory development has been slow, whereas methodological rigor has increased. Attention to public policy issues is growing.
  3. 3. Some General Observations The production of entrepreneurship knowledge and scholarship is a worldwide enterprise, with prominent scholars and centers located around the globe. This is compelling us to reflect on the relativity of entrepreneurial processes, motives and outcomes.
  4. 4. Agenda Key shifts in entrepreneurship research: – Milestones & major transitions – Where are we? Some emerging issues that are likely to redefine What and How we study entrepreneurship. – Persistent debates – Promising directions
  5. 5. Studying Entrepreneurship Use of Archival data Econometric Disciplinary Focus ………………………… Qualitative Methods Theory Building Focus Field/ Surveys Use of theory developed elsewhere Multivariate FocusClinical Tradition Case studyLimited theoretical grounding
  6. 6. Studying Entrepreneurship Ivy League Big 10 Large State/ Balanced Middle Tier MissionsDisciplinary ***** ***** ** Very littleFocus theoryIndustry Focus ***** ***** **Archival *** ***** *Field ** * ****Surveys **** ****Case Study Theory Teaching Teaching buildingExperimental * *Econometrics ***** **** **
  7. 7. The Way We Were The “Babson” Clinical Tradition – Phenomenon driven – Descriptive – Process oriented (without the formality of a unified framework) – Action Based – The entrepreneur as hero • Lack of theoretical grounding, combined with poor empiricism, drew criticism from within and outside the field.
  8. 8. Where We Are! A shift occurred with the creation of: – The Babson Research Conference – Academy of Management: Entrepreneurship Division – Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice – Journal of Business Ventures Greater attention to large scale surveys – The debate about the distinctive domain of entrepreneurship – Greater attention to the “whats” of entrepreneurship
  9. 9. Going Beyond Individual Entrepreneurship The recognition of corporate entrepreneurship as an integral part of the field: – What is it? – Who does it? – How to foster it? – When does it pay off? – Forms of benefit from corporate entrepreneurship: • Knowledge and learning • Strategic Variety and flexibility • Opportunities • Financial performance – Relationship between corporate and individual entrepreneurship
  10. 10. Redefining the Field around OpportunityOpportunity Opportunity Opportunity OpportunityDiscovery Evaluation Exploitation Evaluation Context
  11. 11. Where Are We? Hard to tell Fragmentation is commonplace – Gartner: We are in different tents Entrepreneurship: A field of Dreams
  12. 12. Some Promising Developments Questioning how we count things. Rediscovery of the Entrepreneur Greater attention to context From Entrepreneurial Orientation to Capability Formal vs. Informal Entrepreneurship Social Impact: Social Ventures & Sustainability Focus on Exploitation National Policy Micro-foundations Studying Entrepreneurship
  13. 13. Rediscovery of Entrepreneur From traits to intangibles – Cognition – Identity • Gendering the field? – Passion • Ethnics/ Race – Persistence • Immigrant – Learning/ Experience Effects – Managing & surviving failures
  14. 14. Dimensions of Context Dimensions What does it Mean?Spatial The physical setting or location of event, text, relationship.Time Sequencing of the text in relation to other texts or events.Practice Locating text (event) in a domain of related ideas, values and modes of operating.Change Arena where concept is deployed, altered, etc. to give new meaning [Leitch & Palmer, 2010; Thornoton, 1999]
  15. 15. Concerns about Contextualization Theory-free research Generalizability is sacrificed. There is a belief that context-free theories/studies are more scientific than context-specific studies. Context: An over-used concept that has become a “conceptual garbage can” [Akman, 2000:754] Subjectivity in defining and invoking context [Dilley, 1999] What are the dimensions of the “context”? There is the possibility that context is the key source of “study-to- study variations” [Johns, 2006:389]
  16. 16. So, How do the Differences look like? Entrepreneurship ResearchVariables Current Practice ContextualizedTreatment of context Control for it Is part of the story; sometimes it is the storyRole of Researcher Distant, detached Heavily engaged.Scope (of propositions) Broad Bounded.Phenomenon Defined a priori •Defined by context • Meaning & boundaries often evolve as research progressesQuestions Relevance Generalizability
  17. 17. Entrepreneurial Orientation EO as a reflection of – Proactiveness – Innovativeness – Risk Taking – Autonomy
  18. 18. Entrepreneurial Orientation We need to reassess the value added of investing resources into the study of EO. If we are going to continue to study EO, we need: – Better conceptualization & contextualization of EO research. – Cleverer measures of EO – Examining the dysfunctional consequences of EO.
  19. 19. Entrepreneurial (dis)Orienation EO: a mishmash of many constructs. Disposition to be entrepreneurial does not really mean action, behavior (i.e., being entrepreneurial): – Whose orientation? • Firm • TMT • Employees What is entrepreneurial about the E in EO?
  20. 20. From EO to Capability? Capabilities are closer to managerial action. We can gauge multiple capabilities. WE can look into different attributes of a given capability (e.g., novelty). Their effect on performance is not automatic.
  21. 21. What Passes for Entrepreneurship?
  22. 22. Why do these Dimensions Matter? What does it mean? Strategic Example indicatorsDimension ConsequencesMagnitude  Extent to which  Differentiation  Extent to which activity is new venture takes existingof novelty (multiple vs. few concept to a new dimensions) market.  Extent to which venture embodies new product in new or existing markets  # of markets created over time and # of new entrants.
  23. 23. Why do these Dimensions Matter?  How many  Resource  Number of start-ups entrepreneurial accumulation or spin-offs, activities areRate undertaken?  Learning buyouts, and buy-ins per year or per  Over what period? entrepreneur  # of knowledge  Variability sources used toVariety of  Organizational across actions, identifyexploitation form opportunity. initiatives & modes ventures  Game change  Diversity of organizational and shaping of forms in a market. the ecosystem.  # & diversity of proprietary processes in a market
  24. 24. Formal vs. Informal EntrepreneurshipLegitimacy Formality Formal Informal 1 3Legitimate most widely studied limited attention by sociologists & economists. 2 4 great attention and growingIllegitimate CSR and criminology study because of effect on economic development
  25. 25. Informal Entrepreneurship Employment Training + Effects Experimentation Sometimes only way to render service InformalEntrepreneurship Corruption Gresham’s law: Driving legitimate business out of the market Exploitation of children and other -Effects disadvantaged groups
  26. 26. Dark Side of Entrepreneurship Influence, control and abuse of power. – Corruption – Misallocation of resources Delaying social and political change Delaying and even suppressing technological change. “Absolving” the state from the responsibility for public good. Class Strife
  27. 27. The Social Impact of Entrepreneurship Venture Potential Impact Type Positive NegativeTraditional Well Studied Under Studied Social Receiving Rarely Growing Studied Attention
  28. 28. Types of Social Innovations Market (internet micro-financing) Management SocialInnovations Political (coalition building) Institutional (e.g., new models) (Brooks, 2009)
  29. 29. Opportunity Exploitation: Coverage in the LiteratureVariable CoverageMode of Exploitation *****Timing ***Movement from Exploration to Exploitation *Opportunity Attributes as Antecedent *Structure as Antecedent **Culture & Norms as Antecedents **Environment as Antecedent **
  30. 30. What Does Exploitation Mean? Refers to those activities that transform an opportunity into a source of value. Opportunities are not limited to products [Foss et al., 2011] or physical goods; they involve: – Intangibles (differentiated offering) – Intellectual (Ideas, discoveries) – Processes • Market Creation • Industry • Intra & inter-organizational systems, routines, and procedures
  31. 31. Role of National Policies What role should the state play in promoting entrepreneurship? What should national policies include? – Sectors – Access – Incentives – Relationship between FDI & Entrepreneurship – Relationship between incumbents & new ventures Balanced ecosystems that foster growth
  32. 32. Studying Microfoundations Microfoundations refer to individual cognitions, attitudes, beliefs, motivations, and behaviors that create and influence macro structures (e.g., firms, organizations, markets & networks) and other social economic activities [van de Ven, 2010].  Highlight the role of agency [Sarasvarthy, 2008]  Important for reclaiming the centrality of the entrepreneur  Micro-processes [Teece et al., 2007], which have been overlooked in entrepreneurship research [Santos & Eisenhardt, 2009]  Recognizes that economic action arises from their situated cognitions, as expressions of their beliefs [Nonaka et al., 2008]
  33. 33. From Micro-Foundations to Macro-Structure New FirmsIndividual- Micro- With Varying Networks Level Processes degrees of ENT
  34. 34. Studying Entrepreneurship Use of Archival data Econometric Disciplinary Focus ………………………… Qualitative Methods Theory Building Focus Field/ Surveys Use of theory developed elsewhere Multivariate FocusClinical Tradition Case studyLimited theoretical grounding
  35. 35. Studying Entrepreneurship Ivy League Big 10 Large State/ Balanced Middle Tier MissionsDisciplinary ***** ***** ** Very littleFocus theoryIndustry Focus ***** ***** **Archival *** ***** *Field ** * ****Surveys **** ****Case Study Theory Teaching Teaching buildingExperimental * *Econometrics ***** **** **
  36. 36. Conclusion We have come far but we continue to struggle with fundamental questions: – Is there a unifying framework? – Why does the field continue to borrow ideas/ theories from elsewhere? Why not develop our own theories? • We use theories developed elsewhere but do we add to these theories? • Are entrepreneurial phenomena distinct enough to warrant developing theory? – How can we influence public policy?
  37. 37. Thank you
  38. 38. Social Entrepreneurship Vs. Social InnovationDimensions Social Entrepreneurship Social InnovationsFocus New Firm creation Social Movement through PartnershipsGoals Money making Solving social Issues Solving Social issues EmpowermentLocus of Action Mostly Individual Partnerships (Collective Action)
  39. 39. Entrepreneurship: Productive, Unproductive & CounterproductiveLocus Individual Corporate Productive Firm creation Venturing Business Creation Unproductive Exploitation of Empire building (MA)Type labor & environment Counterproductive Bribery Dumping Illicit trade Pollution Traditional Philanthropy PhilanthropySolutions CSR Emerging SE “Bottom of the Pyramid”

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