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Physicalscience4 1-100414082607-phpapp01


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Physicalscience4 1-100414082607-phpapp01

  1. 1. Physical Science Chapter 4.1
  2. 2. Objectives 1. Describe some of the experiments that led to the current atomic theory. 2. Compare the different models of the atom. 3. Explain how the atomic theory has changed as scientists have discovered new information about the atom. Bellringer The following is a quote by Democritus (c. 460–c. 370 bce). “Color exists by convention, sweet by convention, bitter by convention; in reality nothing exists but atoms and the void.” What do you know about Democritus? And why are his thoughts important?
  3. 3. The Beginning of the Atomic Theory  440 BCE, a Greek philosopher, Democritus  thought that you would eventually end up with a particle that could not be cut. ○ He called this particle an atom.  Aristotle, another Greek philosopher,  disagreed with Democritus  He believed that you would never end up with a particle that could not be cut.  atom  smallest particle into which an element can be divided and still be the same substance.
  4. 4. Dalton’s Atomic Theory  Published in1803. Stated that 1. All substances are made of atoms. 2. Atoms are small particles that cannot be created, divided, or destroyed. 3. Atoms of the same element are exactly alike 4. Atoms of different elements are different. 5. Atoms join with other atoms to make new substances.  Not Quite Correct  The atomic theory was then changed to describe the atom more correctly.
  5. 5. Thomson’s Discovery of Electrons  Negatively Charged Particles  Used cathode-ray tube  Discovered negatively charged particles ○ electrons.  Plum – Pudding model  New model of the atom. ○ Electrons were mixed throughout an atom, like plums in a pudding.
  6. 6. Rutherford’s Atomic “Shooting Gallery”  Negatively Charged Particles  1909 ○ Ernest Rutherford aimed a beam of small, positively charged particles at a thin sheet of gold foil.  Surprising Results  Expected the particles to pass right through the gold in a straight line.  Surprise, some of the particles were deflected!!
  7. 7. Rutherford’s Model of atom
  8. 8. Where are the electrons?  Far from the Nucleus  Rutherford proposed that in the center of the atom is a tiny, positively charged part ○ called the nucleus ○ Nucleus is 100,000 times smaller than atom  Bohr’s Electron Levels  1913 ○ Niels Bohr proposed that electrons move around the nucleus in certain paths, or energy levels
  9. 9. Size of the Nucleus
  10. 10. Modern Atomic Theory  The Modern Atomic Theory  Regions inside the atom where electrons are likely to found ○ These regions are called electron clouds