The Fall of Rome and thebeginning of the Middle Ages. World History AUnit Three: The Middle Ages, the Plague, and the Crusades
Major Eras of European HistoryClassical Era (Greece and Rome- first twounits) 500 B.C.- 600 A.D.Middle Ages (time of knights and castles-this unit) 500 A.D. – 1500 A.D.Early Modern Era (time of powerful kingsand exploration- our next unit) 1500 A.D. –1776 A.D.
Fall of the Roman EmpireRome was the mostpowerful empire theworld had ever seen.So what happened?
Weaker West Western Empire cities, far from trade routes, were smaller, poorer Cities exposed to attack from invaders along northern border - defense forces were often poorly paid, so less willing to risk lives
The Two Roman Empires Wealthy East Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire) much stronger than Western Roman Empire Constantinople traded with Asia, Africa, Europe - Eastern Empire had more wealth as a result of trade Eastern cities were larger, better fortified - Black Sea was natural barrier against invasions
Main Ideas The Western Roman Empire was much weaker than the more prosperous Eastern Roman Empire. Invading groups of Germanic peoples overran the already weakened Western Empire. Invading Germanic peoples raided Rome and overthrew the last Roman emperor, ending the Western Empire.
Invading Peoples The Germanic Peoples Defense on north, northeast borders of Roman Empire weakened Towns, cities attacked by nomads—people who move from place to place Nomadic groups known as Germanic peoples, named for their languagesRomans felt Germanic people, or anyone outside empire, were barbarians - Greek word for people who speak a language other than Greek Despite Roman contempt, Germanic peoples had complex culture - were skilled metalworkers and fond of jewelry - some groups had elected assemblies - military organizations were headed by war chiefs Germanic peoples were loyal, especially to chieftains
The Aftermath of Rome’s Fall Western Roman Empire fell in A.D. 476, when last emperor was removed Life in Western Europe changed after fall - roads, public structures fell into disrepair - trade, commerce declined - Germanic kingdoms claimed former Roman lands - Roman Catholic Church became unifying, powerful force
The Disease Cycle Flea drinks rat blood Bacteria that carries the multiply in bacteria. flea’s gut.Human is infected!Flea bites human and Flea’s gut clogged regurgitates blood with bacteria. into human wound.
Medieval Art & the Plague Bring out your dead!
Attempts to Stop the Plague “Leeching”A Doctor’s Robe
Attempts to Stop the Plague Flagellanti:Self-inflicted “penance” for our sins!
The Mortality Rate 35% - 70%25,000,000 dead !!!
No more large cities, trade,scholarship. With all the disease, riots, outside attacks and starvation people fled the cities of the once strong Roman empire.In Europe, people now lived on manors, self-sufficient communities consisting of a castle, church, village and surrounding farmlands.
Manoralism (econ. system) or safety and for defense, people in the Middle Agesformed small communities around a central lord ormaster. Most people lived on a manor, which consistedof the castle, the church, the village, and the surroundingfarm land. These manors were isolated, with occasionalvisits from peddlers, pilgrims on their way to theCrusades, or soldiers from other fiefdoms.Why do you think everyone chose to be isolated?
Feudalism (political system)The kings had lots of land; he gave land to lords in exchangefor protection and $.Lords gave their land to knights in exchange for protection, $.Knights let serfs work the land and he would protect them.Serfs got food and shelter.Thus, each person had rights and responsibilities
Trebuchets were used to hurl allsorts of objects at the enemy.
Vikings Another invader from the north were the Vikings Home: Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden, and Denmark) Independent farmers and expert sailors Left Scandinavia around 700 and began looting and burning European villages
More Vikings Traders and Explorers: Sailed all over Mediterranean Sea Under Leif Eriksson Vikings sailed to North America in 1000, set up short-lived colony Later became Christians “God deliver us from the fury of the Vikings” Those Europeans must have been Packers, Bears, and Lion Fans!!!! :)
Role of Church in Middle Ages Never was there a time when the Church was so powerful in Western Civilization.
Church Power Church’s Role in Society Pope • Spiritual leader of the Western Christian Church (Rome) • Representatives of God on Earth • Claimed papal supremacy (power over all rulers) Church Hierarchy • Pope • Bishops & Archbishops • All held land, armies, money & power • Often connected to political rulers
Church Power Authority & Power The Church controlled the sacraments The people needed the sacraments in order to avoid Hell Therefore, the church had absolute power • Canon Law: Church Laws on life • Excommunication: Punishment for breaking canon law (No sacraments or Christian burial = Hell) • Interdict: Entire kingdoms could be excommunicated Peace Forced nobles into temporary peace Mainly on religious holidays
Crusades The Crusades were a series of battles between Christians and Muslims in the Middle East. Christian knights wanted to take the Holy Land and give it back to Christians
CrusadesThousands of knightsand “barbarian”soldiers united underChristianity attackedMuslims and Jews inTurkey and Jerusalemto gain the land forChristians.
The Arab world was relatively peaceful and civilized at the time.An Arab gentleman was expected to be a poet and philosopheras well as a warrior. They had correctly calculated the distancefrom earth to the moon. And one Arab had even suggested thatif he could split the atom, it would release enough power todestroy a city the size of Baghdad. Furthermore, Jerusalemitself was a multicultural city. Jews, Moslems and Christians alllived together harmoniously. Christians on pilgrimages toJerusalem were freely allowed across to the Holy Places
Impact of the CrusadesPersecution of Jewsand MuslimsEconomicdevelopment viatradeKings and popes,gained power as aresult.
Summary Feudalism/ Manoralism came from people’sneed for protection. Each member had rights and responsibilities. Cultures interact through wars, such as theCrusades, and trade ideas such as democratic ideas or religious ideas