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www.h2.ieOnline Tutoring: Towards a Signature PedagogyMichael HallissyH2 Learning and Hibernia College tutor
www.h2.ieINTRODUCTION
www.h2.iePresentation• Teaching Online – a perspective• The Online Tutorial• MATL Case-study• Discussion
www.h2.ieIntroduction• Founding partner in H2 Learning– Assist institutions embed digital technologies to enhance teaching...
www.h2.ieElements of Teaching Online
www.h2.ieSome Perspective• OU noted that “active discussion” has long been one ofthe aspects that is difficult to provide ...
www.h2.ieTechnology and what it can doToday we have:• Synchronous Computer-mediated conferencing technologies (SCMC)– AT&T...
www.h2.ieSynchronous Learning Environments“Synchronous learning is live, real-time (and usuallyscheduled), facilitated ins...
www.h2.ieTeaching perspectives it can support(Watkins et al., 2002)
www.h2.ieTHE ONLINE TUTORIAL
www.h2.ieWhat do we mean by an online tutorial?• The Oxford/Cambridge University notion of a tutorial (Ashwin, 2005)• The ...
www.h2.ieThe Invisible Student Challenge• Role of the tutor is to support students to become independentlearners and to en...
www.h2.ieInterrogation key part of a tutorial“However, a general structure appears to be that therewill be an interrogatio...
www.h2.ieThe challenge for teaching faculty“Teachers should share their knowledge and understanding indiscussion only to h...
www.h2.ieDispositions for a Democratic Classroomhttp://bcfamily.ca/sweet-humility1. Hospitality2. Participation3. Mindfuln...
www.h2.ieMATL CASE-STUDY
www.h2.ieMATL Tutorial• Entire class event (20-30)• Pre-arranged time in the calendar• Tutor and students on line together...
www.h2.ieStudents are NOT always clear of their rolePurpose of the tutorial PercentageOpportunity for tutor to present new...
www.h2.ieAre they engaged during these sessions?
www.h2.ieOr are they otherwise engaged?
www.h2.ieChallenges facing tutors online“Instructors who are new to the online environment maystruggle with the transition...
www.h2.ieAnalysis of online tutorial interactions
www.h2.ieA Tutor Perspective“I suppose the official purpose of the tutorials is toexpand on the lecture and maybe I do see...
www.h2.ieFIAC Tutorial Analysis
www.h2.ieMapping the Dispositions
www.h2.ieTutor must design deliberation activities
www.h2.ieFaculty Professional Developmenthttp://www.adobe.com/products/adobeconnect.html
www.h2.ieImplications for Practice• Use the dispositions to:– Inform a signature pedagogy for the MATL tutorials– Critical...
www.h2.ieNotion of a Signature Pedagogy• Observing, analysing, and documenting how teaching andlearning occurred in a rang...
www.h2.ieFinal Word• Onus on the institution to develop the appropriatesignature pedagogy to ensure students do well.• Thi...
www.h2.ieDiscussionhttp://ff6w.primaryblogger.co.uk/discussion-text-sentence-builder/
www.h2.ieThank YouMichael HallissyH2 Learningwww.h2.iemhallissy@h2.ie
www.h2.ieReferences• Ashwin, P. (2005). Variation in students‟ experiences of the „Oxford Tutorial. HigherEducation, 50, 6...
www.h2.ieReferences• Hyder, K., Kwinn, A., Miazga, R. and Murray, M. (2007). Synchronous e-Learning. SantaRosa, CA: The eL...
www.h2.ieReferences• Palloff, R. M. and Pratt, K. (2011). The Excellent Online Instructor. San Francisco, CA:Jossey-Bass.•...
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Online tutoring towards a signature pedagogy

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Presented at the Higher Education Colleges Association Conference (HECA) on April 19th in iBAT College Dublin. This presentation on based on doctoral research currently being undertaken in the Institute of Education in London. The presentation suggests that critical discussion should become the signature pedagogy of the MATL and it should be based on Brookfield and Preskill's 8 dispositions for critical discussion.

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Online tutoring towards a signature pedagogy

  1. 1. www.h2.ieOnline Tutoring: Towards a Signature PedagogyMichael HallissyH2 Learning and Hibernia College tutor
  2. 2. www.h2.ieINTRODUCTION
  3. 3. www.h2.iePresentation• Teaching Online – a perspective• The Online Tutorial• MATL Case-study• Discussion
  4. 4. www.h2.ieIntroduction• Founding partner in H2 Learning– Assist institutions embed digital technologies to enhance teaching, learningand assessment practices• Former director the MATL in Hibernia College– Lead tutor in the Certificate in i-Learning• Completing EdD in Institute of Education, London• "Building teacher professionalism in teaching-learning interactionsbetween online tutors and learners during synchronous tutorials – a casestudy from Hibernia College”
  5. 5. www.h2.ieElements of Teaching Online
  6. 6. www.h2.ieSome Perspective• OU noted that “active discussion” has long been one ofthe aspects that is difficult to provide in distance education,with tutorials and summer schools being the usual means ofachieving this” (Mason, 2001; 73)• Since 1988 significant body of research on discussion andonline courses in HE– Majority focused on asynchronous technologies – forums particularly.• But today new options– Expansion of broadband– New technologies to support live interaction
  7. 7. www.h2.ieTechnology and what it can doToday we have:• Synchronous Computer-mediated conferencing technologies (SCMC)– AT&T Connect, Adobe Connect, Wimba, Elluminate, Lync etc.“Computer-mediated conferencing (CMC) is uniqueamong distance education media because of its abilityto support high levels of responsive, intelligentinteraction between and among faculty and studentswhile simultaneously providing high levels of freedom oftime and place to engage in this interactivity.”(Rourke et al., 1999; 50)
  8. 8. www.h2.ieSynchronous Learning Environments“Synchronous learning is live, real-time (and usuallyscheduled), facilitated instruction and learning-orientedinteraction.”(Hyder et al., 2007: p. 1)
  9. 9. www.h2.ieTeaching perspectives it can support(Watkins et al., 2002)
  10. 10. www.h2.ieTHE ONLINE TUTORIAL
  11. 11. www.h2.ieWhat do we mean by an online tutorial?• The Oxford/Cambridge University notion of a tutorial (Ashwin, 2005)• The Higher Education notion of a 1 on 1 tutorial (THES Editorial,1996)• The large group face-to-face tutor group (Barrows, 1992)• An online pre-recorded tutorial– (e.g. a software walkthrough using Captivate) (Marks et al., 2010)• Multiple types of „online synchronous tutorials‟– (Chi Ng, 2007; Kear et al., 2012; Price et al., 2007; Duensing et al., 2006)• The challenge– Price (2007) found there was an issue in relation to student and tutor expectationsof what is a tutorial?
  12. 12. www.h2.ieThe Invisible Student Challenge• Role of the tutor is to support students to become independentlearners and to engage“In these settings [traditional, didactic educational settings], thestudent is expected to know the right answer. He learned a long timeago that it is best to stay silent if he does not know the answer, or isunsure of it, for he knows that an admission of not knowing would beused as evidence of inadequate study or lack of intelligence.”(Barrows, 1992; p. 22)
  13. 13. www.h2.ieInterrogation key part of a tutorial“However, a general structure appears to be that therewill be an interrogation, whether questioning ordiscussion, of the work that the student(s) havecompleted in preparation for the tutorial.”(Ashwin, 2009; 633)
  14. 14. www.h2.ieThe challenge for teaching faculty“Teachers should share their knowledge and understanding indiscussion only to help students gain a personal and criticalperspective on what is learned, not to show off in front of them.”(192)Faculty domination of classroom interaction– “they think that they‟re supposed to – it‟s what the institutionexpects, it‟s what their colleagues do, and it‟s what the studentsdemand.” (197)Creating a democratic classroom(Brookfield and Preskill, 2005)
  15. 15. www.h2.ieDispositions for a Democratic Classroomhttp://bcfamily.ca/sweet-humility1. Hospitality2. Participation3. Mindfulness4. Humility5. Mutuality6. Deliberation7. Appreciation8. Hope9. Autonomy(Brookfield and Preskill, 2005)
  16. 16. www.h2.ieMATL CASE-STUDY
  17. 17. www.h2.ieMATL Tutorial• Entire class event (20-30)• Pre-arranged time in the calendar• Tutor and students on line together• Opportunity to “unpack” the lesson content• Recorded and available for download later• Tutor training provided in advancehttp://meylah.com/meylah/planning-your-online-tutorial
  18. 18. www.h2.ieStudents are NOT always clear of their rolePurpose of the tutorial PercentageOpportunity for tutor to present newcontent57%Opportunity for tutor to revise contentpresented in the recorded lesson93%Opportunity for students to raisequestions and discuss the lessoncontent100%Opportunity for students to work insmall groups online20%Opportunity for students to presenttheir work to colleagues21%
  19. 19. www.h2.ieAre they engaged during these sessions?
  20. 20. www.h2.ieOr are they otherwise engaged?
  21. 21. www.h2.ieChallenges facing tutors online“Instructors who are new to the online environment maystruggle with the transition from the central figure in thelearning process to a facilitator or guide of that process.”(Palloff and Pratt, 2011)
  22. 22. www.h2.ieAnalysis of online tutorial interactions
  23. 23. www.h2.ieA Tutor Perspective“I suppose the official purpose of the tutorials is toexpand on the lecture and maybe I do see aslightly differently [nervous laughter again]purpose. I didn‟t intend it but it is what hasemerged and I now see they have a hugepurpose in breaking down the isolation of thestudents and building a community oflearners. You know helping the students in thatcommunity [develop] perspective taking,problem solving … but just seeing differentpoints of view, sharing of ideas”Tutor View“I don‟t like the sound of myown voice too much of it[nervous laughter] so I love togive voice to others and tobuild up the team and thateverybody in the classroom isteaching, like using all theresources in the classroom,that it is not just one teacherbut everybody hassomething to teach and toshare and to try and drawthat ”Tutor View
  24. 24. www.h2.ieFIAC Tutorial Analysis
  25. 25. www.h2.ieMapping the Dispositions
  26. 26. www.h2.ieTutor must design deliberation activities
  27. 27. www.h2.ieFaculty Professional Developmenthttp://www.adobe.com/products/adobeconnect.html
  28. 28. www.h2.ieImplications for Practice• Use the dispositions to:– Inform a signature pedagogy for the MATL tutorials– Critical discussion to become a key element of all tutorials– Inform tutor teaching practices online– Inform the development of a community of practice for tutors– Create clear ground rules for tutors and learners– “Keep everybody visible and on their toes.”– Enable tutors to monitor/evaluate their performance– Ultimately lead to improved learner experiences
  29. 29. www.h2.ieNotion of a Signature Pedagogy• Observing, analysing, and documenting how teaching andlearning occurred in a range of settings• What are the forms of interaction that leap to mind when wethink of the MATL tutorial – is it critical discussion?“They are the forms of instruction that leap to mind when we firstthink about the preparation of members of particular professions –for example in law, the quasi-Socratic interactions so vividlyportrayed in Paper Chase.”(Shulman, 2005; p. 52)
  30. 30. www.h2.ieFinal Word• Onus on the institution to develop the appropriatesignature pedagogy to ensure students do well.• This will differ between institutions.“Signature pedagogy is ultimately associated with the performance ofthe students. If they are not doing well then the signature pedagogyisn’t appropriate.” [emphasis added](Shulman, 2005; p.56)
  31. 31. www.h2.ieDiscussionhttp://ff6w.primaryblogger.co.uk/discussion-text-sentence-builder/
  32. 32. www.h2.ieThank YouMichael HallissyH2 Learningwww.h2.iemhallissy@h2.ie
  33. 33. www.h2.ieReferences• Ashwin, P. (2005). Variation in students‟ experiences of the „Oxford Tutorial. HigherEducation, 50, 631–644.• Ashwin, P. (2009). Analysing Teaching-Learning Interactions in Higher Education:Accounting for Sturcture and Agency. New York: Continuum.• Barrows, H. S. (1992). The Tutorial Process. (Revised Ed.). Springfield, IL: Southern IllinoisUniversity School of Medicine.• Brookfield, S. and Preskill, S. (2005). Discussion as a way of teaching. (Vol. Second). SanFrancisco: Jossey-Bass.• Chi Ng, K. (2007). Replacing Face-to-Face Tutorials by Synchronous Online Technologies:Challenges and Pedagogical Implications. [Online]. International Review of Research inOpen and Distance Learning, 8 (1), 1-15. Available at:http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/335/764. [Last accessed September 12011].• Duensing, A., Stickler, U., Batstone, C. and Heins, B. (2006, July 2006). Face-to-face andonline interactions - is a task a task? Paper presented at the Crossing Frontiers: Languagesand the International Dimension Conference. Cardiff University.• Finkelstein, J. (2006). Learning in Real Time: Synchronous Teaching and Learning Online.San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  34. 34. www.h2.ieReferences• Hyder, K., Kwinn, A., Miazga, R. and Murray, M. (2007). Synchronous e-Learning. SantaRosa, CA: The eLearning Guild.• Kear, K., Chetwynd, F., Williams, J. and Donelan, H. (2012). Web conferencing forsynchronous online tutorials: Perspectives of tutors using a new medium. Computers &Education, 58, 953-963.• Laurillard, D. (2002). Rethinking University Teaching: A conversational framework for theeffective use of learning technologies. (Second Ed.). London and New York: RoutledgeFalmer.• Laurillard, D. (2012). Teaching as a Design Science. Building Pedagogical Patters forLearning and Technology. New York and London: Routledge.• Mason, R. (2001). Effective facilitation of online learning: the Open Universityexperience. In J. Stephenson (Ed.), Teaching and learning online: New pedagogies fornew technologies. London: Kogan Page.• Marks, L., Jackson, M., Marks, D. and Wilcox, D. (2010). Impact of an online tutorial onpostgraduate students‟ literature research skills. [Online]. Available at:www.gla.ac.uk/media/media_148359_en.pdf. [Last accessed June 10 2012].
  35. 35. www.h2.ieReferences• Palloff, R. M. and Pratt, K. (2011). The Excellent Online Instructor. San Francisco, CA:Jossey-Bass.• Price, L., Richadson, J. T. E. and Jelfs, A. (2007). Face-to-face versus online tutoringsupport in distance education. Studies in Higher Education, 32 (1), 1-20.• Rourke, L., Anderson, T., Garrison, R. D. and Archer, W. (1999). Assessing SocialPresence in Asynchronous Text-based Computer Conferencing. Journal of DistanceEducation, 14 (2), 50-71.• Shulman, L. S. (2005). Signature pedagogies in the professions. Daedalus,(Summer), 52-59.• THES Editorial. (1996). Tutorial system on the way out. [Online]. Available at:http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=93627&sectioncode=26.[Last accessed June 18th 2012].• Watkins, C., Carnell, E., Lodge, C., Wagner P. and Whalley C. (2002). EffectiveLearning. Institute of Education International Network for School ImprovementResearch Matters Series (17).

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