Topography: the study and description of the surface features of land, whichincludes both natural and artificial features.
The northern Mountains andNorth Western Mountains OfPakistan
The northern mountains compromise three mainmountain ranges:The Karakoram The HimalayaThe Hindu Kush
The Karakoram Range (black gravel)•Average altitude (height) 6000 m•Extended 400 Km from Hunza to the Shyok River.•Wester end lies in Pakistan.•K-2 located here (2nd highest peak in the world) 8610 m.•Precipitation mainly in the form of snow because of highaltitude.• The most heavily glaciated part of the world outside of thepolar regions. The Siachen Glacier at 78km long and BiafoGlacier at 63 km.•Baltoro 62 kmand batura 58km (Skardu Dist, Hunza Valley)•Glacier causes erosion as it moves down a valley.The Karakoram is bounded on the northeast by the edge of the TibetanPlateau, and on the north by the Wakhan Corridor and the PamirMountains. The southern boundary of the Karakoram is formed by theGilgit, Indus, and Shyok Rivers,
Crops:•Apple•Barley•MilletLife : nomadic and semi nomadicAgriculture is practiced in those valleys wherewater is plentiful.Cattle breeding is common.Most of the highest of Karakoram peaks are in northern Pakistan;principally Chitral and the Northern Areas.
•Attracted scientist and mountaineers because of itsgeography and attractive beauty.•Karakoram Highway links Pakistan and China.
Himalaya means “home of snow” because the tallestpeaks of the Himalayas are always capped with snow.Location:•It is Asia•Himalayan Mountain stretches fromIndia, Nepal, Bhutan, China, Afghanistan & Pakistan.•North east are the highest mountains of the worldknown as Himalayas.•Length of Himalaya 2500 Km from east to west.•North west border by the mountain Hindu Kush andnorth by the Karakoram.•Average altitude 4000m.
They are compromises of three ranges :1. Siwaliks Hills located near AttockAlso called Churia or Margalla HillsAverage altitude (600-1200 metres)2. The Lesser or Lower Himalayas:average altitude 1800-4500 mIn Pakistan these mountains lie just north of Rawalpindidistrict covering the districts of Batagram, Mansehra andAbbottabad as well as Pakistan Administered Kashmir.These mountains are also home to Pakistans importanthill stations like Murree, Ghora Gali and Nathia Gali.
3. The Central Himalaya•Located between Pir Panjal Range & the KarakoramRange.•Mostly lies in Kashmir.•Average altitude 6000m•Mostly peaks are covered with snow throughout theyear.•Nanga Parbat lies in Kashmir and has a height ofabout 8126m.
Lies between the borders of Afghanistan and China meeton Pakistan’s north and north-west border.The highest point in Hindu kush mountain region is theTirich Mir (7690m).Mostly covered with snowThe average altitude of the Hindu Kush is 4,500 metersRivers that flow from the mountain system include theHelmand River, the Hari River and the KabulRiver, watersheds for the Sistan Basin.
•Helmand River: longest river in Afghanistan.•Hari River is a river flowing 1100 kilometers from themountains of central Afghanistan to Turkmenistan.•Kabul River: It is the main river in the eastern part ofAfghanistan. It flows 700 km before joining the IndusRiver near Attock.Historical importance of passesMany invaders cross the hindu kush•Alexander the Great•Mahmud of Ghazni•The Ghauris•Timurlane•Babar
•The Shandur Pass: Gilgit & Chitral•The Shangla Pass: Swat valley and the upper parts of the Indusvalley•The Lawari Pass: Chitral to the Swat valley and the vale ofPeshawarVegetation are found in extreme south east and in the hills ofSwatKohistanPajokara valleyDir DistrictRice is cultivated in the areas of Swat, Chitral & Dir.
Important northern valleys:•Swat (Hindu Kush)•Chitral•Gilgit (Karakoram)•Hunza•Baltistan•Murree & Gallies (Himalayas)•KaghanGlaciers:Is a tongue shaped mass of ice moving slowly down avalley.Important Glaciers:Baltoro: 58 km long, Karakorum rangeBatura: 58km long, hunza ValleySiachen 78 km long, Karakorum range
Economic importance:A permanent reservoir of water which irrigate vast Indus plain.Karakorum highway has been connected to carry out trade.A source of valuable minerals, timbers and fruits. Provide raw material to severalindustries e.g. furniture, paper, chipboard and chemical industries.Scientific beauty promotes tourist resorts which are a source of income to local peopleduring summer.Physical Importance:High mountain peaks protect Pakistan from cold winds from Central Asia. Due to this theclimate remains tolerable throughout the year. It also protects the country from beinginvaded.
People and economy :The population, settlements and economic activities greatly influenced by the variationin topography.•Most of the population is dependent on agriculture and cattle breeding.Products:Wheat, rice, barley, maize, apricot, walnut & mulberry.Small scale industries:Carpets, embroidered material, rugs and other handicrafts items.Major Industries:Food grains processing, making vegetable oil, refining of sugar and fruit processingindustry.
Disadvantages:•Hydro-electric potential but requires huge investment.•Modern industries but mineral resources have not been explored.•Low literacy rate.•Shortage of safe drinking water and poor health.•Food production is not equal to the required amount due to which they facemalnutrition.•Towns of northern areas like Mingora, Murree, Kaghan & Gilgit have regional trade byroad with cities like Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Peshawar & Abbotabad. However, due todifficult terrain and limited transport facilities it is difficult to carry out regional trade ona large scale.•Tourism is also popular in the northern mountains but it has had an adverse impact onregions where tourist numbers exceed the facilities available.•Low economic growth rate combined with high rate of population due to which preventslow level of per capita income (average income per person).•Infrastructure is not good.•Most of the population is dependent on agriculture and cattle breeding.
Environmental Issues:Deforestation and overgrazing have led to soil erosion.Deforestation increased due to increase in demand of firewood and extensive treetrimming in order to feed live stock.The construction in the border regions have increased the rate of deforestation.Rapid population growth rate has accelerated the pollution. It also polluted the waterwhich causes many diseases like typhoid, cholera and dysentery .Drainage Features Of The Northern Mountains:Originating in the Tibetan plateau in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar inChina, the National River runs a course through the Ladakh district of Jammu andKashmir and then enters Northern Areas (Gilgit-Baltistan), flowing through theNorth in a southerly direction along the entire length of the country, to mergeinto the Arabian Sea near Pakistans port city of Karachi in Sindh. The total lengthof the river is 3,180 kilometers (1,976 miles). The river has a total drainage areaexceeding 1,165,000 square kilometers (450,000 square miles).
Gorge: when the river flows down hill the less resistant rocks are erodedleaving behind verical hard rocks.Water falls: a step fall of river water from a resistant rock.Rapid: series of very short and fast waterfalls.Streams & Springs: when the snow melts from mountain tops waterflows down in form of stream springs.
It consists of many parallel ranges:•Safed Koh: 4712 m•Sulaiman Range: 3383 m• Waziristan Hills: 3513 m•Kirthar Range: 2174 mSafed Koh Ranges:•Because their peaks are often covered with snow.•Located in an East West direction South of the Kabul River.•Average height 12000 ft.•In its south Khurram River flows and Khurram pass provides a route to Afghanistan.Valleys:•On the other end of Khurram pass Kohat valley is located . Wheat, rice and sugar-cane are cultivated with the help of irrigation.•Vale of Peshawar drained by the rover Kabul and Swat. It is a fertile, alluvial plainirrigated by canals originating from Warsak dam on the river Kabul.
Waziristan Hills:•Located between Khurram And Gomal River.•Highly mineralized.•These hills form a rampart between Pakistan and Afghanistan.Valleys:•Bannu Valley is located to the east.•Banu near the Tochi pass & Dera Ismail Khan near the Gomal Pass are important townsand military centres.•Low lying basin bordered by hills & mountains and drained by streams with braidedchannel.•Deposit of clay & boulders brought down by streams.•Khurram river is the main source of irrigation.
Sulaiman Ranges:•West of River Indus.•Average height 1500m.•Highest peak Takht-i-Sulaiman, at 3383m.•Lime stone and sand stone are the main minerals.•Bolan is the main river of this region. Bolan pass provides communication facilitiesbetween Iran and Pakistan.•Quetta is an important military base at the northern end of Bolan pass.The Kirthar Hills:•West of River Indus.•Average height 2100m.•These hills are drained by the Hab and Lyari Streams which joins Arabian Sea.
Passes Of Western MountainsKhyberKhurram Tochi Gomal BolanConnects theKhi Sibi plainto QuettaAfghanistan toDerajatsGhazni toBannuA route toAfghanistanLeads to the fertilevale PeshawarWide enough tofacilitate thepassage of troopa
•Are mostly bare of vegetation.•Climate and relief do not support vegetation.•Canal irrigation is not possible because of mountainous terrain and ruggedlandscape.•Transportation facilities are not possible except Peshawar & Kohat, the restarea is not connected by air or railway network.•Most areas are not accessible through main roads.•Infrastructure is not good.•Basic necessities require huge investment.•Mining facilities, education and industries havent been established yet.•Nomadic lifestyle is common.•Sheep and goat rearing is the main occupation.•Population density is lower than 100 persons/km²•Abundant mineral resources but due difficulty of extracting them, they havenot been explored.
Located in south-west .Area covered 347196 km ² of Pakistan.Altitude ranging from 600- 3010 meters.The hills ranges on the south are lower than the North.Basins Of Northern Baluchistan:Number of irregular depressions such as Zhob & Loralai basins which aresituated between Toba Kakar ranges and Sulaiman range.To the South-West of Loralai basin is the Quetta valley surrounded bymountain ranges.Seldom rain.The river channel bought materials which form alluvial soil.
Basins Of Western Baluchistan:Chagai Hills, Ras Koh, Siahan & Central Makran.Totally devoid of vegetation. Very little rain even in winter.Theses basins are known as inland drainage basins (no outlet to the sea due to whichtemporary lakes are formed)The temporary lakes are called Hamuns (local language). They are salt lakes water isevaporated the salty crush is left behind called salt pan.Largest temporary lake is called Hamun-i-Mashkel, located in the western part ofKharan Desert.Year Literacy Rate1972 10.1%1981 10.3%1998 26.6%2008 48.8%
Mountain Ranges: The plateau is covered with a number of barren mountain ranges with an altitude of 600 to3010 m. Chagai hills: Highly mineralized, deposit of gold, copper & sulphur. Ras Koh Hala Range Makran Coast Range Centreal Brahui Range Toba Kakar Range Siahan Range
The Coastal Areas: It is divided into eastern and western parts. Eastern compromises the Lasbela plain. Western part is known as Makran Coast.Important Rivers are:Hab, Porali, Hingol and Dasht which flow into ArabianSea.
Baluchistans Economic Potential. Largest province according to area, and with vast untapped resources, remainedneglected. Lowest population density. In South-West of Baluchistan the population density is 10 people/km²Water Resources: No major source of water, the province faces a scarcity of both drinking and irrigationwater. The supply of water depends on Karez systen, flood diversion channels and tubewells.Transport & Communication:Absence of link road with the main road.Railway lines covers a limited area.No outlet to the sea.No regular coastal service between Karachi and Makran coast.Development of Gwadar is likely to solve this problem.
Economic Structure: Crop farming and livestock raising are the mainpursuits of the people. 67% of the people engaged in agriculture. Annual per capita income was Rs.455 N.W.F.P. Rs. 360 Sindh Rs. 854 Punjab Rs.614
Economic WealthMineral Resources: Pakistan Mineral Development corporation(PMDC) isoperating three coal mines. Resource Development corporation. Deposits of antimony & gold in Punjgore & Kharandistrict. Deposits of crude oil and natural gas. 46% of the gas supply in the country is obtained fromSui. Sui is at the edge of lower Indus Plain.
Agriculture:Fruit Production:Dates, grapes, apples, almonds, apricots, plums, peaches, melons & pomegranates.75% of the fruit is produced of the total production.Good opportunity for the export of fruit to the gulf stream due to their good quality.Vegetable Seed industry:Cold winter offer the best scope for growing vegetables seeds.Livestock and their products:Nomadic livestock farming is common. Most important livestock products are wool, goathair and skins.They are also exported abroad under government grading scheme.
Fishing:It is don’t for domestic and for commercial purpose.The main fishing ports areGwadar:Total annual catch is 10000 tonnes, including 200 tonnes of shrims.Pasni:2500 TonnesOrmara:700 tonnesIt is exported to Sri Lanka.
The Potwar Plateau & The SaltRange:Located between River Indus & River Jhelum, on the north by the Kala ChittaRange and the Margalla Hills, and on the south by the Salt Range.It is an open undulated land with extensive flat areas.Height 300 to 600 meters from sea level.Height of Kala Chitta and Khairi Murat tise to just above 1000m.Large part of land has been dissected and eroded by the action of running water.This dissected land termed as badland and is a land scape of ridges, ravines andtroughs.Soan River is main river. It forms gullies and large alluvial plains, mainly used foragriculture.Rich in minerals like rock salt, gypsum, lime stone, coal, marble, clays, dolomite &soapstone and oil.The mountains peak provides protection against cold winds from Central Asia.
The Salt Range:It is a hill system in the Punjab province of Pakistan, deriving its name from itsextensive deposits of rock salt. The range extends from the Jhelum River to TheIndus, across the northern portion of the Punjab province.The mountain range covers most of the areas of the Jhelum, Chakwwal, Kalabaghand Mianwali district.It consists of parallel ranges.The Salt Range contains the great mines of Mayo, Khewra, Warcha andKalabagh, which yield vast supplies of salt. Coal of a medium quality is alsofound.Average height 750 to 900m.Sakesar Peak is the highest point in the Salt Range at a height of 1527m.Rich in minerals like rock salt, gypsum and limestone.
Economic Activity and Life Style: Rich in non-metallic minerals, which provide raw materialto the cement, ceramics and chemical industries. Attock Oil Refinery is set up to refine the oil of PotowarPlateau. Scientific attract tourist resorts which are a source ofincome to the local people during summer Farming depends on rain fall. Canal irrigation is notpossible due to its rugged landscape. Wheat, maize, barley & gram are cultivated. Accessible by road, railway and air transport. Average rainfall 15 to 20 in. (380 to 510 mm) annually.
The Indus plain: Located in Punjab and Central part of Sindh. North part is known as upper Indus plain. (from Attock to Mithankot) The lower Indus Plain (from Mithankot to Thatta) The Delatic Plain (from Thatta to Coastal strip of Arabian Sea)The Upper Indus Plain: River in Punjab province, Pakistan, formed just below Uch by successivejunctions of the Sutlej, Beās, Rāvi, Jhelum, and Chenāb rivers. The Panjnad(literally “Five Rivers”) Beas Sutlej Chenab at Panjnad (72km) River Indus at Mithankot Its height is 180 to 300 m. The River Punjab can be divided into 4 doabs. The land which lies betweentwo rivers.
Four Main Doabs: Bari Doab: River Beas & River Ravi Rachna Doab: River Ravi & River Chenab Chaj Doab: River Chenab & River Jhelum Sindh Sagar Doab: River Jhelum & River IndusDoabs are favored for a number of activities such asfarming, construction, transport and for businessactivities.
Features of Indus Delta: Active flood plains Old flood plains Alluvial terraces Piedmont plains Tidal Delta Rolling sand plains
Active Flood Plain: The narrow strip of both land on both sides of the river is calledactive flood plains. It is known as bet or khaddar land. It is undated almost every year. It is flooded almost every year in rainy season.(July –September. At the end of rainy season the land is marked with dry andbraided channel, rich in alluvium. The are good farming areas of Pakistan because it is covered withalluvium soil. They are found in all the rivers except Southern half of River Ravidue to low volume of water. Maximum width 24-40km along River Indus and 3-5km alongRiver Ravi. Meanders, ox-bow lakes and levees are its important features.
Old Flood Plain/ Cover Flood Plain: Cover areas between alluvial terraces and active floodplain. Only flooded when there is heavy rainfall. The are covered with old alluvial. Meanders, ox-bow lakes and levees are its mainfeatures.
Bar Upland / Alluvial Terraces: Alluvial Terraces are areas of higher ground betweenrivers formed by erosion of old alluvial 5-15m. It surface is flat and has a South West slope. Also called scalloped interfluves. Ideal for agriculture with the help of irrigationfacilities. Sandal bar on Rachna Doab. Gangi Bar & Nili Bar on Bari Doab. Kirana Bar on Chaj Doab.
Piedmont Plains: Are located on the foothills of the Sulaiman, Kirtharand Himalayan Mountains. The Sulaiman piedmont plains also known as Derajat. They are mainly agricultural. Most important features are the alluvial fans or conesthat develop eastwards from Sulaiman & Kirtharranges. Rivers coming from these ranges have low water flow.
Tidal Delta: Located to the South of Thatta. It covers an area of 36-45km
Economic Activities: 80% of the total area of the cultivated land of Pakistan islocated in the Indus plain. Crops are grown on the whole year. Summer crops: rice, sugar cane and cotton Winter crops: wheat Infrastructure facilities are easier to provide. Good transportation network. Electricity is supplied to all urban areas likeLahore, Faisalabad, Gujranwala, Sukkur & Hyderabad. Cotton textile, sugar mills & chemical industries consumeslocal raw material. Population density 50-400 persons/km²