Arti fact #2


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Arti fact #2

  1. 1. The Cell Membrane Cell Membrane (1) & (Pg.75-77) Madison, Nicole, Courtney, Marchelle Each cell has various membrane organelles. Membranous organelles are sacs and canals made ofThe A & P Journal the same membrane material as the plasma membrane. The concept of a cell membrane is called the fluid mosaic model. The fluid mosaic model is where the molecules of the membrane are bound tightly enough to form a continuous layer but loosely enough so molecules can slip past one another. Chemical attractions hold a cell membrane together. The primary structure of a cell membrane is a double layer of phospholipids. Phospholipid molecules have heads that are water soluble and double tails that are lipid soluble. Their “heads” are hydrophilic which means water loving and their “tails” are hydrophobic which are water fearing. Phospholipids naturally arrange themselves into double layers, or bilayers, in water. Membrane proteins are proteins embedded in the phospholipid bilayer of the membrane; contributes to cell transport, cell-cell recognition, and other cell functions. Membrane proteins have many different structural forms that allow them to serve various other functions. Other membrane proteins are receptors that can react to the presence of hormones Flower Power! or other regulatory chemicals and thereby trigger metabolic changes in the cell. Signal transduction is when cells translate the signal received by a membrane receptor into a specific chemical change in the cell. Volume: 7 Issue: 21
  2. 2. Inorganic MoleculesWater is the “cradle of life”; the molecules are polar and interact with each oth-er. It plays as a solvent that permits the transportation of many essential mate-rials within the body. The 4 properties of water are high specific heat, heat ofvaporization, cohesion and polarity. High specific heat is when water can loseand gain large amounts of heat with little change in temperature and both ab-sorbs and gives up heat slowly. Heat of vaporization requires absorption of sig-nificant amounts of heat to change water from a liquid to a gas and cools thebody down. Cohesion is when water works as a lubricant or cushion to protectagainst damage from friction or trauma. (1) (pg. 44)Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide is the second inorganic molecule. Oxygen is re-quired to complete the decomposition reactions required for the release of ener-gy from nutrients burned by the cell. Carbon dioxide produces as a waste prod-uct during the breaking down of complex nutrients and serves an importantrole in maintaining the appropriate acid-base balance in the body. (1) (pg. 45-46)The last inorganic molecule is electrolytes. Electrolytes are substances thatbreak up in solution to form charged particles, called ions. Acids are any sub-stance that will release a hydrogen ion when in solution. Bases are electrolytesthat, when dissociated in solution, shift the H+/OH- balance in favor of OH-.(1)(pg. 46-47) © (7) Volume: 7 Issue: 21
  3. 3. Organic Molecules• Organic Molecules Organic is used to describe the enormous number of compound that contain car- bon (C-C or C-H) (page 47)• Major groups of organic substances: carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids. (page 48)• Carbohydrate compounds contain the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with carbon atoms linked to one another to form chains of varying lengths. (page 48)• Sugars and starches (page 48)• Divided into three types of classes classified by length of their carbon chains: Mon- osaccharaides (simple sugars), Disaccharides (double sugars), Polysaccharides (complex sugars). (page 48)• Monosaccharides: short carbon chains, glucose most important sim- ple sugar, hexoses (6 carbon simple sugars) include fructose and galac- tose. (page 48-50)• Disaccharides: Sucrose, maltose, and lactose, each consist of two monosaccharides linked together, hydrogen atom from a glucose mole- cule combines with a hydroxyl group from the fructose molecule to form water. (page 50)• Polysaccharides: Monosaccharides may be bonded together to form long © (7) Volume: 7 Issue: 21
  4. 4. OrganellesCentrosome – Area of the cytoplasm near the nucleus that coordinates thebuilding and breaking of microtubules in a cell.Cytoplasm - The cytoplasm (of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes) is wherethe functions for cell expansion, growth, metabolism, and replication are car-ried out.Endoplasmic Reticulum- The endoplasmic reticulum or ER is an extensivemembranous network in eukaryotic cells, continuous with the outer nuclearmembrane. The ER modifies proteins; makes macromolecules, and transferssubstances throughout the cell. Endoplasmic means "within the cytoplasm",and reticulum means "little net".Golgi apparatus - The Golgi apparatus is often considered the distributionand shipping department for the cells chemical products. It modifies proteinsand lipids (fats) that have been built in the endoplasmic reticulum and pre-pares them for export outside of the cell or for transport to other locations inthe cell.Lysosome- Lysosomes hold enzymes that were created by the cell. The pur-pose of the lysosome is to digest food or break down the cell when it dies.Mitochondria- the Mitochondria is the “power house” of the cell which is re-sponsible for converting food to energy.Nucleus- The nucleus is a membrane bound structure that contains the cellshereditary information and controls the cells growth and reproductionPlasma membrane- the plasma membrane is the outermost covering of thecell where in plants, fungi, and some bacteria it is located beneath the cellwallRibosome- ribosomes are the protein builders of the cell, the also connectamino acids to make a chain. © (6) Volume: Issue: 21