In the begin of Middle Ages around 450 DC• The main subjects were Christian ones, and the Aristotle’s rhetoric was important.• Aristotle’s rhetoric is the use of language with persuasive effect.• Saint Augustine: – taught in the Latin grammar school at Tagaste – opened a school of rhetoric at Carthage – taught rhetoric in Rome – accepted a professorship in rhetoric at Milan
Saint Augustine Saint Augustine and his mother Saint Monique
Aristotle’s rhetoric (1)• The base of rhetoric was three persuasive audience appeals : – logos, pathos and ethos• And five canons: – invention or discovery, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery
three persuasive audience appeals• Logos – In the old Greece the word meant word, speech, reason – For Aristotle the term to meant reasoned discourse• Further Jesus saw as the incarnation of the Logos• Pathos – represented an appeal to the audiences emotions• Ethos – involved moral competence only; But Aristotle broadens the concept to include expertise and knowledge
The five canons• Inventio – was the method used for the discovery of arguments• Dispositio – the system were used for the organization of arguments• Elocutio – the term used for the mastery of stylistic elements concern the crafting and delivery of speeches and writing – four ingredients necessary in order to achieve good style included correctness, clearness, appropriateness, and ornament• Memoria – was the same meaning as today• Pronuntiatio – the content, structure, and style of oration .The most important elements of oratory enhancing its persuasive power
Making a book in medieval times• As paper, in Europe, did not become common until around 1450 the most medieval manuscripts were written on treated animal skins called parchment.• The parchment was ruled colored ink, lines that helped the scribe to write
Medieval people• Few books, few ideas, many people could not read, religiosity was predominant with many wars
Medieval people and medieval buildingsGiordano Bruno
At the end around 1400 DC• The word universitas originally was applied to the scholastic guild• A guilt was a corporation of students and masters: – A community of teachers and scholars whose corporate existence had been recognized and by the ecclesiastical authority
Scholasticism• Has its origins in Charlemagne, who attracted the scholars of England and Ireland, established schools in every abbey in his empire which arise the name scholasticism• The word as two meanings – a method of learning taught by scholastics – A program that articulates and defends orthodoxy in an increasingly pluralistic context
The method of learning• As a method of learning it has his bases• Dialectic: – a dialogue between two or more people who may hold differing views – applying reason the people exchange their viewpoints to seek the truth • Inference: – achieving a conclusion by deductive reasoning from given facts• Resolving Contradictions. – a contradiction is a logical incompatibility between two or more propositions
Magister dixit• This sentence used in Florence and all Italy, around 1600 by the teachers to shut up all the students who contested the Aristotles astronomy theory.
Aristotle astronomy• Aristotle argued that the universe is spherical and finite with the Earth in the center.• Aristotles model of the universe had a profound influence on medieval scholars, but nevertheless they modified it to correspond with Christian theology.
The limitations of technology• Medieval books were hand written and rare.• Few books means the reading were limited to a few people. But they were very nice with nice pictures
There were no tools and no science• Without the right tools there is no science: magister dixit was enough