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How people learn


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How people learn

  1. 1. Zone of Proximal Development, Scaffolding and Cognitive of Multimedia Learning <br />How people learn<br />
  2. 2. What is Zone of Proximal Development?<br />From the work of Vygotsky the Zone of Proximal Development is the difference between:<br />The tasks that a child can complete working independently.<br />The tasks that the same child can complete with the help of an instructor.<br />The difference of child’s cognitive skills without or with the help of a more experimented person<br />
  3. 3. About Vygotsky<br />“Talk and action work together with the sociocultural fabric of the writing event to shape a child’s construction of awareness and performance” (Dorn, 1996)<br />Vygotsky<br />
  4. 4. Scaffolding<br />After Vygotsky ideas Jerome Bruner has introduced the Scaffolding Theory. <br />These theory has its origins in the young children's oral language acquisition<br />In the Wikipedia we can find that “Scaffolding represents the helpful interactions between adult and child that enable the child to do something beyond his or her independent efforts”<br />Jerome Bruner<br />
  5. 5. Baddeley's model of working memory<br />Memory uses two independent ways <br />Images through Visual-Spatial Sketch Pad<br />Words through Phonological Loop<br />Baddeley<br />
  6. 6. Dual-coding theory of Paivio<br />“Both visual and verbal information are processed differently and along two distinct channels with the human mind creating separate representations for information processed in each channel” <br /><br />Allan Paivio<br />
  7. 7. Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (Mayer)<br />“People learn more deeply from words and pictures than from words alone”<br />The goal is to instructional media in the light of how human mind works.<br />There are two separate channels (auditory and visual) for processing information (sometimes referred to as Dual-Coding theory);<br />Each channel has a limited (finite) capacity (similar to Sweller’s notion of Cognitive Load);<br />Learning is an active process of filtering, selecting, organizing, and integrating information based upon prior knowledge.<br />Richard E. Mayer<br />From:<br />
  8. 8. References<br />Dorn, L. (1996). A Vygotskian perspective on literacy acquisition: talk and action in children’s construction of literacy awareness. An International Journal of Early Literacy, Volume 2. Number 2, 15-40.<br />'s_model_of_working_memory<br /><br /><br /><br /><br />