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Frog Virus 3 in Eastern Box Turtles:
Agents seen with Coinfections
James F.X. Wellehan Jr., DVM, PhD, DACZM, DACVM
(Virolo...
North American Box Turtles
Terrapene sp.
• Low Fecundity
• Low Juvenile Survival Rate
• Long Lifespan
• Cryptic
• Frog Vir...
Coinfections
• Koch’s Postulates easily misinterpreted as
dichotomous pathogen/nonpathogen
Host
Pathogen Environment
Coinfections
• Coinfections with Rotavirus and other enteric
pathogens are synergistic (Bhavnani et
al, 2012)
• Coinfectio...
Iridoviruses
• Enveloped, but infective without envelope
– Stable in environment
• Cytoplasmic
• Less host specific than h...
Iridoviruses
• Genus Ranavirus
– Signs:
• Stomatitis,Hepatitis, Splenitis,Enterocolitis
– Frog Virus 3 is the best studied...
Eastern Box Turtles
• Confiscated
• Placed at quarantine of large well-run zoo
• High mortality rate
• 8 turtles submitted...
Herpesviruses
• Enveloped virus, not stable in environment
• Diverse, coevolved with hosts
– Often high infection rates in...
Box Turtle Scutaviruses
• Terrapene HV1
– Seen in Eastern Box Turtles
– Commonly seen in coinfections with Frog Virus 3
– ...
Scutavirus
Iltovirus
Simplexvirus
Varicellovirus
Proboscivirus
Cytomegalovirus
Muromegalovirus
Roseolovirus
Lymphocryptovi...
Adenoviruses
• Non-enveloped
– Very stable in environment
• Intranuclear
• Diverse, coevolved with hosts
– 6 species endem...
Adenoviruses
• Novel chelonian genus
– Box turtles, Red eared sliders, Pancake tortoises
– Signs:
• Depression, weight loss
Siadenovirus
Aviadenovirus
Mastadenovirus
Atadenovirus
Novel Turtle Genus
Ichtadenovirus
Tenericutes
• Important bacterial phylum
• Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, Acholeplasma
– Have lost cell wall
– More difficult to ...
Mycoplasma
• Mycoplasma sp.
– Associated with upper respiratory disease in
box turtles
– First reported by Feldman et al, ...
Confiscated turtles
Turtle Ranavirus Herpes Adeno Mycoplasma
1 - TerHV1 Ornate BTAdV1 Mycoplasma sp. BT
2 - TerHV1 Ornate ...
Future Directions
• Quantitative assays for measurement of agent
loads
• Surveillance of wider populations
Thanks
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Frog virus 3 in eastern box turtles: agents seen with coinfections

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2013 International Symposium on Ranaviruses
by James Wellehan

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Frog virus 3 in eastern box turtles: agents seen with coinfections

  1. 1. Frog Virus 3 in Eastern Box Turtles: Agents seen with Coinfections James F.X. Wellehan Jr., DVM, PhD, DACZM, DACVM (Virology, Bacteriology/Mycology), Natalie H. Hall, DVM, DACZM, Gregory J Fleming, DVM, DACZM, April L. Childress, Scott P. Terrell, DVM, DACVP
  2. 2. North American Box Turtles Terrapene sp. • Low Fecundity • Low Juvenile Survival Rate • Long Lifespan • Cryptic • Frog Virus 3 Mortality Events Well Documented
  3. 3. Coinfections • Koch’s Postulates easily misinterpreted as dichotomous pathogen/nonpathogen Host Pathogen Environment
  4. 4. Coinfections • Coinfections with Rotavirus and other enteric pathogens are synergistic (Bhavnani et al, 2012) • Coinfections with Marek’s disease and Cryptosporidium baileyi in chickens synergistic (Abbassi et al, 2000)
  5. 5. Iridoviruses • Enveloped, but infective without envelope – Stable in environment • Cytoplasmic • Less host specific than herpes/adeno
  6. 6. Iridoviruses • Genus Ranavirus – Signs: • Stomatitis,Hepatitis, Splenitis,Enterocolitis – Frog Virus 3 is the best studied pathogen of box turtles • Also found in amphibians,sturgeon, other turtles.
  7. 7. Eastern Box Turtles • Confiscated • Placed at quarantine of large well-run zoo • High mortality rate • 8 turtles submitted for testing
  8. 8. Herpesviruses • Enveloped virus, not stable in environment • Diverse, coevolved with hosts – Often high infection rates in endemic hosts – 8 species endemic in one primate species • Intranuclear • Latency – Typically infected for life • One genus reported in turtles- Scutavirus
  9. 9. Box Turtle Scutaviruses • Terrapene HV1 – Seen in Eastern Box Turtles – Commonly seen in coinfections with Frog Virus 3 – Role in disease under investigation • Terrapene HV2 – Seen in Eastern Box Turtle – Identified in fibropapillomatous lesion
  10. 10. Scutavirus Iltovirus Simplexvirus Varicellovirus Proboscivirus Cytomegalovirus Muromegalovirus Roseolovirus Lymphocryptovirus Rhadinovirus Percavirus Macavirus Mardivirus
  11. 11. Adenoviruses • Non-enveloped – Very stable in environment • Intranuclear • Diverse, coevolved with hosts – 6 species endemic in one primate species – Generally host specific, may jump to close relatives • Eublepharid AdV1 - leopard & fat tailed geckos, Helodermatid AdV2 – Gila monsters &Pogona
  12. 12. Adenoviruses • Novel chelonian genus – Box turtles, Red eared sliders, Pancake tortoises – Signs: • Depression, weight loss
  13. 13. Siadenovirus Aviadenovirus Mastadenovirus Atadenovirus Novel Turtle Genus Ichtadenovirus
  14. 14. Tenericutes • Important bacterial phylum • Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, Acholeplasma – Have lost cell wall – More difficult to grow – Dependent on host cells – Range from relatively benign to significant pathogens • Not beneficial
  15. 15. Mycoplasma • Mycoplasma sp. – Associated with upper respiratory disease in box turtles – First reported by Feldman et al, 2006 – Distinct from M. agassizii seen in Gopherus sp. – Additional species recently discovered, clinical significance still under investigation
  16. 16. Confiscated turtles Turtle Ranavirus Herpes Adeno Mycoplasma 1 - TerHV1 Ornate BTAdV1 Mycoplasma sp. BT 2 - TerHV1 Ornate BTAdV1 Mycoplasma sp. BT 3 - TerHV1 Ornate BTAdV1 Mycoplasma sp. BT 4 FV3 TerHV1 Ornate BTAdV1 Mycoplasma sp. BT 5 - - Ornate BTAdV1 Mycoplasma sp. BT 6 FV3 - Ornate BTAdV1 Mycoplasma sp. BT 7 FV3 - Ornate BTAdV1 Mycoplasma sp. BT 8 - - Ornate BTAdV1 Mycoplasma sp. BT
  17. 17. Future Directions • Quantitative assays for measurement of agent loads • Surveillance of wider populations
  18. 18. Thanks

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