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First	
  Southern	
  Appalachians	
  Batrachochytrium	
  
salamandrivorans	
  (Bsal)	
  mee6ng	
  
History	
  
•  First	
  discovered	
  in	
  
The	
  Netherlands	
  
(2013)	
  
•  Reduced	
  infected	
  
popula6ons	
  to...
Effects	
  on	
  salamanders	
  	
  
•  Mul6focal	
  superficial	
  
erosions	
  and	
  deep	
  
ulcera6ons	
  all	
  over	
...
Thermal	
  preference	
  	
  
Threat	
  to	
  southern	
  Appalachian	
  species	
  
•  Martel	
  et	
  al.	
  (2014)	
  tested	
  35	
  species	
  acro...
Threat	
  to	
  southern	
  Appalachian	
  species	
  
•  Threat-­‐	
  moderate	
  
•  Temp	
  of	
  most	
  habitat	
  is...
Sirenidae	
  	
  
•  Threat	
  -­‐	
  moderate	
  
•  Only	
  species	
  tested	
  does	
  contract	
  Bsal,	
  but	
  
is...
Ambystoma6ds	
  
•  Threat-­‐	
  low	
  
•  2	
  species	
  tested-­‐	
  both	
  tolerant	
  
•  Larvae	
  suscep6bility	
...
Salamandrids	
  
•  Threat-­‐	
  extremely	
  high	
  
•  Nearly	
  all	
  species	
  died	
  from	
  infec6on	
  
•  Larg...
Waterdogs	
  and	
  amphiumas	
  
•  ???	
  
Dusky	
  and	
  climbing	
  salamanders	
  
•  Threat-­‐	
  High	
  
•  Bsal	
  was	
  lethal	
  in	
  Hydromantes,	
  whi...
Woodland	
  Plethodon6ds	
  
•  Threat-­‐	
  moderate	
  due	
  
simply	
  to	
  the	
  number	
  of	
  
species	
  
•  Pl...
Splerpines	
  	
  
•  Threat-­‐	
  low	
  to	
  
moderate	
  
•  Gyrinophilus	
  was	
  
immune	
  	
  
•  Again,	
  very	...
Conclusions	
  	
  
•  Bsal	
  has	
  the	
  poten6al	
  to	
  decimate	
  southern	
  
Appalachian	
  salamander	
  diver...
A brief introduction to Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) and the threat to southeastern taxa
A brief introduction to Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) and the threat to southeastern taxa
A brief introduction to Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) and the threat to southeastern taxa
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A brief introduction to Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) and the threat to southeastern taxa

Delivered by J.J. Apodaca on 14 August 2015 at a regional Bsal meeting in Asheville, NC, USA

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A brief introduction to Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) and the threat to southeastern taxa

  1. 1. First  Southern  Appalachians  Batrachochytrium   salamandrivorans  (Bsal)  mee6ng  
  2. 2. History   •  First  discovered  in   The  Netherlands   (2013)   •  Reduced  infected   popula6ons  to  less   than  4%  
  3. 3. Effects  on  salamanders     •  Mul6focal  superficial   erosions  and  deep   ulcera6ons  all  over   the  body   •  Death  generally   occurs  in  under  2   weeks  aNer  a  short   episode  of  anorexia,   apathy,  and  ataxia  
  4. 4. Thermal  preference    
  5. 5. Threat  to  southern  Appalachian  species   •  Martel  et  al.  (2014)  tested  35  species  across  all   amphibian  orders  
  6. 6. Threat  to  southern  Appalachian  species   •  Threat-­‐  moderate   •  Temp  of  most  habitat  is  outside  of  ideal  growth  range   •  1  of  3  Hynobs  contracted  Bsal   •  Habitat  of  S.  keyserlingii-­‐  terrestrial  but  breed  in  permanent   pools  
  7. 7. Sirenidae     •  Threat  -­‐  moderate   •  Only  species  tested  does  contract  Bsal,  but   is  tolerant  
  8. 8. Ambystoma6ds   •  Threat-­‐  low   •  2  species  tested-­‐  both  tolerant   •  Larvae  suscep6bility  untested  
  9. 9. Salamandrids   •  Threat-­‐  extremely  high   •  Nearly  all  species  died  from  infec6on   •  Large  popula6ons  and  wide  spread-­‐  can  serve  as  a  reservoir   •  Both  terrestrial  and  aqua6c  forms  give  this  species  the   ability  to  rapidly  spread  Bsal  
  10. 10. Waterdogs  and  amphiumas   •  ???  
  11. 11. Dusky  and  climbing  salamanders   •  Threat-­‐  High   •  Bsal  was  lethal  in  Hydromantes,  which  is  very  similar   ecologically  to  Aneides   •  Desmogs  are  endemic  widely  spread  and  ecologically  diverse    
  12. 12. Woodland  Plethodon6ds   •  Threat-­‐  moderate  due   simply  to  the  number  of   species   •  Plethodon  glu:nosus  was   immune  
  13. 13. Splerpines     •  Threat-­‐  low  to   moderate   •  Gyrinophilus  was   immune     •  Again,  very  diverse  
  14. 14. Conclusions     •  Bsal  has  the  poten6al  to  decimate  southern   Appalachian  salamander  diversity  and  density   •  The  biggest  threats  appear  to  be  to  red   spo[ed  newts,  green  salamanders,  and  the   dusky  salamanders   •  We  need  a  lot  more  data  and  conserva6on   strategy  

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