Drawing instruments


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Drawing instruments

  1. 1. IES Sebastián Fernández Departamento de Tecnología Cartaya Curso 2010/11 DRAWING INSTRUMENTS 1. DRAWING PENCILS Drawing Pencils are a basic instrument for any graphics course. They are made of wood, They have the form of a cylinder; hexagonal. Inside the pencil there is a fine graphite and clay bar called lead. We use the lead to mark with the pencil. Leads are classified according to how hard they are. There are 18 different types of pencils, depending on the leads. The soft lead type 2B is used to produce quick drawings and shading, but when we draw something more precise , we use a 2H or a harder pencil, for example, a 4H is ideal. This type of pencil keeps its sharp edge for longer and produces very fine lines. 1- What is the form of a drawing pencil? 2- What are the materials of leads? 3- What is the principal use of leads? 4- How many types of pencils are there? True/false 5- The classification of pencils depends on how fine they are. 6- To produce quick drawings we use a 2H pencil. 7- 4H pencil is ideal for precise drawings. 8- The sharp edge has a short duration.
  2. 2. IES Sebastián Fernández Departamento de Tecnología Cartaya Curso 2010/11 A refillable pencil is very useful especially if you are constructing a drawing that needs a constant thick line. You can get many different types of refills, and they can have a hard or a soft lead. The problem is that both refillable pencils and refills are relatively expensive . Also, the leads can break more easily. True/false questions: 9- You use a refillable pencil to draw thin lines. 10- Refillable pencils are very expensive. 11- The lead od refillable pencils is very strong. 2. RUBBER We use the rubber to clean unnecessary marks or to correct our wrong drawings. Sometimes it is difficult to rub certain marks,so, you must use your rubber as less as posible. True/false questions: 12-We use the rubber to correct wrong drawings. 13- Somtimes it is difficult to correct marks. 3. PENCIL SHARPENERS
  3. 3. IES Sebastián Fernández Departamento de Tecnología Cartaya Curso 2010/11 Pencil sharpeners are essential for sharpening pencils. Your drwaings cannot be precise if they are not sharp. However, when shading, you need a blunt pencil. Questions: 14- What do you need a pencil sharpener for? 15- When do you need a blunt pencil? 4. PROTRACTOR A protractor is used to measure angles. A typical protractor is a semi-circular piece of plastic with 180 degrees printed around its curve. This piece of equipment is not only used in graphics for constructing precise drawings, it can also be used in subjects like Mathematics. True/ false questions: 16-You use a protractor to measure angles. 17- The typical protractor is circular. 18- You can use the protractor in mathematics. 5. COMPASS
  4. 4. IES Sebastián Fernández Departamento de Tecnología Cartaya Curso 2010/11 A compass is an absolute essential piece of equipment. We use the compass to draw circles and arcs, and to transfer measures to drawings. It has got two articulated arms on the extremes. On one of the extremes there is a graver. You fix it on the paper in the center of the arc that you want to draw, and on the other extreme, you can have leads , pens to draw plumas , etc. It is better to buy a good set which includes at least two compasses for drawing small and large circles. The opposite drawing is a ‘bow’ compass, this is used for drawing small circles very precisely. Cheap compasses usually slip on the paper and break quite easily. A good quality compass set will last a very long time. Questions: 19- What do we use the comppas for? 20- How many extremes has a compass got? 21- Where is the graver? 22- What compass do you use when you draw precise circles? 6. RULER A ruler is possibly one of the most important pieces of the drawing equipment. You use the ruler to measure lengths and to draw straight lines. The most commom rulers are made of transparent plastic, but there are wooden rulers too. The have got divisions into milimetres or half milimetres. There are large and small rulers, but the normal ruler is between 30 cm and 1m. True/false questions: 23- You use the ruler to draw circles. 24- The ruler is made of black graphite. 25- There are wooden rulers. 26- The ruler division is in metres. 27- The normal ruler is 5 meters long.
  5. 5. IES Sebastián Fernández Departamento de Tecnología Cartaya Curso 2010/11 7. SET SQUARES Set Squares are two triangular templates , they are made of transparent plastic. The set square is similar to an Isósceles triangle, with two angles of 45º and one angle of 90º. The bevel square is a triangle with angles of 30º, 60º y 90º. The hypotenuse of the set square must be the same as the larger cateto of the bevel square. You can use the set square and the bevel square to draw parallel or perpendicular lines, and to draw precise angles. Questions: 28- What are set squares? 29- What triangle are they similar to? 30- What angles has a bevel square got? 31- What do you use the set square and the bevel square for? 8. FRENCH CURVES
  6. 6. IES Sebastián Fernández Departamento de Tecnología Cartaya Curso 2010/11 You can buy French Curves in sets of three or four. They are used to draw curves if you find the correct section of curve that matches the correct shape on the section of the curve. Some French Curves also have circles or ellipses of various sizes cut out. Their use is similar to circle or ellipse templates. True/false questions: 32- the set of French Curves are of one or two only. 33- They are used to draw lines. 34- You must find the correct section of the curve that matches the correct shape. 35- French Curves have circles and ellipses. 9. CIRCLE TEMPLATES Circle templates are very useful. They are plastic with a number of precise circles cut out. You use them to draw circles of determinate diameters/sizes and are particularly useful when the circle is small. Small circles are difficult to draw when you use a traditional compass because the compass can easily slip on the paper. With a
  7. 7. IES Sebastián Fernández Departamento de Tecnología Cartaya Curso 2010/11 template,you select the circle diameter and use a sharp pencil to draw round the cutout circle. Ellipse templates are similar to circle templates and these are useful for drawing ellipse / oval shapes precisely. Questions: 36- what material are Circle templates? 37- What do you use Circle templates for? 38- Why is it difficult to draw small circles with a compass? 39- What type of pencil do you use to draw a circle with a template; a sharp or a blunt pencil? 40- Can you use templates to draw ellipses or oval shapes? 10. PAPERS The form and the size of the paper has got some rules. This form and size are called format. The basic format is A0 , and it is a rectangular piece of paper , with a surface of 1 m2 , and 841 x 1189 mm sides. You can get other formats when you divide it in halves. True/false questions:
  8. 8. IES Sebastián Fernández Departamento de Tecnología Cartaya Curso 2010/11 41- the form and the size of a paper is called measure. 42- The basic format is AA 43- You can have different formats when you divide the paper in halves.