Civil rightsfinished joshjoshjameskelsey


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Civil rightsfinished joshjoshjameskelsey

  1. 1. Civil Rights Joshua F. Joshua L. James R. Kelsey B.
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>During the Civil Rights movement, African Americans were able to improve their situation as citizens in the United States (in terms of gaining equal civil rights and opportunities). </li></ul><ul><li>They achieved this with the help of many events that took place during the civil rights movement. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) <ul><li>The case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka of 1954 was initiated by the NAACP in order to eliminate the separate but equal clause that was originally set in place by Plessey v. Ferguson of 1896 </li></ul><ul><li>The case is compiled of five separate cases that the Supreme Court brought together because of the fact that they all had to deal with a similar problem: the issue of “separate but equal” in schools around the country. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Ruby Bridges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People yelled and threw things at her </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Had to be escorted by police </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Brown v. Board (cont.) <ul><li>The landmark case, Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka , was a great leap forward for the Civil Rights movement. </li></ul><ul><li>This case firmly disestablished the clause of “separate but equal”, and ruled school segregation to be unconstitutional. </li></ul><ul><li>The presiding judge was Earl Warren (Chief Justice of the Supreme Court), who would later go on to declare that accused people had rights (e.g. to an attorney, to be provided with one free of charge, etc.) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Brown v. Board (cont.) <ul><li>As a result of Brown v. Board, schools across the country were desegregated and white and black kids started going to school together. </li></ul><ul><li>This was a major win for African American rights because it helped end “separate but equal” which was an issue that was prevalent in schools. </li></ul><ul><li>This landmark case, which was one of the first major victories in the Civil Rights movement, gave hope to many that the total elimination of “separate but equal” would come about and would lead to many other victories for African Americans in the future. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Assassination of Medgar Evers (1963) <ul><li>Medgar Evers was the first field secretary for the NAACP, and was an extremely diligent and honest man. </li></ul><ul><li>Evers was assassinated on June 12, 1963, as he pulled into his driveway. He had just come home from an NAACP meeting. He staggered thirty feet before collapsing in front of his house. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Medgar Evers (cont.) <ul><li>Evers soon died at a local hospital, about fifty minutes after he was shot. </li></ul><ul><li>Ironically, he died immediately after John F. Kennedy’s speech on civil rights. </li></ul><ul><li>His death produced much publicity, and led more people to join the Civil Rights movement. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Medgar Evers (cont.) <ul><li>People wrote songs about his death, including Bob Dylan’s “Only a Pawn in their Game”, referencing that particular event, and the SNCC Freedom Singers (along with Matthew Jones) song, “The Ballad of Medgar Evers”. </li></ul><ul><li>This sudden and enormous publicity openly showed white people that African-Americans needed rights to protect them from racist whites, who would lynch them. </li></ul>
  9. 9. March on Washington (1963) <ul><li>Officially dubbed the “March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom”, the March was simply put, an enormous political rally in Washington, D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>The March took place on August 28, 1963, and was known to have sparked the creation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the National Voting Rights Act of 1965. </li></ul>
  10. 10. March on Washington (cont.) <ul><li>During the March, Martin Luther King, Jr., delivered his unforgettable “I Have a Dream” speech in front of the Lincoln Memorial. </li></ul><ul><li>The March was actually started by A. Phillip Randolph, who also threatened to start a similar march in 1941. This then led President Roosevelt to establish the CFEP (Committee of Fair Employment Practice). </li></ul>
  11. 11. March on Washington (cont.) <ul><li>Roosevelt also then banned hiring based on race in the defense industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 80% of protesters were African-American; the rest were white (with a small minority of other ethnic groups) </li></ul><ul><li>The assemblers were determined enough to start the march without the leaders (because the leaders were meeting with members of Congress at the time). </li></ul>
  12. 12. March on Washington (cont.) <ul><li>The bold determination of the assembled group (and not just the leaders) led many to believe that civil rights were now within reach, and that the civil rights movement now had real strength behind it - which came from religion and belief in eventual freedom. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Montgomery Bus Boycott <ul><li>The boycott was triggered when Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat for a white man while the other African-Americans gave up their seats. </li></ul><ul><li>Rosa Parks was fined $10 plus a court cost of $4 but she appealed. </li></ul><ul><li>The boycott caused serious economic distress to the Montgomery public transit system. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Montgomery Bus Boycott <ul><li>The federal court ruled that the segregation laws in Alabama for buses were unconstitutional. However, an appeal kept the segregation intact, and the boycott continued until, on November 13, 1956, the Supreme Court sustained the federal court's ruling. </li></ul><ul><li>The boycott had lasted 381 days. </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans could now sit anywhere they wanted to on the bus. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Selma March <ul><li>It was a march from Selma to Montgomery for African-American voting rights. </li></ul><ul><li>There were series of three marches. </li></ul><ul><li>Martin Luther King Jr. and Southern Christian Leadership Committee were involved. </li></ul><ul><li>The brutality of the police toward the nonviolent protesters were shown all over the country which changed public opinion of the Civil Rights Movement. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Selma March <ul><li>The first march took place on March 7, 1965 (also called Bloody Sunday) when state and local police attacked 600 civil rights marchers with clubs and tear gas. </li></ul><ul><li>The second march began on March 9. Three white ministers who came for the march were attacked and beaten with clubs by white segregationist in front of a café. </li></ul><ul><li>Only the third march, which began on March 21 and lasted five days, made it to Montgomery, 54 miles away. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Conclusion <ul><li>Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka was a landmark case from 1954. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It got rid of “Separate but equal” in schools for good and was the first major victory of the Civil Rights movement. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Conclusion <ul><li>Medgar Evers was a respected man who was horribly assassinated in 1963. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This brought many people to join the Civil Rights movement, as the slaughter of an innocent man raised much anger in blacks and whites. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Conclusion <ul><li>The March on Washington was an organized demonstration in Washington, D.C., in 1963. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With the many speeches and songs, activists spread the word about the Civil Rights movement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The march also helped lead to the passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the National Voting Rights Act of 1965. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Conclusion <ul><li>The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a great display of African-American determination, which started on December 1, 1955. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The boycott of the buses crippled Montgomery's public transport system, as most of the bus riders were African-American. This basically forced Montgomery to desegregate the buses, and allow African-Americans to sit where they wanted. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Conclusion <ul><li>The Selma to Montgomery March of 1965 was the peak of the Civil Rights movement. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The march showcased white brutality toward African-Americans, as the marchers were peaceful and non-violent, but were being beaten, tear-gassed, and much more. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Conclusion <ul><li>Through many events during the Civil Rights movement, African Americans were able to gain more rights, privileges, and opportunities and improve their situation as American citizens. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Thank You for Listening!