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Dr.Sahithyaa
Assistant professor
Dept. of Community Medicine
Contents
• Mental health – stigma and problem statement.
• Mental illness - its types and causes.
• Mental health services...
Mental Health
• WHO definition of health?
• WHO expert committee in 1950:
- Influenced by biologic and social factors.
- N...
Problem Statement
• WHO: 10% point prevalence.
• 450 million worldwide suffer.
• India: mental morbidity: 18-20/1000.
• 47...
Problem Statement
• New cases:
• 56000 schizophrenia.
• 38k neurotic and 31k mood disorders.
• Less than 1000 personality ...
Mentally healthy person
• Feels secure, comfortable, and has self respect.
- Estimates balanced.
- Accepts shortcoming.
• ...
Warning signals
• Constant worry, insomnia, mood fluctuations.
• Unhappy without cause, always fearful.
• Aches and pain w...
Mental Illness- Types
• Major (Psychosis) : Insanity
• Schizophrenia(Split personality).
• Manic depressive psychosis (Bip...
Mental Illness- Types
• Vast, broad and difficult to precise.
• Individual suffer one or more disorders.
• ICD-10 classifi...
10
Mental Illness- Types
• Mood disorders: Bipolar affective disorders.
• Neurotic , stress related and somatoform disorders:...
Causes of Mental Illness
• Multifactorial.
• Organic condition:
• cerebral arterioslerosis, neoplasms, chronic diseases
et...
13
Causes of Mental Illness
• Social patholgical causes:
• Emotional stress , anxieties, broken marriages and
homes, Cruelty,...
Crucial points in Life cycle
• Prenatal period.
• First 5 years child requires love and care. Broken homes
produce disorde...
Prevention
• Primary: community basis improving social
enviroinment.
• Secondary: early diagnosis of mental illness by
scr...
17
Mental health services
• Early diagnosis and treatment
• Rehabilitation.
• Group and individual psychotherapy.
• Mental he...
Comprehensive Mental Health Programme
• Integration of Psychiatric services with other health
services.
• Community Mental...
20
Alcohol and Drug Dependence
• WHO Drug abuse : It is defined as self administration
of a drug for non-medical reasons, in ...
Problem statement
• Globally 250 million are drug abusers.
• Abuse of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs exacts
more than...
Dependence producing Drugs
• Alcohol.
• Opiods.
• Cannabinoids.
• Sedatives or hypnotics.
• Cocaine
• Caffeine
• Hallucino...
Drugs
• Amphetamines :
• Stimulants and produce mood elevation.
• Superman drugs.
• Dexendrene, Methedrine.
• Cocaine:
• C...
Drugs
• Cannabis:
• Heroin: worst type of addiction.
• LSD: Psychotogenic drug
25
Alcohol
• 2 billion consume alcohol.
• Worldwide 2.3 million die from alcohol(6% men ands
1% women).
• 65 million DALY due...
Alcohol
• CNS depressant with physical dependence.
• Alcoholism is a disease.
• It leads to suicides, economic crisis in f...
Tobacco
• Tobacco consumption decreasing in developed but
increasing in developing countries.
• Global cigarette consumpti...
Tobacco
• More death than all substance combined.
• 30% of all cancer death.
• Respiratory and cardiovascular disorders.
•...
Prevention
• Over – ambitions hopes of eradication in short time
usually fails.
• Change will be slow.
• Legal approach: l...
Prevention
• Educational approach:
• Programme for school children.
• Information campaign.
• Integrated plan of action in...
Treatment
• Identification and motivation.
• Detoxification.
• Post-detoxification and follow-up.
• Simultaneous environme...
Deaddiction centers
33
Summary
• Mental health condition is stigmatizing.
• Wide spectrum of disorders.
• Multifactorial with psychosocial and en...
• Thank you
35
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Mental health

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VI & VII SEMESTER COMBINE CLASS

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Mental health

  1. 1. Dr.Sahithyaa Assistant professor Dept. of Community Medicine
  2. 2. Contents • Mental health – stigma and problem statement. • Mental illness - its types and causes. • Mental health services and program and prevention. • Alcohol and drug dependence. • Substance abuse, prevention and treatment. 2
  3. 3. Mental Health • WHO definition of health? • WHO expert committee in 1950: - Influenced by biologic and social factors. - Not static. - Harmonious relation to society. - Balanced satisfaction of individual drives. 3
  4. 4. Problem Statement • WHO: 10% point prevalence. • 450 million worldwide suffer. • India: mental morbidity: 18-20/1000. • 47 mental institutions in India with 10,329 beds. • 896000 adults 22,300 children were treated. 4
  5. 5. Problem Statement • New cases: • 56000 schizophrenia. • 38k neurotic and 31k mood disorders. • Less than 1000 personality disorders. • Among child: • 317 psychoactive substance users. • 1100 mood disorders • 1000 unspecified mental disorders. 5
  6. 6. Mentally healthy person • Feels secure, comfortable, and has self respect. - Estimates balanced. - Accepts shortcoming. • Feels right towards others. - friendship and love - responsibility for fellowmen • Meet demands of life. - solves issues, takes own decision - not bowled over by emotions 6
  7. 7. Warning signals • Constant worry, insomnia, mood fluctuations. • Unhappy without cause, always fearful. • Aches and pain without physical cause. • Prefer loneliness, upset if routine is disturbed. 7
  8. 8. Mental Illness- Types • Major (Psychosis) : Insanity • Schizophrenia(Split personality). • Manic depressive psychosis (Bipolar). • Paranoia: extreme suspicion. • Minor illness: • Neurosis: unable to react to normal situations. • Personality and character disorders. 8
  9. 9. Mental Illness- Types • Vast, broad and difficult to precise. • Individual suffer one or more disorders. • ICD-10 classification: • Organic including symptomatic : Alzheimer. • Due to psychotropic substances: Alcohol, dependence syndromes. • Delusional disorders: Schizophrenia. 9
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. Mental Illness- Types • Mood disorders: Bipolar affective disorders. • Neurotic , stress related and somatoform disorders: GAD, OCD, Hypochondriasis. • Behavioural Syndromes: eating disorders. • Adult personality disorders: Trans-sexualism. • Childhood psychological development disorders: Hyperkinetic disorders, Autism. 11
  12. 12. Causes of Mental Illness • Multifactorial. • Organic condition: • cerebral arterioslerosis, neoplasms, chronic diseases etc • Heridity: • Child of schizophrenic parents more likely to develop same condition. 12
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14. Causes of Mental Illness • Social patholgical causes: • Emotional stress , anxieties, broken marriages and homes, Cruelty, rejection, neglect.. • Industrialization, Urbanization, migration, poverty. • Others: • Toxic substances, Psychotropic substances, Nutritional factors, Minerals, Infective agents, Trauma and Radiation. 14
  15. 15. Crucial points in Life cycle • Prenatal period. • First 5 years child requires love and care. Broken homes produce disorders. • Schooling climate should be good. • Adolescent period most important. • Old age. • Need for affection, belonging, independence are needed for all ages. 15
  16. 16. Prevention • Primary: community basis improving social enviroinment. • Secondary: early diagnosis of mental illness by screening programs. • Provision of tretment facility and community resources. • Family based health services with counselling. • Tertiary: Reduced duration of illness, prevent further breakdown 16
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. Mental health services • Early diagnosis and treatment • Rehabilitation. • Group and individual psychotherapy. • Mental health education • Use of Modern Psychoactive drugs • After care services. 18
  19. 19. Comprehensive Mental Health Programme • Integration of Psychiatric services with other health services. • Community Mental Health programme: • In-patient services • Out patient services • Partial hospitalization • Emergency and diagnostic services • Education, Training and research 19
  20. 20. 20
  21. 21. Alcohol and Drug Dependence • WHO Drug abuse : It is defined as self administration of a drug for non-medical reasons, in quantities and frequency which impairs individuals ability and function and result in Physical, Social and Emotional harm. • Drug dependence: A state, psychic , sometimes into physical characterized by compulsion to take the drug on periodic basis to experience its effect. 21
  22. 22. Problem statement • Globally 250 million are drug abusers. • Abuse of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs exacts more than $700 billion annually in costs related to crime, lost work productivity and health care in USA. • About 29,247 cases under Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act were registered in 2012. • As per NFHS-3 less than 1/3rd of men and 2% of women abuse substance. 22
  23. 23. Dependence producing Drugs • Alcohol. • Opiods. • Cannabinoids. • Sedatives or hypnotics. • Cocaine • Caffeine • Hallucinogens • Tobacco • Other volatile substances and steroids 23
  24. 24. Drugs • Amphetamines : • Stimulants and produce mood elevation. • Superman drugs. • Dexendrene, Methedrine. • Cocaine: • CNS stimulant. • Nodependence. • Barbiturates: • Sedative, high dependence producing. 24
  25. 25. Drugs • Cannabis: • Heroin: worst type of addiction. • LSD: Psychotogenic drug 25
  26. 26. Alcohol • 2 billion consume alcohol. • Worldwide 2.3 million die from alcohol(6% men ands 1% women). • 65 million DALY due to alcohol. • Increasing usage among young people and women. • In India 20-30% males and 5% of females use alcohol. 26
  27. 27. Alcohol • CNS depressant with physical dependence. • Alcoholism is a disease. • It leads to suicides, economic crisis in family, road traffic accidents and many health problems. • Total family disorganization, crime and loss of productivity for society. 27
  28. 28. Tobacco • Tobacco consumption decreasing in developed but increasing in developing countries. • Global cigarette consumption steadily increasing. • 1070 million males and 230 million females smoke. • China produces 1/3rd of cigarettes in the world and is major consumer. • Global adult tobacco survey: 48% (males) and 20%(females) including smokeless forms. 28
  29. 29. Tobacco • More death than all substance combined. • 30% of all cancer death. • Respiratory and cardiovascular disorders. • Adolescent experimentation and peer pressure. • Women at higher risk due to obstetric complications. • Passives smoking is also dangerous and withdrawal continues for more than a month. 29
  30. 30. Prevention • Over – ambitions hopes of eradication in short time usually fails. • Change will be slow. • Legal approach: legislation,ban and restriction at various levels. • Prohibition of ads, sale to minors, in public places • Use of health warnings on packs. 30
  31. 31. Prevention • Educational approach: • Programme for school children. • Information campaign. • Integrated plan of action involving other strategies. • Community approach: • Alternative activities. 31
  32. 32. Treatment • Identification and motivation. • Detoxification. • Post-detoxification and follow-up. • Simultaneous environment and social intervention needed. • Rehabilitation: • Mature attitude and avoiding discrimination. • Preventing relapse through vocational training and work. • Proper follow-up 32
  33. 33. Deaddiction centers 33
  34. 34. Summary • Mental health condition is stigmatizing. • Wide spectrum of disorders. • Multifactorial with psychosocial and environmental determinants. • Scientific basis and Community approach for drug dependence. 34
  35. 35. • Thank you 35

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