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Phylum Porifera “ Sponges” Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Porifera Classes: Hexactinellida   Demospongia   Calcarea
Phylum Porifera <ul><li>Sponges </li></ul><ul><li>5,000 living species </li></ul><ul><li>Three Distinct Groups: </li></ul>...
Major Characteristics: <ul><li>Feed by filtering water through their outer walls and pumping it out of body </li></ul><ul>...
Feeding: <ul><li>Flow of water through the sponge allows for feeding, waste removal, and the intake of oxygen </li></ul><u...
Reproduction: <ul><li>Can reproduce sexually and asexually </li></ul><ul><li>Sexually they release large amounts sperm tha...
Structure / Anatomy: <ul><li>No tissues or organs </li></ul><ul><li>Each type of sponge cell is responsible for a specific...
Skeletal / Muscular: <ul><li>Opening at top called the osculum </li></ul><ul><li>Gelatinous interior called the mesohyl </...
Structure / Anatomy:
Structure / Anatomy:
 
Spicules:
Skeletal / Muscular: <ul><li>The skeleton is made up of calcium carbonate splinters called spicules and/or a protein based...
Skeletal / Muscular: <ul><li>The structural wall consists of the outer pinacocyte cells, a middle layer of gelatin contain...
Circulatory: <ul><li>Amoeboid Cells in the wall transport food and nutrients </li></ul>
Excretory: <ul><li>All wastes are purged through the main pore called the osculum </li></ul>
Respiratory / Nervous <ul><li>Various cells take in oxygen through diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>No nervous system is presen...
Digestive: <ul><li>Filter feeders </li></ul><ul><li>Collar cells engulf and digest food vacuoles </li></ul><ul><li>Use amo...
Class:  Hexactinellida <ul><li>Glass sponges </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of silica constructed fibers called spicules </li>...
Class:  Demospongia <ul><li>Most diversity </li></ul><ul><li>90% of species fall into this class </li></ul><ul><li>Can con...
Class:  Calcarea <ul><li>Found in shallow waters </li></ul><ul><li>Spicules are composed of calcium </li></ul>
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9. Phylum Porifera Notes

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9. Phylum Porifera Notes

  1. 1. Phylum Porifera “ Sponges” Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Porifera Classes: Hexactinellida Demospongia Calcarea
  2. 2. Phylum Porifera <ul><li>Sponges </li></ul><ul><li>5,000 living species </li></ul><ul><li>Three Distinct Groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hexactinellida (glass sponges) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demospongia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcarea (calcareous sponges) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most primitive of all animals </li></ul>
  3. 3. Major Characteristics: <ul><li>Feed by filtering water through their outer walls and pumping it out of body </li></ul><ul><li>Flow of water is uni-directional </li></ul><ul><li>Generally non-motile but can move up to 4 mm per day </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all are marine organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Amorphous & Assymetrical </li></ul>
  4. 4. Feeding: <ul><li>Flow of water through the sponge allows for feeding, waste removal, and the intake of oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>A combination of pressure, flagella, and contractile movements pump water </li></ul><ul><li>Filter Bacteria as a food source </li></ul>Moving Water/Current = Low Pressure Water pumped in through the walls
  5. 5. Reproduction: <ul><li>Can reproduce sexually and asexually </li></ul><ul><li>Sexually they release large amounts sperm that are taken in by females of the same species </li></ul><ul><li>Sexually they could be hermaphrodites (a boy/girl in the same organism) </li></ul><ul><li>Asexually they produce buds </li></ul>
  6. 6. Structure / Anatomy: <ul><li>No tissues or organs </li></ul><ul><li>Each type of sponge cell is responsible for a specific function </li></ul>
  7. 7. Skeletal / Muscular: <ul><li>Opening at top called the osculum </li></ul><ul><li>Gelatinous interior called the mesohyl </li></ul><ul><li>The interior cavity called the spongocoel </li></ul>OSCULUM - opening MESOHYL SPONGOCOEL
  8. 8. Structure / Anatomy:
  9. 9. Structure / Anatomy:
  10. 11. Spicules:
  11. 12. Skeletal / Muscular: <ul><li>The skeleton is made up of calcium carbonate splinters called spicules and/or a protein based mesh like substance called spongin </li></ul>
  12. 13. Skeletal / Muscular: <ul><li>The structural wall consists of the outer pinacocyte cells, a middle layer of gelatin containg amoebocyte cells, while the interior consists of the collar cells which have flagella </li></ul>
  13. 14. Circulatory: <ul><li>Amoeboid Cells in the wall transport food and nutrients </li></ul>
  14. 15. Excretory: <ul><li>All wastes are purged through the main pore called the osculum </li></ul>
  15. 16. Respiratory / Nervous <ul><li>Various cells take in oxygen through diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>No nervous system is present </li></ul>
  16. 17. Digestive: <ul><li>Filter feeders </li></ul><ul><li>Collar cells engulf and digest food vacuoles </li></ul><ul><li>Use amoeboid cells to distribute nutrients </li></ul>
  17. 18. Class: Hexactinellida <ul><li>Glass sponges </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of silica constructed fibers called spicules </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot contract like other sponges though can send electrical impulses </li></ul>
  18. 19. Class: Demospongia <ul><li>Most diversity </li></ul><ul><li>90% of species fall into this class </li></ul><ul><li>Can consist of spongin and / or silica spicules </li></ul>
  19. 20. Class: Calcarea <ul><li>Found in shallow waters </li></ul><ul><li>Spicules are composed of calcium </li></ul>

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