4. mineral notes


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4. mineral notes

  1. 1. • A natural, usually inorganic solid that has a characteristic chemical composition, an orderly internal structure, and a characteristic set of physical properties
  2. 2. An inorganic substance is a substance that was not created from living things, thus coal and oil are organic
  3. 3. • Minerals form and exist in nature, things like brass and steel are manufactured as are some gemstones
  4. 4. • If a substance does not have a regular, repeating pattern as a solid, it is not a mineral
  5. 5. • If the ratio of ingredients does not remain constant, it is not a mineral
  6. 6. a. More than 4,000 minerals, but only 20 are common b. These 20 are called rock forming minerals because they form the rocks that make up the crust c. 10 of these twenty are so common that they make up 90% of the mass of the Earth’s crust
  7. 7. • A mineral that contains a combination of silicon and oxygen, though it may contain one or more metals
  8. 8. • A mineral that does not contain the compounds of silicon and oxygen
  9. 9. • Compounds that contain a carbonate group (CO3)
  10. 10. • Compound that consists of chlorine or fluorine combined with sodium, potassium, or calcium
  11. 11. • Elements uncombined with other elements
  12. 12. • Compounds that contain oxygen and an element other than silicon
  13. 13. • Compounds that contain a sulfate group (SO4)
  14. 14. • Compounds that consist of one or more elements combined with sulfur
  15. 15. • Color – some minerals have very distinct colors that lead to identification, however, most of the time it is a unreliable clue for identifying a sample
  16. 16. • Streak – the color of a mineral in powdered form after being drug across a ceramic tile
  17. 17. • Luster - The way in which a mineral reflects light
  18. 18. • Cleavage – the tendency of a mineral to split along specific points of weakness to form smooth, flat surfaces
  19. 19. • Fracture – The manner in which a mineral breaks along either curved or irregular surfaces
  20. 20. • Hardness – the measure of the ability of a mineral to resist scratching • Mohs Hardness Scale – the standard sclae against which the hardness of minerals is rate; you scratch the unknown minerals against those on the scale, its harder if it can scratch the mineral, its softer if it can’t scratch the mineral, it’s the same hardness if both can scratch each other
  21. 21. • Crystal Shapes – minerals always form in the same crystalline structures due to their chemical composition
  22. 22. • Density – the ratio of the mass of a mineral to its volume