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3. Atmosphere Notes


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3. Atmosphere Notes

  1. 1. Atmosphere Notes<br />
  2. 2. Atmosphere: <br />Layer of gases that surround the Earth<br />
  3. 3. Composition: <br />78% Nitrogen<br />21% Oxygen<br />.9% Argon<br />.1% Other Gases<br />
  4. 4. Atmospheric Particles: <br /><ul><li>Water Vapor – from evaporation and transpiration, ranges from 1% (dry) to 4% (moist)
  5. 5. Ozone – O3, absorbs harmful UV radiation, being destroyed by particulates
  6. 6. Particulates – tiny solid particles such as ash, dust, pollen, microscopic organisms</li></li></ul><li>Atmospheric Pressure: <br /><ul><li>The pressure exerted on a surface by the atmosphere
  7. 7. Decreases as altitude increases
  8. 8. Measured using a barometer</li></li></ul><li>Layers of the Atmosphere: <br />Troposphere<br />Stratosphere<br />Mesosphere<br />Thermosphere<br />
  9. 9. Troposphere: <br /><ul><li>Closest layer to the Earth
  10. 10. Where the weather is found
  11. 11. Temperature decreases as altitude increases because its heated by Earth’s surface</li></li></ul><li>Stratosphere: <br /><ul><li>Almost all the ozone (including ozone layer) in this layer
  12. 12. As altitude increases temperature increases because UV rays absorbed by ozone</li></li></ul><li>Mesosphere: <br /><ul><li>Temperature decreases as altitude increases
  13. 13. Coldest layer</li></li></ul><li>Thermosphere: <br /><ul><li>As altitude increase temperature increases because oxygen and nitrogen atoms absorb solar radiation</li></li></ul><li>Radiation: <br />All the energy from the sun travels through space through radiation<br />Travels at 300,000 km/s<br />
  14. 14. Scattering: <br />The deflection of solar radiation due to clouds, dust, water droplets, and gas particles<br />Thus sunlight hits the Earth surface from all directions and makes the sky blue<br />
  15. 15. Reflection: <br />When solar radiation reaches the Earth surface it is either absorbed or reflected back into the atmosphere depending on the surface<br />
  16. 16. Absorption: <br />Absorbed solar radiation is converted into infrared waves (heat) and keeps the Earth warm<br />
  17. 17. Greenhouse Effect: <br />The warming of the surface and lower atmosphere of Earth that occurs when carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases in the air absorb and re-radiation solar radiation<br />
  18. 18. Conduction: <br />The transfer of heat through a material through direct contact<br />Collisions between molecules in the atmosphere transfer heat energy<br />
  19. 19. Convection: <br />Warm air moves up as cool air sinks due to density differences. <br />