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1. The Earth Notes


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1. The Earth Notes

  1. 1. Composition of the Earth<br />
  2. 2. Earth Basics:<br />Earth is unique because it is the only planet:<br />With liquid water on surface<br />With oxygen in the atmosphere in such a large proportion<br />That supports life<br />
  3. 3. Basic Facts:<br />4.6 billion years old<br />Made mostly of rock<br />71% of surface covered with water<br />Slightly flattened sphere<br />Rotates on its axis<br />
  4. 4. Layers of the Earth<br />Crust<br />Mantle<br />Core<br />
  5. 5. Crust:<br />Thin, solid outermost layer of the Earth that makes up less than 1% than the volume of the Earth<br />Two Types of Crust:<br />Oceanic<br />Continental<br />
  6. 6. Mantle:<br />Layer of “solid-ish” rock located between the crust and the core<br />able to move through convection currents<br />denser than the crust<br />makes up 2/3 of the mass of the Earth<br />
  7. 7. Moho<br />Layer/border between the crust and the mantle<br />
  8. 8. Core:<br />Central part of the Earth below the mantle<br />Two Parts:<br />Outer Core – Liquid<br />Inner Core - Solid<br />
  9. 9. Magnetism:<br />The Earth has a magnetic North Pole and a magnetic South Pole that creates a magnetic field around it<br />
  10. 10. Gravity:<br />The force of attraction that exists between all objects, the bigger and closer the object is, the stronger the force of gravity<br />
  11. 11. Weight:<br />The measure of the force of gravity on an object, therefore the farther you are away from Earth, the less your weight, though mass (measure of the amount of matter) remains constant<br />
  12. 12. Matter:<br /> Anything that has mass and volume<br />Ex: protons, neutrons, bacteria, atoms, feathers, rocks, etc.<br />
  13. 13. Energy:<br />The ability to do work, cannot be created or destroyed, only change forms<br />Forms:<br />Heat<br />Light<br />Movement<br />Potential to Move<br />Electromagnetic Waves<br />
  14. 14. Energy:<br />Energy enters the Earth as sunlight and is either absorbed by substances, organisms, or the Earth, or reflected/released back into space as heat<br />
  15. 15. Matter:<br />Very little matter enters or leaves the Earth, it is constantly changing forms within the confines of Earth and the atmosphere<br />Protons, electrons, and neutrons make atoms; atoms make up elements; elements make up compounds; all make up matter<br />Can exist as a solid, liquid, and gas<br />
  16. 16.
  17. 17. Atmosphere:<br />A mixture of gases that surround a planet<br />
  18. 18. Hydrosphere:<br />The portion of the Earth that is water<br />
  19. 19. Geosphere:<br />The mostly solid, rocky part of the Earth; extends from the center of the core to the surface of the crust<br />
  20. 20. Biosphere:<br />The part of the Earth where life exists, includes all living organisms on the Earth<br />