Water Notes:<br />
Water:<br />Composed of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atoms<br />H2O<br />Polar Molecule<br />
Polarity:<br />Unevenly distributed charges due to unequal forces placed on bonding electrons<br />Oxygen ends slightly ne...
Results of Polarity:<br />Allows water to form Hydrogen Bonds<br />
Result of Polarity:<br />Hydrophilic: All polar molecules attracted to water<br />
Result of Polarity:<br />Hydrophobic: Repels non-polar substances such as water<br />
Stabilizes Temperature:<br />Hydrogen bonds between molecules absorb heat energy, thus molecules do not move faster, there...
Cohesiveness: <br />Hydrogen bonding locks molecules together<br />Surface Tension: Cohesion at the water’s surface<br />
Cohesiveness:<br />Adhesion: when water attaches to non-water molecules<br />COHESION<br />ADHESION<br />
Cohesiveness:<br />Capillary Action: Movement of water up<br />
Universal Solvent:<br />Ions and polar molecules readily dissolve in water <br />Substances such as salt are pulled apart ...
Density:<br />Water has a density of 1g/mL<br />One of the few substances that is less dense as a solid than liquid<br />D...
Seawater:<br />Seawater is slightly different due to the materials dissolved in it<br />These materials come from the chem...
Solutes:<br />Solutes – dissolved materials<br />98% of the solutes in sea water are comprised of 6 ions (charged atoms)<b...
Salinity: <br />Total amount of salt dissolved in seawater<br />Expressed as number of grams of salt left behind when 1,00...
Effects on Organisms:<br />Slight changes in salinity can harm organisms<br />Some have developed adaptations to live in e...
Temperature:<br />The open ocean will range from -2° C and +30° C<br />Salt water freezes at a colder temperature than pur...
Density:<br />If it has more salt it is more dense<br />If it is colder it is more dense<br />
Dissolved Gases:<br />The three most important gases for life are dissolved in the ocean:<br />Oxygen<br />Carbon Dioxide<...
Pressure:<br />The deeper you go in the ocean, the more pressure<br />This is due to all the weight of the water and air a...
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1. Marine Water Notes

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1. Marine Water Notes

  1. 1. Water Notes:<br />
  2. 2. Water:<br />Composed of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atoms<br />H2O<br />Polar Molecule<br />
  3. 3. Polarity:<br />Unevenly distributed charges due to unequal forces placed on bonding electrons<br />Oxygen ends slightly negative<br />Hydrogen end slightly positive<br />
  4. 4. Results of Polarity:<br />Allows water to form Hydrogen Bonds<br />
  5. 5. Result of Polarity:<br />Hydrophilic: All polar molecules attracted to water<br />
  6. 6. Result of Polarity:<br />Hydrophobic: Repels non-polar substances such as water<br />
  7. 7. Stabilizes Temperature:<br />Hydrogen bonds between molecules absorb heat energy, thus molecules do not move faster, therefore temperature does not rise as quickly<br />Need more heat energy to change temperature<br />
  8. 8. Cohesiveness: <br />Hydrogen bonding locks molecules together<br />Surface Tension: Cohesion at the water’s surface<br />
  9. 9. Cohesiveness:<br />Adhesion: when water attaches to non-water molecules<br />COHESION<br />ADHESION<br />
  10. 10. Cohesiveness:<br />Capillary Action: Movement of water up<br />
  11. 11. Universal Solvent:<br />Ions and polar molecules readily dissolve in water <br />Substances such as salt are pulled apart by attraction of opposite charges due to polar structures<br />
  12. 12. Density:<br />Water has a density of 1g/mL<br />One of the few substances that is less dense as a solid than liquid<br />Due to hydrogen bonding and resultant pockets<br />
  13. 13. Seawater:<br />Seawater is slightly different due to the materials dissolved in it<br />These materials come from the chemical weathering of rocks on land and carried to the sea by rivers while the others are released into the ocean by hydrothermal vents<br />
  14. 14. Solutes:<br />Solutes – dissolved materials<br />98% of the solutes in sea water are comprised of 6 ions (charged atoms)<br />Of which 85% of the solids are comprised of Sodium and Chloride, hence the salt taste<br />
  15. 15. Salinity: <br />Total amount of salt dissolved in seawater<br />Expressed as number of grams of salt left behind when 1,000g of seawater is evaporated<br />
  16. 16. Effects on Organisms:<br />Slight changes in salinity can harm organisms<br />Some have developed adaptations to live in estuarine environments<br />
  17. 17. Temperature:<br />The open ocean will range from -2° C and +30° C<br />Salt water freezes at a colder temperature than pure water<br />
  18. 18. Density:<br />If it has more salt it is more dense<br />If it is colder it is more dense<br />
  19. 19. Dissolved Gases:<br />The three most important gases for life are dissolved in the ocean:<br />Oxygen<br />Carbon Dioxide<br />Nitrogen<br />
  20. 20. Pressure:<br />The deeper you go in the ocean, the more pressure<br />This is due to all the weight of the water and air above you<br />

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