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C:\Fakepath\Education Powerpoint

  1. 1. Mystery condition of the Brain
  2. 2. 1. What is Epilepsy? 2. Seizures and its affect on the body 3. Stages of a seizure 4. Treatments for the disorder 5. Final Reflection and Bibliography
  3. 3. What is Epilepsy? Epilepsy is a brain disorder in which sudden bursts of electrical energy interferes with a person’s consciousness, movements, or sensations. “Epilepsy is as common as breast cancer, and takes as many lives. Up to 50, 000 Americans die each year from seizures and related causes. The mortality rate for people with epilepsy is 2-3 times higher and the risk of sudden death is 24 times greater than that of the general population. There are 200,000 new cases each year, and a total of more than 3 million Americans are affected by it.” (Newsweek)
  4. 4.  Seizures often result in abnormal behavior or movement. They affect different parts of the brain and any of the brain’s functions.  Epilepsy is not rare or contagious, and is not always disabling for people.  In biblical times, people with epilepsy were thought to be possessed by demons and were treated as outcasts of society.
  5. 5. What is Epilepsy? Some historical figures known to have epilepsy are: Julius Caesar, Peter the Great, and Van Gogh Chapter Question: Having epilepsy is as common as having what? A. The chicken pox B. Been in an auto accident C. Food poisoning D. Breast cancer
  6. 6.  There are two major categories of seizures: Focal and Generalized Focal seizures may or may not alter consciousness, and occurs in only one side of the brain. Generalized seizures always cause a change or loss of consciousness, and affects the entire brain.  Sixty percent of people with epilepsy have focal seizures  Symptoms of focal seizures can be mistaken for the following: Migraine headaches, fainting, and narcolepsy.
  7. 7. Generalized seizure How they appear to types others 1. Person may cry out, fall 1. Tonic-Clonic, or down, become rigid, and lose grand mal seizures consciousness. Drooling, biting of the tongue or lips, and blue skin may 2. Clonic occur 3. Tonic 2. Repeated jerking movements of entire body’s muscles. 4. Atonic, or drop 3. Person may fall down because attack muscles in the body go stiff. Person has a sudden loss of muscle 5. Myoclonic 4. control which causes them to fall or 6. Absence, or petit involuntarily drop their head. mal seizures 5. Person has a sudden jerk of the arms and legs usually after waking. 6. Person has a brief loss of awareness. They may stare blankly which gives the appearance of not paying attention. This can occur multiple times per day.
  8. 8.  There is not always a clear pattern, so all seizures are unable to be clearly identified as focal or generalized.  It is very important, however, to make an attempt to categorize them so the doctor may diagnose and treat the patient in the best way. Chapter Question: True or False? You can always tell when a person is having a seizure because they fall to the ground and shake.
  9. 9.  There are some people that experience sensations that warn them of an impending seizure. They are known as auras and are merely simple focal seizures themselves.  There are four actual stages within an epileptic seizure: The build-up, the warning, the obvious attack, and the recovery period.  Let’s see what each stage is like one by one.
  10. 10. I. The person may experience a slow change I. The build-up in alertness, emotion, or behavior over time. II. The warning II. The seizure can begin as an odd III. The obvious sensation, emotion, or uncomfortable feeling. Sight may be affected so that it attack becomes blurred or temporarily lost. IV. The recovery There may be unpleasant tastes, smells, or sounds of unknown origin. The person period may have emotional outbursts, or their speech and comprehension may be affected. III. The attack depends on the type of seizure being displayed. IV. The recovery period may be brief or several hours. The person is often drowsy and appears dazed and very tired. They tend to misunderstand spoken words, and have difficulty remembering facts. They may not speak clearly and are confused after the episode.
  11. 11.  The majority of seizures do not last longer than three minutes. Only if the seizures last longer than 5-10 minutes should 911 be notified! Chapter Question: When a person is recovering from a seizure, their response is not the following: a) Wide awake and coherent b) Tired and drowsy c) Doesn’t remember facts d) Dazed and incoherent
  12. 12.  There are various methods to treat epilepsy. Doctors use medication, surgery, the Vagus Nerve device, and the ketogenic diet.  The most common method of treatment is prescribing antiepileptic drugs.  The choice of drug to prescribe and its dosage is dependent on: ◦ The types of seizures experienced. ◦ The frequency of the seizures. ◦ The individual’s lifestyle and age. ◦ The likelihood of pregnancy.
  13. 13.  Most people can be controlled with one drug at their specified level of dosage. Although doctors can recommend surgery when medications fail.  In order for surgery to be an option, doctors must consider the types of seizures the patient has, the area of the brain involved, and how important that area is to everyday behavior (ex. Speech, Hearing, Memory).  Another method is the use of the Vagus Nerve Stimulation device. It is the most common surgery for those who are resistant to medication.
  14. 14.  The Vagus Nerve device gives chronic, intermittent electrical stimulation of the left vagus nerve in the neck. The stimulation occurs automatically throughout the day and can reduce seizures by 20%-40%.  The last option for seizure treatments is the ketogenic diet. The diet is a medical therapy in which patients maintain a strict diet rich in fats and low in carbohydrates. This diet causes the body to break down fats instead of carbohydrates to survive.
  15. 15.  The ketogenic diet is a treatment primarily for children. Not all children respond well to it, but it is very effective at controlling seizures when it works. If not followed properly, the diet can trigger seizures and should never be used without supervision. Chapter Question: The ketogenic diet is an optional treatment that works best for: a) Adults b) Children c) Teenagers
  16. 16. 1) I have been indirectly dealing with epilepsy all my life because my mom has the disorder. This assignment gave me the chance to really learn more about the details of it. 2) I learned exactly how deadly and common epilepsy was. Why is breast cancer more important? Where’s the funding for epilepsy research? 3) There is no cure for epilepsy at this time. Most physicians don’t know why the brain reacts the way it does for this disorder. Until we can find a way to gain a complete understanding on how the brain works, all we can do is take preventive measures to contain the seizures.
  17. 17. Meacham, Jon. “A Storm in the Brain.” Newsweek. 20 April, 2009: 38-41. Print National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. “Seizure and Epilepsy: Hope through research.” National Institute of Health. 20 August, 2004. Bethesda, Maryland. Print Svoboda, William M.D. “Learning about Epilepsy.” Baltimore, Maryland: 1979. Print