• Key to successful targetmarket analysis isquestioning what you thinkyou know• Take 15 minutes to analyzedata on your zip code• Identify 10 specificattributes of yourcommunity to share withthe group using the data asevidence• What did you learn aboutthis zip code that surprisedyou? Confirmed existingexpectations/assumptions?• What left youconfused/unsure andwanting to learn more?BEFORE WE GETSTARTED
CONCERNS• Hard to do—sometimes it doesn‟t reallyhappen or even need to• “Low hanging fruit” approach makes targetmarket and audience selection seem harder• If we build a target market plan doesn‟t itmean it (the plan) only applies to that oneaudience?• We want to go after everyone (that‟s the bestapproach!) why limit ourselves?
WHAT IS A TM ANDTA?A set of “buyers” sharing common needs orcharacteristics that the organization decides toserve.Target audiences are the unique subsets that makeup the target market (more granular).Brainstorm: Why are target markets so hard todefine and what role do they play in strategicmarketing generally? Social marketing?Community building?
REASONS FOR ASSESSING ANDUNDERSTANDING THEM• Increased effectiveness of overall marketing plan andefforts• Increased efficiency (easier to execute plans that aredirected and targeted)• Allows you to assess and better understand resourceallocation• Shapes strategy overall
STEPS INVOLVED INSELECTING TARGETAUDIENCES1. Segment the overall market• Identify the unique and similar needs, wants, barriers,motivations, behaviors etc. that separate them• Know the thing that makes them likely to respond to youroffering2. Evaluate the individual segments based upon ability toreach them and receptiveness to message3. Choose/rank the segments to target based uponlikelihood of success
VARIABLES TOSEGMENT MARKETSTraditional variables (demographic, geographic,psychographic, behavioral etc.)• Many marketing efforts are nicely tied to 2-3 traditionalvariablesStages of change (precontemplation, contemplation,preparation, action, maintenance)• Excellent way to segment but not always easy to uncoveractual numbers; usually requires some primary researchDiffusion of innovation (Innovator segment, early adopter,early majority, late majority, laggards)• Premised upon the idea that different segments adopt newideas at different times along a progression that lookssomewhat bell curved
CONTINUEDEnvironmental and health specific segmentation theories• Healthstyles (clusters of healthy lifestyle approaches fromhealthy to unhealthy based upon their choices and actions) pg144• 6 Americas (measures Americans’ attitudes regardingenvironmental issues from the ‘alarmed’ to the ‘dismissive’ withconcerned, cautious, disengaged and doubtful in betweenGenerational segments• More than age, lifestages and shared characteristics ofcohortsCluster Systems• PRIZM, EASI are examples• Canned research that identifies existence of certain groupsthat are approached under a ‘birds of a feather’ theory
EVALUATINGSEGMENTSNot all segments are created equally!They need to be evaluated and ranked for receptivity.Some things make segments inherently more attractive for thepurposes of targeting:• Size (how many people can potentially be reached)• Problem incidence and severity (how many people in thesegment will benefit from the message and howe much will theybenefit)• Reachability (can they be identified and reached?)• Responsiveness (are they receptive and traditionally respond?)• Incremental costs associated with each segment (what highercosts might be associated with reaching this group?)• Organizational capabilities
SELECTING TARGETAUDIENCESEvaluation efforts are keyHow many segments will actually be target audiencesThree approaches (pp. 150-1):• Undifferentiated marketing• Differentiated marketing• Concentrated market
Funny thing about ethics:ContextualNot all things that are ethicalin regular marketing areethical in social marketingThe scale, degree andexpectations of marketingethics are much higherFailure to appreciate ethicalconsiderations can severelyimpact credibility/undercutmessageHow is choosing a targetmarket fraught with ethicalconcerns?ETHICS
EXERCISE• How would you identify a target audience from yourchosen community (zip code) to target a message relatedto childhood obesity and healthy eating for families?• What demographics, behaviors and psychographicswould you use to identify and size the target audiences?• How many can you envision? What are they?• How would you evaluate them? Is this a good campaignconcept for your zip code? Why or why not?• Could you envision using segments based upon diffusionof innovation? What would that look like?• Which approach to selecting your target audiences wouldyou take with this zip code?
ESTABLISHING GOALSAND OBJECTIVESDifficult part of the planning process• What‟s the difference between an objective and a goal? Iget so confused on this…• Goal setting is nice in theory but they never get reached.What‟s the point?• How can I possibly know what milestones will bereached?!• Choosing goals means I narrow my focus. Why would I dothat? I want to do as much as I can in the marketplace.
GOALS AND OBJECTIVESObjectives: The specific changes in behavior or beliefs you expect toachieve.“Children eating more healthy, balanced meals prepared with freshingredients and less fast food.Goals: The measurable, quantifiable level of changes or changedbehavior or results you expect to see as the result of your efforts.“20% reduction in visits to fast food restaurants among targetaudience”“15% increase in daily servings of fruits and vegetables among targetaudience”“30% increase in awareness/belief that obesity is a serious health threatto children.”
• Used for campaignevaluation• Why attempt to do thisif you cannot quantifywhat behaviors and/orattitudes you seek tochange and at whatlevels?• Objectives and goalsform the overallstrategy whileproviding a foundationfor tacticsWHY ARE THEYIMPORTANT?
ESTABLISH GOALS THAT AREMEANINGFUL TO CAMPAIGNEFFORTS AND AREMEASURABLE.THE IDEA SIMPLIFIED:
Behavior objectives(what you want youraudience to do)Knowledge/beliefobjectives (what youwant your audience toknow, believe or feel.)Big picture outcome ofyour conceptualcampaignOBJECTIVES
BEHAVIOROBJECTIVESCritical to social marketing campaigns, especially ones thatbuild, enhance, strengthen communitiesKnowledge and beliefs can be part of campaign objectivesbut some behavioral change should be plannedThings to consider when developing behavior objectives (pp166-7):• Impact• Willingness• Measurability• Market Opportunity• Market Supply
KNOWLEDGE ANDBELIEF OBJECTIVES• Frequently there are required increases inknowledge or changes in beliefs that are implicitto social change/social marketing campaigns• Knowledge objectives are those related tostatistics, facts and other information or skillsthat the target audience would find motivating orimportant to behavioral change.• Belief objectives are those related to attitudes,opinions, feelings or values held by the targetaudience.
TARGET GOALS• Desired level of behavioral change• Can also be targeted level of belief/knowledge changes(eg. Increased awareness)• Extremely difficult or even impractical for many socialmarketing campaigns• Baseline data may not be readily available; Expensive tocreate• Does this mean social marketers shouldn‟t be specific intheir goals? Why or why not?
What are the ethicsconsiderations related togoals and objectives?Should goals be practicaland attainable but stillpotentially harmful? Eg.Reduce the risk of adangerous crash by onlytexting and driving whenabsolutely necessary?Cut down (vs. eliminate) fastfood to reduce childhoodobesity?ETHICS ANDOBJECTIVES/GOALS?
EXERCISECreate two behavior, knowledge and belief objectives for asocial marketing campaign from a Subway franchise relatedto decreasing childhood obesity.What would specific goals be like related to thoseobjectives? Create 3 sample goals.
BARRIERS, BENEFITS, COMPETITION &INFLUENTIAL OTHERS• Last step before designing „product‟, coming up withincentives/promotions, locations, slogans, andcommunications• So far you‟ve analyzed the environment, identified thetarget market, selected smaller target audiences anddecided what you want them to do• The goal at this stage: Get into the heads of the targetaudience!• If you want them to behave in a certain way you have toidentify how they are behaving and being influenced now!
WHY DO IT?If you do not understand your targetaudience on these levels:• Barriers• Benefits• Competition• Influential othersyour target market and audience analysisand selection are meaningless…
CUSTOMER FOCUS• Like traditional marketing, community based socialmarketing must be customer focused• This step is critical to honing that focus on the customerby understanding their needs, choices and the benefits ofengaging in the desired behavior, knowledge or beliefchanges inherent to the campaign• Exchange theory posits that for target audiences mustperceive benefits equal to or greater than perceived costs• How does this work in a social marketing context?
4 TARGET AUDIENCEPERSPECTIVES THAT MUST BECONSIDERED• Barriers• Benefits• Competition• Influential othersWhich is most important? Why?
Costs:• What will TA have to giveup?• What concerns do theyhave regarding the newbehavior?• Are there capabilityissues?• Why haven‟t they done itin the past and at desiredlevels?• Can be knowledge, beliefor skill relatedBARRIERS
Motivators:• What will they get if theyengage in the desiredbehavior?• Do the benefits matchdesired, articulated orobservable needs?• Matching needs to benefitscreates value. Perceptionsof value change behaviors!• Note: Benefits are notfeatures. They are differentand distinguishable.Features are descriptive ofproduct. Benefits are thepositive effect of features.BENEFITS
• What are they doinginstead of what yourcampaign is offering?• Can be nothing!• What are thecosts/benefits of thecompeting offer oroffers?• How do they comparewith your offering?• What do you need to doto impress them andconvince them that whatyou are offering issuperior in terms ofreduced costs or morebenefits?COMPETITION
• Relative to your desiredbehavior who does yourtarget audience listen tomost?• Are these influentialothers engaged in thebehavior?• What will they say aboutthis behavior?• Who can be enlisted tosupport and endorse thebehavior?• Who might be activelyengaged in negating thebehavior?INFLUENTIAL OTHERS
THE ROLE OFFORMATIVE RESEARCH• Formative research is stage 1 research; Helps you formyour strategy. Researching barriers, benefits, competitionand influential others is a great roadmap for formativeresearch• Primary and secondary sources will help you understandthings like barriers, benefits, competition and influentialothers• Observation (of a community for example) is also veryimportant
STRATEGYBarriers, benefits, competition and influential others play aHUGE role in strategy.These four streams of insight on your target audience shouldguide your crafting of the „4 P‟s‟Case page 201-203. Review.