Mkt 460 Week 6


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  • Mkt 460 Week 6

    1. 1. Search Engine Optimisation
    2. 2. What is search engine optimisation (SEO)?
    3. 3. SEO “is the process of improving the visibility of a website or a web page in search engines via the ‘natural’ or un- paid (‘organic’ or ‘algorithmic’) search results”. (Wikipedia)
    4. 4. Also called natural or organic optimisation Image credit: creative commons,IconTexto
    5. 5. Search engines use complicated algorithms to determine relevance and ranking and these are always changing.
    6. 6. So keeping your website in shape to be ranked well by these algorithms is an ongoing process!
    7. 7. Why is it important?
    8. 8. 1. Because the higher up your website is on the SERPs, the more likely you are to get traffic to your site 2. Search traffic is qualified traffic (users are explicitly looking for what you have!) 3. You don’t pay for each click (as you do with paid search)
    9. 9. In the early days of search engines, meta data was used to index and rank websites.
    10. 10. But this left the results open to manipulation
    11. 11. Hence the complicated algorithms that are used today. Google says it uses more than 200 different factors.
    12. 12. These algorithms use page rank – simply put, the more a website is linked to, the more likely it is that the community considers it an authority.
    13. 13. So search results today are determined by on page and off page factors.
    14. 14. On page factors are the structure of the website (HTML code, content etc.).
    15. 15. Off page factors are elements which build links to the website.
    16. 16. Search engines look for: 1. Relevance 2. Authority 3. Popularity
    17. 17. Two types of SEO
    18. 18. White hat SEO works within the parameters set by search engines. Aims for long-lasting success
    19. 19. Black hat SEO refers to someone trying to game or manipulate the search engines. Aims for massive short-term traffic
    20. 20. 5 main areas of SEO:
    21. 21. 1. Search engine friendly website structure 2. Well-researched list of key phrases 3. Content optimised to target key phrases 4. Link popularity 5. Usage data
    22. 22. 1. Creating a search engine friendly website structure
    23. 23. Remember, if spiders can’t find your website, then users won’t find it via search engines.
    24. 24. Use best practises Search engine friendly design = usability and accessibility
    25. 25. Remove technical barriers Ensure there are direct HTML links to the pages you want indexed.
    26. 26. Some barriers to visibility: •Flash •Frames based design •No XML site map •AJAX •Video •Dynamic URLs
    27. 27. 2. How to research key phrases
    28. 28. These are the foundation of search
    29. 29. Users enter words they think are relevant to their searches.
    30. 30. Aim to use keywords in your website content that your target audience is likely to use.
    31. 31. Finding keywords means understanding search psychology.
    32. 32. When choosing consider...
    33. 33. •Search volume: how many searchers are using that phrase?
    34. 34. •Competition: are other websites targeting that phrase? Vs.
    35. 35. •Propensity to convert: How likely is the searcher using the phrase to convert to your site? Consider which term will lead to more conversions.
    36. 36. •Value per lead: What is the average value prospect attracted by the keyword? ‘Budget Durban hotel’ vs. ‘Luxury Durban hotel’
    37. 37. Where to start?
    38. 38. Brainstorm •What is your core business? •The needs of your customers? •What do they search for?
    39. 39. Also consider misspellings and synonyms
    40. 40. Keyword search tools can offer suggestions: •Similar keywords •Common keywords used with that keyword •Common misspellings •Frequency of the keywords in search queries
    41. 41. •Industry related keywords •Keywords sending traffic to your competitors •Number of sites targeting your keywords
    42. 42. Use a keyword spreadsheet to store information:
    43. 43. Aim to get the right mix: Low volume terms with low levels of competition are good in the short- term. But high volume terms with high levels of competition can improve revenue over time.
    44. 44. 3. Optimise content for key phrases
    45. 45. We need to ensure the site contains content to target those phrases.
    46. 46. Website content must: •Provide information to visitors •Engage with them •Convince them to do what you want
    47. 47. On top of that it must send signals of relevance to the search engines.
    48. 48. Each web page should be optimised for two to three key phrases: •Primary •Secondary •Tertiary
    49. 49. Guidelines: •Title tag: use the key phrase in the title •Header tags: use H1 tag, and other H tags (H2, H3 etc) •Body content: use key phrase three times, more if it makes sense! About 350 words of content
    50. 50. •Bold: use <strong> tags around keyword •Alt tag for image: use at least once to describe an image •URL: use a URL rewrite so it appears in the URL •Meta description: Use keyword at least once
    51. 51. Optimise images and video with the relevant keywords as well. You have to rely on how the image is described.
    52. 52. Description
    53. 53. If images are correctly labelled, search engines can index them.
    54. 54. •Use descriptive filenames •Use ALT tags and title attributes (Make sure websites make sense without images) With image displayed Without image displayed
    55. 55. •Ensure meta information is relevant •Use descriptive captions, and keep relevant copy close to the relevant media •Make sure the header tags and images are relevant to each other
    56. 56. •For video, consider converting the script to text and making this available to search engines •YouTube offers an auto-captioning service that makes this easier to do
    57. 57. 4. Links are vital to how the Internet works
    58. 58. They are there to allow a user to go from one web page to another
    59. 59. They help build signals of trust
    60. 60. They help to validate relevance Relevant!
    61. 61. The content sends a signal of relevance; the link validates that signal. e.g. A link with the text ‘Durban pet friendly hotel’ sends the message that you can trust the destination site is relevant to the term ‘Durban pet friendly hotel’.
    62. 62. Search engine spiders follow them
    63. 63. Not all links are equal
    64. 64. Pages with higher page rank themselves, will give you much more value when they link to you than pages with a lower page rank.
    65. 65. More votes = more trusted = more important = better rank on search engines
    66. 66. What does a link look like?
    67. 67. <a href=””> Anchor Text</a> (HTML code for a link) (Page the link leads to) Anchor Text (The text that forms the clickable link displayed to users)
    68. 68. But you can include more information <a href= rel=”nofollow”>Anchor Text</a> rel=”nofollow” – can be included when you don’t want to vouch for the target URL.
    69. 69. So, how do you get more links on a website?
    70. 70. Create valuable content people want to read
    71. 71. Position yourself as an expert in the field
    72. 72. Use infographics – they’re popular and useful
    73. 73. Create tools and documents that others want to use: •Host interviews on your website •Think outside the box
    74. 74. Create games that people want to play. Make sure the theme is based on the key phrases of your website!
    75. 75. Create widgets, browser extensions and useful software.
    76. 76. Use WebPR to provide valuable links to your content.
    77. 77. Use competitor analysis to find out who is linking to your competitors and which non-competing sites are ranking highly for your key phrases.
    78. 78. 5. Usage data
    79. 79. Usage data is the most effective way of judging the true relevancy of a website.
    80. 80. How do search engines access it?
    81. 81. They use cookies to record search activity: •Keywords used •Websites visited from the search engine •Clickthrough rate •Bounce rates
    82. 82. Most provide other services too. Some of Google’s services: •Google AdWords •Google AdSense •Google Checkout •Google Analytics
    83. 83. What does this mean for SEO?
    84. 84. Websites must: •Be valuable enough to attract both visitors and links naturally •Retain visitors and make sure they return to the website •Convert visitors
    85. 85. Social media is important too!
    86. 86. Social content can appear in SERPs and is growing increasingly influential in search rankings.
    87. 87. Use social media properties to dominate brand SERPs.
    88. 88. Remember that real-time search relies on social media. e.g. Twitter
    89. 89. Links from social sites are used as signals of relevance.
    90. 90. Personalised results are influenced by your online social network: e.g. If you are logged in to Google while searching for blogs, you might be more likely to see a friend’s blog.
    91. 91. Optimise your content for social search engines.
    92. 92. Consider mobile SEO
    93. 93. Mobile SEO is a little different to desktop SEO but the fundamental principles remain.
    94. 94. There are some differences
    95. 95. •Search engines can deliver precise location-based results to mobile users •The importance of usability in sites for mobile devices •Search engines having less data to work with in terms of site history, traffic, and inbound links
    96. 96. So remember to: •Create usable, crawlable sites •Format content for mobile usage •Use links from mobile to desktop and vice versa •Submit a mobile XML sitemap •Use the word “mobile” so search engines know this is the mobile version of your site
    97. 97. Local search means that location matters. ‘Claim’ your location to verify yourself.
    98. 98. A little advice:
    99. 99. •Avoid hidden text or hidden links •Don’t use cloaking or sneaky redirects •Don’t send automated queries to Google •Don’t load pages with irrelevant keywords •Don’t create multiple pages, subdomains, or domains with duplicate content
    100. 100. •Don’t create pages with malicious behaviour, such as phishing etc. •Avoid “doorway” pages created just for search engines or other “cookie cutter” approaches
    101. 101. •If your site participates in an affiliate programme, make sure that your site adds value •Avoid links farms and focus on attracting quality, valuable links
    102. 102. At the end of the day, create content that users want, and make sure that content is accessible to both search engines and users.
    103. 103. PPC Advertising
    104. 104. What is PPC advertising?
    105. 105. Pay per Click (PPC) advertising is where the advertiser pays only for each click on their advert.
    106. 106. PPC adverts They’re easy to spot – on the top of SERPs and on the right hand side.
    107. 107. They also appear on content sites and social networks.
    108. 108. PPC advertising revolutionised the online advertising industry and today it generates 99% of Google’s revenue.
    109. 109. We will focus on PPC advertising on search engines and social networks
    110. 110. PPC advertising is keywords based.
    111. 111. It is based on the search term a user enters into a search engine. This means that it uses a “pull” strategy rather than a “push” strategy.
    112. 112. The beauty of PPC advertising on search engines is that adverts are displayed when potential customers are already expressing interest.
    113. 113. Users are spoken to when they are already in the right frame of mind, the message is not pushed on to them like TV advertising.
    114. 114. How does it work?
    115. 115. Usually runs as an auction model – advertisers place bids to appear based on certain criteria.
    116. 116. Then advertising platforms determine when adverts are eligible to appear.
    117. 117. So the advertiser: •Creates the advert copy •Determines the landing page for the advert •Selects the keywords or criteria •Chooses the maximum amount they are willing to pay per click
    118. 118. And the advertising platform: •Checks the advert for compliance to editorial guidelines •Displays the advert for relevant search criteria •Determines the rank of the advert - based on the advertiser’s maximum bid and the relevance of the advert
    119. 119. The majority of PPC advertising spend is on Search network PPC advertising – this is the more targeted network.
    120. 120. They appear on SERPs and are mostly text – but more formats are becoming available.
    121. 121. But display advertising (on content pages, like news sites) and social networking advertising are important growth areas.
    122. 122. More advertisers are now moving to the display and mobile networks in order to attract relevant traffic and increase exposure.
    123. 123. Types of PPC adverts
    124. 124. Text advert format: Heading Two lines of advert copy, Which can be displayed on one line
    125. 125. Vanity URLS: The URL shown is not necessarily the URL that the user will click through to.
    126. 126. Roses for Valentine’s A dozen red roses for your love Fast, free delivery in RSA
    127. 127. The display URL: •What the user sees •Domain must match destination URL •Can use vanity URLs
    128. 128. The destination URL: •Domain must exist •One ad group per domain •Domain must match display
    129. 129. Vanity URLs make them look appealing and keywords can be used to further increase the relevance of the ad to the user’s intent.
    130. 130. When writing PPC adverts, the number of characters are limited and restrictions exist.
    131. 131. Google AdWords guidelines: •Heading: max 25 characters •Display URL: max 35 characters •Line 1: max 35 characters •Line 2: max 35 characters •No repeated exclamation marks
    132. 132. •No word in capitals only •No nonsense words •No claims of “best”, “number one” or superlatives, unless they can be verified by a reliable third-party •Product numbers may be used
    133. 133. Remember, there are usually no images in PPC adverts – the copy is key!
    134. 134. To help, use dynamic keyword insertion – inserting the search keywords dynamically into the advert copy.
    135. 135. Also use compelling calls to action or mention special offers: Buy now, sign up now, enter now, 10% discount...
    136. 136. Advert extensions can be used to add more information to text PPC adverts.
    137. 137. Google offers five text ad extensions:
    138. 138. Location extensions Image credit: Google Adwords,
    139. 139. Sitelinks extensions Image credit: Google Adwords,
    140. 140. Phone extensions Image credit: Google Adwords,
    141. 141. Product extensions Image credit: Google Adwords,
    142. 142. Seller rating extensions Image credit:
    143. 143. Not all extensions are supported in all countries – look to see if you country is included in the AdWords help forum.
    144. 144. Facebook PPC adverts are based on the interests a user enters into their profiles and their demographics.
    145. 145. They can be used to drive traffic to assets on Facebook or to an external site. They contain images as well as text.
    146. 146. How do you target PPC adverts?
    147. 147. Keywords are central!
    148. 148. There are an estimated 200 million searches performed each day and nearly 50% of all searches are unique.
    149. 149. It would be impossible to find all the terms searchers use so there are different keyword match types.
    150. 150. Broad match: keyword Phrase match: “keyword” Exact match: [keyword] Negative match: -keyword Modified Broad match: +keyword
    151. 151. Broad match – i.e. Tennis shoes. Your advert will be found when any of or all words are searched for. Also includes some synonyms and misspellings.
    152. 152. Search includes: tennis shoes red tennis shoes tennis sneaker history of tennis shoes
    153. 153. Phrase match – i.e. “Tennis shoes” Your advert will appear when the phrase appears complete or in order.
    154. 154. Direct match extension – i.e. red +sneakers Your advert will appear for any search containing red and sneakers and variations of sneaker (the marked keyword).
    155. 155. Modified broad match – i.e. Tennis +shoes. Each word preceded by a + must appear in the user's search exactly or as a close variant. Close variants will include: misspellings, singular/plural forms, abbreviations and acronyms, and stemmings.
    156. 156. Modified broad match has the broad match reach, the exact match precision, and the phrase match flexibility.
    157. 157. Specify languages and locations your advert is targeted for. Include country, city and postal code
    158. 158. Use Facebook advertising to target based on: •Gender •Location •Relationship status •Age group •Likes and interests •Brand interactions
    159. 159. Bidding
    160. 160. Advertisers must decide the maximum they are willing to pay per click - max CPC bid.
    161. 161. But every time there is a search, there is an auction for the adverts for that search term – a Generalised Second Price Auction (GSP).
    162. 162. Each advertiser pays the bid of the advertiser below them, plus a standard increment.
    163. 163. Ranking is not as simple
    164. 164. The bid and other factors are taken into account = Quality Score (QS)
    165. 165. Quality Score is determined by: •The bid amount •Relevance of keywords to search term •Relevance of advert copy to the search term •Relevance of the landing page to the search term •Historic performance of the advert
    166. 166. Conversion rates and click-through rates
    167. 167. Those adverts nearer the top of the page (best ranked) attract the highest CTRs. They also have a higher cost per click.
    168. 168. More clicks aren’t necessarily better
    169. 169. Set up goals to track conversions
    170. 170. Goals can be: •Buying a product •Booking a plane ticket •Filling in a form •Sending an enquiry •Making a phone call
    171. 171. Click-through rate (CTR) is clicks / impressions (each time the advert is shown) %
    172. 172. Click-through rate tells you how well your copy is performing. Conversion rate tells you how well your campaign is performing.
    173. 173. You need to know the value of each conversion so that you don’t pay too much per click.
    174. 174. With this info you can adjust accordingly: •Change keyword match types •Change bids •Change ad copy •Change budget allocations •Improve website conversion rate
    175. 175. Use Adwords conversion tracking to report on campaigns
    176. 176. Google AdWords offers conversion tracking tags. But for other networks use third-party tracking.
    177. 177. Set budgets to: •Daily •Monthly •None
    178. 178. How do you choose a platform?
    179. 179. This is subjective and most large advertisers run PPC campaigns on a number of platforms. The key is testing!
    180. 180. Use the long tail of search to figure out low volume, niche searches – it can do wonders for a PPC campaign!
    181. 181. The sum of the unique searches is the same as the sum of non-unique searches.
    182. 182. So, low volume, niche search terms: •Are more targeted •Have less competition •Can have a lower CPC •And a higher conversion rate •May have a lower quality score so can take a while to get traffic
    183. 183. Landing pages are also vital
    184. 184. Aim to create landing pages that keep the user focused on the conversion goal – the home page gives them too many options to consider.
    185. 185. Create dynamic landing pages to simplify the process
    186. 186. How to plan a PPC campaign
    187. 187. 1. Do your homework – conduct an online and offline analysis of the business
    188. 188. Identify: •A clear brand •Identity •Unique selling point
    189. 189. 2. Define your goals
    190. 190. What do you want users to do once they click on your advert?
    191. 191. 3. Budget, CPA and targets
    192. 192. How much are you willing to spend? Determine your target CPA. Keep in mind, it can take months for a campaign to stabilise.
    193. 193. 4. Keyword research
    194. 194. What keywords are potential customers using? What words indicate undesirable clicks? •Free •Cheap Similar or related keywords.
    195. 195. 5. Write the adverts
    196. 196. •Write compelling copy •Make your headings and display URLs stand out •Use keywords in your copy
    197. 197. •Target the landing page to adverts •Adverts need to be worded differently for the different platforms – different types of user behaviour
    198. 198. 6. Place your bids
    199. 199. Tweak them as you test your campaign
    200. 200. 7. Track
    201. 201. Get your tracking tags in place
    202. 202. 8. Measure, analyse, test, optimise!
    203. 203. •Use conversion tracking •Test text vs image/video •Test different landing pages •Test different networks/platforms •Test different demographics •Test different bidding strategies
    204. 204. Social Media Channels
    205. 205. What is social media?
    206. 206. Media designed to be shared (written, visual, audio, audio visual, etc.)
    207. 207. Also called Web 2.0, consumer generated media (CGM) and new media.
    208. 208. Traditional vs. Social Media
    209. 209. Traditional media has adapted to keep up with audiences. e.g. •Newspapers are published in print and online •TV adverts are available online
    210. 210.
    211. 211. What are the social media channels?
    212. 212. •Bookmarking and aggregating •Content creating •Social networks •Location based social networks
    213. 213. Bookmarking and aggregating: Storing a website’s URL so that you can locate it again easily.
    214. 214. Use chiclets to make it easier to submit and share the articles.
    215. 215. Social bookmarking: Delicious (
    216. 216. Aggregating sites where users can vote on content: Digg ( Muti ( Reddit (
    217. 217. Select categories of your choice to ‘stumble’ through the web: Stumbleupon (
    218. 218. How can you use these as marketing tools?
    219. 219. See how your brand is perceived: •Tags •Mentions •Likes •Etc.
    220. 220. Create free content to share: •Articles •Video •Images
    221. 221. Share videos On YouTube over 65 000 videos are uploaded daily. Tap into existing online video audiences.
    222. 222. 2 ways to market through YouTube: •Promote content through YouTube •Advertise next to content on YouTube
    223. 223. e.g. Customise your own YouTube Brand Channel
    224. 224. ( If an advert is good enough, people will want to watch it
    225. 225. Place Google AdWords on YouTube videos
    226. 226. Share knowledge – the wiki
    227. 227. •Create and update documents •Review versions •Community-oriented tools
    228. 228. Available to all: Or for specific groups:
    229. 229. Create your own wiki.
    230. 230. What about Blogging?
    231. 231. •175 000 new blogs created daily •Over 1.6 million posts updated every day •That’s a lot
    232. 232. Include the basics: •Author •Blog post title •Tag •Comment •TrackBack
    233. 233. Make it easy for readers by including: •RSS feed to subscribe •Categories •Blogroll •Archives
    234. 234. RSS = Really Simple Syndication Instead of visiting various websites for updates, information is packaged and sent to your RSS reader. Image Credit: Creative Commons, Maja Bencic
    235. 235. Use Corporate blogging to communicate with staff, investors, customers etc.
    236. 236. Keep them •Relevant •Appealing •Transparent and honest •Personal and entertaining
    237. 237. And post regularly!
    238. 238. List your blog in directories. e.g. Google’s Directory ( and BlogCatalog (
    239. 239. Use blogging as a marketing tool by listening and engaging in the blogosphere – comment on relevant posts.
    240. 240. Set up a blog: •Wordpress ( •Tumblr ( •Posterous ( •Blogger (
    241. 241. Use microblogging to broadcast news, improve customer service and market a brand’s profile.
    242. 242. To do this use: •Instant Messaging (IM) •The web •Mobile text messaging •Facebook applications •Or Twitter (
    243. 243. Get content out without using media channels. Create a podcast
    244. 244. Have your own radio show – which can be listened to at any time.
    245. 245. Why? Because they’re: •Targetable •Measurable – you can see # of downloads •Controllable – it’s your content •Relatively inexpensive And they can be distributed via RSS.
    246. 246. But always make high quality, real content!
    247. 247. Build relationships through social networking
    248. 248. Social networks can be for general audiences: or for niche audiences:
    249. 249. You can build your own social network •Ning ( •Motribe (
    250. 250. Or use existing platforms like Facebook which offers different ways to connect with potential customers.
    251. 251. Use pages to create profiles for brands.
    252. 252. Introduce branded applications to create experiences. Include viral sharing to expose the application.
    253. 253. Use engagement ads and ASUs. Engagement ads are large and interactive. ASUs are small and simple.
    254. 254. Facebook also offers: •Promotions •Facebook connect •Like button •News feed
    255. 255. But how successful is your social media campaign? Track it to find out!
    256. 256. Use: •Facebook Insights •YouTube Insights •Twitter analytics
    257. 257. If you’re not a Twitter advertiser use: or
    258. 258. Use click tracking with URL shorteners. An easy way to share long links by providing a short URL that redirects to the original link. • • •
    259. 259. e.g. If we want to tweet a link to a blog post... The URL before: the-future-of-online-reputation- management-software/ That’s 89 characters!
    260. 260. The URL after using Only 19 characters, and can be tracked.
    261. 261. For further tracking use web analytics
    262. 262. In Facebook, tracking script can also be inserted in pages served through an iFrame.
    263. 263. iFrames allow you to draw information from other websites to display. For example, a YouTube video.
    264. 264. Finally, the Rules of Engagement
    265. 265. •Market to bloggers (they’re influential) •Go to where your consumers are •Use chiclets and easy to share URLs •Use targeted advertising
    266. 266. Use social media to engage with audiences in a channel they have selected and prefer.
    267. 267. Establish direct, personal contact on a level not available to traditional marketing campaigns.