MKT 380 Week 4


Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • {"16":"When people form community relationships these affiliations allow them to accumulate resources that they can “trade” for other things. This is “Social Capital.” Social capital tends to be a limited and protected resource.\n","5":"Chances are you’ve heard of the game The Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon. It’s based on the principle known as the six degrees of separation; an observation that everyone is connected to everyone else by no more than six ties. This statement comes from the mathematical model known as a small-world network, which illustrates that most nodes in a social graph are not directly linked to one another—instead they are indirectly connected via neighbors. The principle is highly relevant in social media marketing, where sources of influence can flow throughout the network easily and quickly. It is this connectivity that has given rise to viral marketing where a message such as a joke or bizarre YouTube clip quickly spreads among members of a network. Social networks also have the characteristic of being “scale free.” This means that the more connections someone has, the more likely they are to make new ones.\n","22":"Sociologists have recognized that technological innovations actually can help us to maintain and support a number of community relationships despite physical distances and other limitations. A Pew report showed that the more we see members of our network in person and talk on the phone, the more likely it is that we will also communicate with those people online. So, the more connected you are, the more connected you will become!\n","17":"This resource easily accrues online because of our accessibility to people who can help us with a variety of issues even though we may not know them personally. In contrast, our core ties, those people with whom we have very close relationships, may or may not be in a position to provide solutions to some problems we face (or we may not want them to know about these in some cases). Interestingly, through the course of giving and receiving bonding social capital, we may come to develop core ties, or at least significant ties (somewhat close connections, but less so than core ties), with others in the community.\n","12":"Researchers estimate that only 1 percent of a typical community’s users regularly participate and another 9 percent do so only intermittently. The remaining 90 percent just observe what’s on the site, so they don’t add a lot of value. \n","18":"In other words, influencers develop a network of people through their involvement in activities. They are active participants at work and in their communities. Their social networks are large and well developed.\n","13":"These memes (snippets) may include songs, phrases, ideas, slang words, fashion trends, or shared behaviors. For example, when the TV show The Apprentice caught fire a few years ago, its trademark term “You’re fired!” made the rounds very quickly.\n","19":"Influencers exist in all social communities. It is a natural pattern for some members to be more active and to acquire positions of authority within a community. The source of the influence itself, however, originates from the power bases an influencer may possess.\n","8":"Virtual communities do not develop and thrive without a foundation of commonality among the members. Just as your offline communities are based on family, religious beliefs, social activities, hobbies, goals, place of residence, and so on, your online communities also need commonalities to create bonds among the members. These groups come together to allow people to share their passions, whether these are for indie bands, white wines, or open-source apps. Communities are made up of people who share some reason to join together. As we said, this basis can be a location, a shared characteristic, a hobby, an occupation, or any number of other activities that people share.\n","3":"Though infrastructure, channels, devices, and social software make social media possible, people like you make it a living, breathing part of everyday life. Social media is first and foremost about community: the collective participation of members who together build and maintain a site.\nThough different approaches exist, we’ll refer to online communities as a group of people who come together for a specific purpose, who are guided by community policies, and who are supported by Internet access that enables virtual communication. Here is a brief sampling of online communities; there may be some out there just waiting for you!\n• MyLife\n• LiveJournal\n• Tagged\n•\n• LinkedIn\nIn some ways, online communities are not much different from those we find in our physical environment. The Merriam-Webster Dictionary (online version, of course) defines community as “a unified body of individuals, unified by interests, location, occupation, common history, or political and economic concerns.” In fact, one social scientist refers to an online community as a cyberplace where “people connect online with kindred spirits, engage in supportive and sociable relationships with them, and imbue their activity online with meaning, belonging, and identity.”\n","20":"We refer to connections in a SNS with many terms, including friend, fan, follower, colleague, and contact. The biggest predictor of whether someone will become active in a social network space, regardless of the site’s primary function, is the presence of a critical mass of friends. Of the four elements detailed on the slide of SNS participation, three are dependent upon the nodes in your network. If your contacts are not active in your experience, your own activity in the network will be stunted because you won’t have people with whom to interact, you won’t receive sufficient feedback, and your content will not be redistributed.\n","4":"All social communities are social networks. Networks underlie the premise of social media. This slide presents the basics of social network theory.\n"}
  • MKT 380 Week 4

    1. 1. MKT 380 Introduction to social Media Marketing Week 4
    2. 2. Chapter Objectives • • • What are the characteristics of online communities? How do ideas travel in a community? In what ways do opinion leaders develop in communities? How do these influentials influence others? What role does social capital play in the value of social media communities? What types of ties do we have to others in our communities? How has social media leveled the playing field and created a source of power for consumers? Visit for an example of a community organized around a social object 2-4 •
    3. 3. Online Communities 3-4 Online communities are groups of people who come together for a specific purpose, who are guided by community policies, and who are supported by Internet access that enables virtual communication.
    4. 4. Networks: The Underlying Structure of Communities 4-4  A social network is a set of socially relevant nodes connected by one or more relations.  Nodes are members of the network.  Members are connected by their relationships with each other.  Interactions are behavior-based ties such as talking with each other or attending an event together.  Flows are exchanges of resources, information, or influence among members of the network.  Object sociality is the extent to which an object can be shared in social media.  Vertical networks are sites designed around object sociality.
    5. 5. It’s a Small World After All Six degrees of separation is an observation that everyone is connected to everyone else by no more than six ties. • Based on the mathematical model of small-world network. Play six degrees of separation by clicking here
    6. 6. Characteristics of Online Communities The interactive platforms of Web 2.0 enable online communities to exhibit the following basic characteristics: • • • • 6-4 Conversations Presence Democracy Standards of Behavior • Levels of Participation
    7. 7. Characteristics of Online Communities 7-4 Conversations. Though social media provides an online space for digital conversations, these conversations are not based on talking or writing but on a hybrid of the two.
    8. 8. Characteristics of Online Communities 8-4 Presence refers to the effect that people experience when they interact with a computermediated or computer-generated environment.
    9. 9. Characteristics of Online Communities Democracy is a descriptive term that refers to rule by the people. • Media democratization means that the members of social communities control the creation, delivery, and popularity of content.
    10. 10. Characteristics of Online Communities Standards of Behavior. Virtual communities need norms, or rules that govern behavior, in order to operate. Some of these rules are spelled out explicitly but many of them are unspoken. 11-4 • Open access sites enable anyone to participate without registration or identification. • The social contract is the agreement that exists between the host or governing body and the members.
    11. 11. Characteristics of Online Communities 12-4 Level of Participation. For an online community to thrive, a significant proportion of its members must participate. Otherwise the site will fail to offer fresh material and ultimately traffic will slow.
    12. 12. How Ideas Travel in a Community Network structure and composition play a role in the community’s ability to support its members. There is evidence of community culture in the memes that evolve within the community 13-4 • A meme is a snippet of cultural information that spreads person to person until eventually it enters the general consciousness. •
    13. 13. Group Influence and Social Capital 14-4 Opinion leader – a person who is frequently able to influence others’ attitudes or behaviors.
    14. 14. Group Influence and Social Capital Opinion leaders are extremely valuable information sources because: • They are technically competent • They prescreen, evaluate, and synthesize product information in an unbiased way • They are socially active and highly interconnected • They are likely to hold positions of leadership • They tend to be similar to the consumer in terms of their values and beliefs • They tend to be slightly higher in terms of status and educational attainment than those they influence • They are often among the first to buy new products 15-4 •
    15. 15. Social Capital • • Social capital is accumulated resources whose value flows to people as a result of their access to others. Reputational capital is based on the shared beliefs, relationships, and actions of those in the community such that norms, behaviors, and values held and shared by individuals ultimately support a community reputation.
    16. 16. Strong and Weak Ties Emotional support is one form of social capital. 17-4 • Core ties – those people with whom we have very close relationships • Significant ties – those individuals with somewhat close connections, but less so than core ties • Weak ties – those individuals with whom your relationship is based on superficial experiences or very few connections
    17. 17. Strong and Weak Ties Power users are those others view as knowledgeable sources of information • Five characteristics help to describe them: Activists Connected Impact Active minds Trendsetters 18-4 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
    18. 18. Strong and Weak Ties The Bases of Social Power 19-4 • Reward power: ability to provide others with what they desire • Coercive power: the ability to punish others • Legitimate power: authority based on rights associated with a person’s appointed position • Referent power: authority through the motivation to identify with or please a person • Expert power: recognition of one’s knowledge, skills, and ability • Information power: one’s control over the flow of and access to information
    19. 19. Node-to-Node Relationships Your level of activity in a social network is based on: • The mix of people with whom you are connected • The artifacts (content) you create on the site • The feedback you receive from others • The distribution of the artifacts and feedback 20-4 •
    20. 20. Influence Word of mouse – online word of mouth and a very strong influence on consumer decision making • Ad equivalency value - what would the value of the unsolicited online mention be if it had come through a paid advertising placement? • Social proof – works by encouraging consumers to make decisions that mimic those of people in their social network 21-4 •
    21. 21. The Evolution of Online Communities “Modern society makes it more difficult to connect with others….” 22-4 Do you agree or disagree? Why?