SlideShare a Scribd company logo

The national government

M
M

CONGRESS

The national government

1 of 28
Download to read offline
THE NATIONAL 
GOVERNMENT 
Unit Two
CONGRESS 
Chapter 6
HOW CONGRESS IS ORGANIZED 
 Terms of Congress 
 Congress, “First Branch of Government” 
 Article One of Constitution provides Congress powers 
 Every year 535 members of Congress meet in Washington, 
D.C. 
 A term of Congress starts every other year on odd numbered 
years, lasts for two years total 
 Each term divided into two sessions, a typical session of 
Congress lasts from January until November 
 Special sessions may meet in times of crisis 
 joint session occurs when the House and Senate meet 
together, i.e. the State of the Union address
HOW CONGRESS IS ORGANIZED 
 A Bicameral Legislature 
 The House of Representatives 
 435 voting members based on population of states, 
 Every 10 years a census taken by the Census Bureau to 
adjust the representatives from each state 
 States divided into one or more congressional districts, one 
representative elected from each district 
 State legislatures design the districts to include the same 
number of constituents, or people represented 
 States sometimes abuse this by gerrymandering, designing a 
district to increase voting strength of a particular group 
 Representatives serve two year terms, focus mainly on 
concerns of individual district while senators focus largely on 
the state as a whole
ARKANSAS DISTRICTS, REPRESENTATION BY 
STATE
HOW CONGRESS IS ORGANIZED 
 The Senate 
100 members, 2 from 
each state 
Serve 6 year terms 
Elections are staggered 
throughout the country so 
that no more than 1/3 of 
the senators are up for 
election at any one time
Ad

Recommended

The Legislative Branch
The Legislative Branch The Legislative Branch
The Legislative Branch msross9
 
The Legislative Branch
The Legislative BranchThe Legislative Branch
The Legislative Branchitutor
 
Legislative Branch Notes
Legislative Branch NotesLegislative Branch Notes
Legislative Branch NotesTimothy Smith
 
The Legislative Branch New
The Legislative Branch NewThe Legislative Branch New
The Legislative Branch Newldelzeitmcintyre
 
Powerpoint presentation about_legislative_department
Powerpoint presentation about_legislative_departmentPowerpoint presentation about_legislative_department
Powerpoint presentation about_legislative_departmentROLITO BANGUILAN
 

More Related Content

What's hot

The Legislative Branch
The Legislative BranchThe Legislative Branch
The Legislative Branchmtaft
 
Legislative and Executive Branches
Legislative and Executive BranchesLegislative and Executive Branches
Legislative and Executive Brancheswtidwell
 
The Legislative Branch
The Legislative BranchThe Legislative Branch
The Legislative Branchsmkirsch
 
What is Legislature (PAD170)
What is Legislature (PAD170)What is Legislature (PAD170)
What is Legislature (PAD170)ezkandarezzaty
 
The three division of power in Nepal
The three division  of power in NepalThe three division  of power in Nepal
The three division of power in NepalAnurag Bhusal
 
Legislative Branch - Making the laws and more.
Legislative Branch - Making the laws and more.Legislative Branch - Making the laws and more.
Legislative Branch - Making the laws and more.smkirsch
 
parliament composition, powers and role Indian Constitution
parliament composition, powers and role Indian Constitutionparliament composition, powers and role Indian Constitution
parliament composition, powers and role Indian Constitutionsai chandu kandati
 
How A Bill Becomes A Law
How A Bill Becomes A LawHow A Bill Becomes A Law
How A Bill Becomes A Lawvmboda
 
Composition of the legislative department
Composition of the legislative departmentComposition of the legislative department
Composition of the legislative departmentWattpad
 
The Setup of the Legislative Branch
The Setup of the Legislative BranchThe Setup of the Legislative Branch
The Setup of the Legislative Branchhcpsgov
 
Legislative Branch PowerPoint
Legislative Branch PowerPointLegislative Branch PowerPoint
Legislative Branch PowerPointkacijrobinson
 
The Three Branches of Government (Unit 3 Project)
The Three Branches of Government (Unit 3 Project)The Three Branches of Government (Unit 3 Project)
The Three Branches of Government (Unit 3 Project)glennrmoses
 

What's hot (20)

The Legislative Branch
The Legislative BranchThe Legislative Branch
The Legislative Branch
 
Legislative and Executive Branches
Legislative and Executive BranchesLegislative and Executive Branches
Legislative and Executive Branches
 
The Legislative Branch
The Legislative BranchThe Legislative Branch
The Legislative Branch
 
Legislatures complete
Legislatures completeLegislatures complete
Legislatures complete
 
What is Legislature (PAD170)
What is Legislature (PAD170)What is Legislature (PAD170)
What is Legislature (PAD170)
 
The three division of power in Nepal
The three division  of power in NepalThe three division  of power in Nepal
The three division of power in Nepal
 
Legislative Branch - Making the laws and more.
Legislative Branch - Making the laws and more.Legislative Branch - Making the laws and more.
Legislative Branch - Making the laws and more.
 
US Government
US GovernmentUS Government
US Government
 
parliament composition, powers and role Indian Constitution
parliament composition, powers and role Indian Constitutionparliament composition, powers and role Indian Constitution
parliament composition, powers and role Indian Constitution
 
Legislative process
Legislative processLegislative process
Legislative process
 
Legislative procedures
Legislative proceduresLegislative procedures
Legislative procedures
 
The Legislative Branch
The Legislative BranchThe Legislative Branch
The Legislative Branch
 
Legislative branch
Legislative branchLegislative branch
Legislative branch
 
Legislature ppp
Legislature pppLegislature ppp
Legislature ppp
 
How A Bill Becomes A Law
How A Bill Becomes A LawHow A Bill Becomes A Law
How A Bill Becomes A Law
 
Composition of the legislative department
Composition of the legislative departmentComposition of the legislative department
Composition of the legislative department
 
The Setup of the Legislative Branch
The Setup of the Legislative BranchThe Setup of the Legislative Branch
The Setup of the Legislative Branch
 
Legislative Branch PowerPoint
Legislative Branch PowerPointLegislative Branch PowerPoint
Legislative Branch PowerPoint
 
State Legislature
State LegislatureState Legislature
State Legislature
 
The Three Branches of Government (Unit 3 Project)
The Three Branches of Government (Unit 3 Project)The Three Branches of Government (Unit 3 Project)
The Three Branches of Government (Unit 3 Project)
 

Similar to The national government

Similar to The national government (20)

Constitution of USA.docx
Constitution of USA.docxConstitution of USA.docx
Constitution of USA.docx
 
The Philippine Legislature
The Philippine LegislatureThe Philippine Legislature
The Philippine Legislature
 
Gov Topic 4.3-4.4
Gov Topic 4.3-4.4Gov Topic 4.3-4.4
Gov Topic 4.3-4.4
 
Congress
CongressCongress
Congress
 
Goal 2 civics
Goal 2 civicsGoal 2 civics
Goal 2 civics
 
Civics Goal 2
Civics Goal 2Civics Goal 2
Civics Goal 2
 
Citizenship In The Nation
Citizenship In The NationCitizenship In The Nation
Citizenship In The Nation
 
e-Politick
e-Politicke-Politick
e-Politick
 
Citizenship in the Nation BSA Merit Badges Slide Show
Citizenship in the Nation BSA Merit Badges Slide ShowCitizenship in the Nation BSA Merit Badges Slide Show
Citizenship in the Nation BSA Merit Badges Slide Show
 
3branches
3branches3branches
3branches
 
Congress
CongressCongress
Congress
 
Congress
CongressCongress
Congress
 
The legislative branch
The legislative branchThe legislative branch
The legislative branch
 
Constitution interactive blueprint
Constitution interactive blueprintConstitution interactive blueprint
Constitution interactive blueprint
 
Chapter 12 presentation
Chapter 12 presentationChapter 12 presentation
Chapter 12 presentation
 
Citizenship In The Nation
Citizenship In The NationCitizenship In The Nation
Citizenship In The Nation
 
Ch. 12 Congress In Action
Ch. 12 Congress In ActionCh. 12 Congress In Action
Ch. 12 Congress In Action
 
The legislative department
The legislative departmentThe legislative department
The legislative department
 
Chapter 9 US History
Chapter 9 US HistoryChapter 9 US History
Chapter 9 US History
 
Lesson 22
Lesson 22Lesson 22
Lesson 22
 

More from mgdean

Africa
AfricaAfrica
Africamgdean
 
North africa and southwest asia
North africa and southwest asiaNorth africa and southwest asia
North africa and southwest asiamgdean
 
Europe
EuropeEurope
Europemgdean
 
American revolution
American revolutionAmerican revolution
American revolutionmgdean
 
Physical geography
Physical geographyPhysical geography
Physical geographymgdean
 
Physical geography
Physical geographyPhysical geography
Physical geographymgdean
 
Period one new (2)
Period one new (2)Period one new (2)
Period one new (2)mgdean
 
15u8jcpkrcg8vxedaodm signature-1fd90d8ab33a81db052452b59d7728e50410943a55b4d2...
15u8jcpkrcg8vxedaodm signature-1fd90d8ab33a81db052452b59d7728e50410943a55b4d2...15u8jcpkrcg8vxedaodm signature-1fd90d8ab33a81db052452b59d7728e50410943a55b4d2...
15u8jcpkrcg8vxedaodm signature-1fd90d8ab33a81db052452b59d7728e50410943a55b4d2...mgdean
 
World war i
World war iWorld war i
World war imgdean
 
Imperialism and industrialization in japan and china
Imperialism and industrialization in japan and chinaImperialism and industrialization in japan and china
Imperialism and industrialization in japan and chinamgdean
 
The age of_imperialism (1)
The age of_imperialism (1)The age of_imperialism (1)
The age of_imperialism (1)mgdean
 
Industrialization
IndustrializationIndustrialization
Industrializationmgdean
 
Period 7
Period 7Period 7
Period 7mgdean
 
Industrialization
IndustrializationIndustrialization
Industrializationmgdean
 
Period 6 text
Period 6 textPeriod 6 text
Period 6 textmgdean
 
Period 6 text
Period 6 textPeriod 6 text
Period 6 textmgdean
 
Period 6 text
Period 6 textPeriod 6 text
Period 6 textmgdean
 
The french revolution and napoleon
The french revolution and napoleonThe french revolution and napoleon
The french revolution and napoleonmgdean
 
Enlightenment and scientific revolution short
Enlightenment and  scientific revolution shortEnlightenment and  scientific revolution short
Enlightenment and scientific revolution shortmgdean
 
Period 5 textbook
Period 5 textbookPeriod 5 textbook
Period 5 textbookmgdean
 

More from mgdean (20)

Africa
AfricaAfrica
Africa
 
North africa and southwest asia
North africa and southwest asiaNorth africa and southwest asia
North africa and southwest asia
 
Europe
EuropeEurope
Europe
 
American revolution
American revolutionAmerican revolution
American revolution
 
Physical geography
Physical geographyPhysical geography
Physical geography
 
Physical geography
Physical geographyPhysical geography
Physical geography
 
Period one new (2)
Period one new (2)Period one new (2)
Period one new (2)
 
15u8jcpkrcg8vxedaodm signature-1fd90d8ab33a81db052452b59d7728e50410943a55b4d2...
15u8jcpkrcg8vxedaodm signature-1fd90d8ab33a81db052452b59d7728e50410943a55b4d2...15u8jcpkrcg8vxedaodm signature-1fd90d8ab33a81db052452b59d7728e50410943a55b4d2...
15u8jcpkrcg8vxedaodm signature-1fd90d8ab33a81db052452b59d7728e50410943a55b4d2...
 
World war i
World war iWorld war i
World war i
 
Imperialism and industrialization in japan and china
Imperialism and industrialization in japan and chinaImperialism and industrialization in japan and china
Imperialism and industrialization in japan and china
 
The age of_imperialism (1)
The age of_imperialism (1)The age of_imperialism (1)
The age of_imperialism (1)
 
Industrialization
IndustrializationIndustrialization
Industrialization
 
Period 7
Period 7Period 7
Period 7
 
Industrialization
IndustrializationIndustrialization
Industrialization
 
Period 6 text
Period 6 textPeriod 6 text
Period 6 text
 
Period 6 text
Period 6 textPeriod 6 text
Period 6 text
 
Period 6 text
Period 6 textPeriod 6 text
Period 6 text
 
The french revolution and napoleon
The french revolution and napoleonThe french revolution and napoleon
The french revolution and napoleon
 
Enlightenment and scientific revolution short
Enlightenment and  scientific revolution shortEnlightenment and  scientific revolution short
Enlightenment and scientific revolution short
 
Period 5 textbook
Period 5 textbookPeriod 5 textbook
Period 5 textbook
 

Recently uploaded

Practical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptx
Practical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptxPractical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptx
Practical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptxKatherine Villaluna
 
Bayesian Analysis Fundamentals with Examples
Bayesian Analysis Fundamentals with ExamplesBayesian Analysis Fundamentals with Examples
Bayesian Analysis Fundamentals with ExamplesTushar Tank
 
Practical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptx
Practical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptxPractical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptx
Practical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptxKatherine Villaluna
 
ACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 - SOPA DE LETRAS
ACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 - SOPA DE LETRASACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 - SOPA DE LETRAS
ACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 - SOPA DE LETRASMaria Lucia Céspedes
 
2.20.24 Asian Americans and the Myth of the Model Minority.pptx
2.20.24 Asian Americans and the Myth of the Model Minority.pptx2.20.24 Asian Americans and the Myth of the Model Minority.pptx
2.20.24 Asian Americans and the Myth of the Model Minority.pptxMaryPotorti1
 
Exit Essay - Save the Filipino Language by Renz Perez.docx
Exit Essay - Save the Filipino Language by Renz Perez.docxExit Essay - Save the Filipino Language by Renz Perez.docx
Exit Essay - Save the Filipino Language by Renz Perez.docxMYDA ANGELICA SUAN
 
Media Relations for Public Relations Class
Media Relations for Public Relations ClassMedia Relations for Public Relations Class
Media Relations for Public Relations ClassCorinne Weisgerber
 
Chromatography-Gas chromatography-Principle
Chromatography-Gas chromatography-PrincipleChromatography-Gas chromatography-Principle
Chromatography-Gas chromatography-Principleblessipriyanka
 
Shapley Tech Talk - SHAP and Shapley Discussion
Shapley Tech Talk - SHAP and Shapley DiscussionShapley Tech Talk - SHAP and Shapley Discussion
Shapley Tech Talk - SHAP and Shapley DiscussionTushar Tank
 
Writing Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdf
Writing Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdfWriting Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdf
Writing Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdfMr Bounab Samir
 
BTKi in Treatment Of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
BTKi in Treatment Of Chronic Lymphocytic LeukemiaBTKi in Treatment Of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
BTKi in Treatment Of Chronic Lymphocytic LeukemiaFaheema Hasan
 
CapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptxCapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptxCapitolTechU
 
LIGHT,MIRROR,REFLECTION& REFRACTION. (Optometric optics)
LIGHT,MIRROR,REFLECTION& REFRACTION. (Optometric optics)LIGHT,MIRROR,REFLECTION& REFRACTION. (Optometric optics)
LIGHT,MIRROR,REFLECTION& REFRACTION. (Optometric optics)satyanshp7890
 
EDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdf
EDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdfEDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdf
EDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdfElizabeth Walsh
 
50 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TIẾNG ANH 2024 CÓ GIẢI CHI TIẾT - GIỚI HẠN KHO...
50 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TIẾNG ANH 2024 CÓ GIẢI CHI TIẾT - GIỚI HẠN KHO...50 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TIẾNG ANH 2024 CÓ GIẢI CHI TIẾT - GIỚI HẠN KHO...
50 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TIẾNG ANH 2024 CÓ GIẢI CHI TIẾT - GIỚI HẠN KHO...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx
2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx
2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptxMaryPotorti1
 
D.pharmacy Pharmacology 4th unit notes.pdf
D.pharmacy Pharmacology 4th unit notes.pdfD.pharmacy Pharmacology 4th unit notes.pdf
D.pharmacy Pharmacology 4th unit notes.pdfSUMIT TIWARI
 
UniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tour
UniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tourUniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tour
UniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tourUSC_Library
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Practical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptx
Practical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptxPractical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptx
Practical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptx
 
Bayesian Analysis Fundamentals with Examples
Bayesian Analysis Fundamentals with ExamplesBayesian Analysis Fundamentals with Examples
Bayesian Analysis Fundamentals with Examples
 
Practical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptx
Practical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptxPractical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptx
Practical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptx
 
ACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 - SOPA DE LETRAS
ACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 - SOPA DE LETRASACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 - SOPA DE LETRAS
ACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 - SOPA DE LETRAS
 
2.20.24 Asian Americans and the Myth of the Model Minority.pptx
2.20.24 Asian Americans and the Myth of the Model Minority.pptx2.20.24 Asian Americans and the Myth of the Model Minority.pptx
2.20.24 Asian Americans and the Myth of the Model Minority.pptx
 
Exit Essay - Save the Filipino Language by Renz Perez.docx
Exit Essay - Save the Filipino Language by Renz Perez.docxExit Essay - Save the Filipino Language by Renz Perez.docx
Exit Essay - Save the Filipino Language by Renz Perez.docx
 
Media Relations for Public Relations Class
Media Relations for Public Relations ClassMedia Relations for Public Relations Class
Media Relations for Public Relations Class
 
Chromatography-Gas chromatography-Principle
Chromatography-Gas chromatography-PrincipleChromatography-Gas chromatography-Principle
Chromatography-Gas chromatography-Principle
 
Shapley Tech Talk - SHAP and Shapley Discussion
Shapley Tech Talk - SHAP and Shapley DiscussionShapley Tech Talk - SHAP and Shapley Discussion
Shapley Tech Talk - SHAP and Shapley Discussion
 
Writing Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdf
Writing Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdfWriting Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdf
Writing Agony Letter & If type O+1 & Diphthongs + Text “Arab Science”.pdf
 
Caldecott Medal Book Winners and Media Used
Caldecott Medal Book Winners and Media UsedCaldecott Medal Book Winners and Media Used
Caldecott Medal Book Winners and Media Used
 
BTKi in Treatment Of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
BTKi in Treatment Of Chronic Lymphocytic LeukemiaBTKi in Treatment Of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
BTKi in Treatment Of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
 
CapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptxCapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptx
 
LIGHT,MIRROR,REFLECTION& REFRACTION. (Optometric optics)
LIGHT,MIRROR,REFLECTION& REFRACTION. (Optometric optics)LIGHT,MIRROR,REFLECTION& REFRACTION. (Optometric optics)
LIGHT,MIRROR,REFLECTION& REFRACTION. (Optometric optics)
 
first section physiology laboratory.pptx
first section physiology laboratory.pptxfirst section physiology laboratory.pptx
first section physiology laboratory.pptx
 
EDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdf
EDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdfEDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdf
EDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdf
 
50 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TIẾNG ANH 2024 CÓ GIẢI CHI TIẾT - GIỚI HẠN KHO...
50 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TIẾNG ANH 2024 CÓ GIẢI CHI TIẾT - GIỚI HẠN KHO...50 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TIẾNG ANH 2024 CÓ GIẢI CHI TIẾT - GIỚI HẠN KHO...
50 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TIẾNG ANH 2024 CÓ GIẢI CHI TIẾT - GIỚI HẠN KHO...
 
2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx
2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx
2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx
 
D.pharmacy Pharmacology 4th unit notes.pdf
D.pharmacy Pharmacology 4th unit notes.pdfD.pharmacy Pharmacology 4th unit notes.pdf
D.pharmacy Pharmacology 4th unit notes.pdf
 
UniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tour
UniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tourUniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tour
UniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tour
 

The national government

  • 3. HOW CONGRESS IS ORGANIZED  Terms of Congress  Congress, “First Branch of Government”  Article One of Constitution provides Congress powers  Every year 535 members of Congress meet in Washington, D.C.  A term of Congress starts every other year on odd numbered years, lasts for two years total  Each term divided into two sessions, a typical session of Congress lasts from January until November  Special sessions may meet in times of crisis  joint session occurs when the House and Senate meet together, i.e. the State of the Union address
  • 4. HOW CONGRESS IS ORGANIZED  A Bicameral Legislature  The House of Representatives  435 voting members based on population of states,  Every 10 years a census taken by the Census Bureau to adjust the representatives from each state  States divided into one or more congressional districts, one representative elected from each district  State legislatures design the districts to include the same number of constituents, or people represented  States sometimes abuse this by gerrymandering, designing a district to increase voting strength of a particular group  Representatives serve two year terms, focus mainly on concerns of individual district while senators focus largely on the state as a whole
  • 6. HOW CONGRESS IS ORGANIZED  The Senate 100 members, 2 from each state Serve 6 year terms Elections are staggered throughout the country so that no more than 1/3 of the senators are up for election at any one time
  • 7. HOW CONGRESS IS ORGANIZED  Congressional Leaders  Majority party- political party of more than half the members of the House and Senate  Speaker of the House most powerful leader IN the House of Representatives, in charge of guiding legislation, moderating floor debates, third in line for the presidency  Senate’s leader vice president, rarely attends sessions unless to vote in case of a tie  The chairperson of the Senate is president pro tem, position is more ceremonial rather than influential  Floor leaders have most power; make sure that Congress passes laws that are in the best interest of their own political parties, try to sway votes  Party whips keep track of where party members stand on the issues
  • 8. HOW CONGRESS IS ORGANIZED  Types of Committees Standing Committees continue their work from session to session The Senate-16, House-19 Select committees created to do a specific task for a limited time Joint committees include members from House and the Senate Conference committees helps the House and Senate agree on the details of a proposed law To get on a committee, the congressman must have seniority Longest serving members serve as chairs, most powerful members of Congress  Criticism talented people can be overlooked
  • 9. The Powers of Congress  Expressed Powers- written powers of Congress -first 17 clauses of Article I, Section 8  Section 8, Clause 18 gives Congress the authority to do whatever is “necessary and proper” to carry out the expressed powers, the powers of clause 18 are called implied powers  Clause 18 is called the elastic clause because it allows Congress to stretch its powers to meet new needs  Primary jobs of Congress: create laws, spend and budget money
  • 10. The Powers of Congress Taxing and Spending  To pay for the gov’t and the services it provides, Congress collects taxes  All tax bills must start in the House of Representatives, Senate must approve and the president must sign off on it  Two step process 1. Authorization bills create projects, establish how much money can be spent on them 2. Appropriation bills provide the money for each program or activity o Government agencies can’t spend money without congressional approval
  • 11. The Powers of Congress Regulating Commerce  Article I, Section 8, Clause 3, gives Congress the power to regulate trade among the states as well as make laws dealing with air traffic, radio, railroads, T.V., etc.  It also gives them the power to regulate foreign trade Foreign Relations and Treaties  Congress can declare war and has the power to create, maintain, and oversee an army and navy  The Senate must approve any treaties made with other countries
  • 12. The Powers of Congress Nonlegislative Powers  Power of Approval and Removal A. Propose constitutional amendments B. Counts electoral votes and checks other branches of government C. Senate approve/ reject presidential nominations (Supreme Court, Cabinet) D. Congress can remove any federal official who has committed serious wrongdoing E. House has authority to impeach: accuse officials of misconduct in office,  If a majority of the House votes to impeach an official then Senate acts as jury and decides by a 2/3 vote whether to convict and remove the person from office  Only two presidents have been impeached, Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton, both were tried and acquitted by the Senate  Oversight and Investigation  Congress can conduct investigations and monitor the effectiveness of programs, i.e. agricultural programs, investigations on scandals, etc
  • 13. The Powers of Congress Limits on Power 1. Congress may not pass laws that violate the Bill of Rights 2. Congress may not suspend the writ of habeas corpus, requires police to bring person in front of judge and explain why they are being charged 3. Prohibited from passing bills of attainder, laws that strip a person of civil rights or property 4. Congress may not pass ex post facto laws (laws that make an act a crime after the act has been committed) 5. Cannot interfere with powers reserved for states  Supreme Court has the power to check Congress by declaring laws established by Congress unconstitutional  President can veto bills passed by Congress, they can override it with 2/3 vote
  • 14. Representing the People Requirements and Benefits of Congress  Senator  30 yrs old, 9 yrs citizenship, & live in state  Representative  25 yrs old, 7 yrs citizenship, live in state  Not required, but traditionally live in their district  About ½ lawyers  Almost all have college degrees, active in community, past political experience
  • 15. Representing the People Members of Congress receive an annual salary of $ 174,000 Receive free office space, parking, and trips home Franking privileges- sending job related mail w/out paying postage Congress also grants its members immunity, or legal protection, in certain situations
  • 16. Representing the People Personal Staff  Run DC & home offices  Gather info, arrange mtgs, write speeches, handle voter requests, deal with reporters & lobbyists, work for reelection  Interns – research & office duties  Pages – errands Committee Staff  For all committees & subcommittees  Most have expert knowledge  View job as working for committee  Draft bills, gather info, organize hearings, negotiate w/lobbyists  Basically, they keep the process moving.
  • 17. Representing the People Support Services  Congress has several agencies to support its work  Library of Congress as a source of info, the Congressional Research Service (CRS) looks up arguments for and against proposed bills  The General Accounting Office (GAO) reviews spending activities of federal agencies, studies federal programs, recommends ways to improve financial performance  Congressional Budget Office (CBO) provides Congress with info for making budget decisions; it estimates costs and economic effects of programs
  • 18. Representing the People  Lawmaking  Making Laws  Casework  Working on the problems of their constituents; requests are usually about 10,000 per year  Anything from legal trouble to financial problems usually handled by the staff  Helping the District or State  Members work to give constituents a share of the trillion of dollars spent by the gov’t each year  Public projects, etc. that could bring money for the congress member’s state or district  Gov’t projects and grants that primarily benefit the home district or state are known as pork-barrel projects
  • 19. HOW A BILL BECOMES A LAW Types of Bills  10,000 Bills introduced during Congress, only a few hundred pass become laws 2 categories of bills:  Private- concern individual people or places  Public- bills apply to the entire nation like taxation, civil rights, or terrorism  Congress also considers resolutions (formal statements expressing lawmakers’ opinions), joint resolutions- passed by both houses of Congress, can become law
  • 20. HOW A BILL BECOMES A LAW From Bill to Law Introduction of Bills o Bills often recommended by lobbyists, special interest groups, and constituents o Bills can only be introduced by Senators or Representatives, the bill is then given a title and a number (S- Senate, HR-House of Reps.) o The bill is then sent to the standing committee that is qualified to handle it
  • 21. HOW A BILL BECOMES A LAW  Committee Action  Committee chairperson decides which bills are given consideration, which ones are ignored  If chosen committee can do the following: 1) Pass bill without changes 2) Edit bill with changes, suggest that it be passed 3) Replace original bill with a new alternative 4) Ignore the bill and let it die, called “pigeonholing” 5) Kill the bill by majority vote  When a committee is against a bill, its chances of survival are slim
  • 23. HOW A BILL BECOMES A LAW Floor Debate  Bills approved in committee go back to House or Senate for consideration, put on a calendar for debate  House has a Rules Committee controls when bill is heard; priority to certain bills ,kill a bill by not letting it on the floor  When it gets to the floor, Congressmen argue pros and cons of bill and may add amendments  Unrelated amendments called riders  The House has limit on the length of the debate, Senate does not, Senators can discuss bill until it is dead, called filibuster, can be ended by cloture, which rarely happens
  • 24. HOW A BILL BECOMES A LAW Voting on a Bill  After debate, the House and Senate vote  Voice Vote: members say yea or no  Standing vote: those in favor stand  Roll call vote: In senate, voice votes in turn  If the bill passes either the house or senate it then goes to the other branch to be voted on  Has to be passed in identical form by both houses, if not it goes to conference committee
  • 26. HOW A BILL BECOMES A LAW Presidential Action  If bill passes both House and Senate, goes to the President for approval  He can either: a. sign the bill to make it a law, b. veto the bill c. pocket veto (waits 10 days ,hopes Congress will adjourn so they cannot override his veto)
  • 27. OR……  Congress can override veto by 2/3 vote of each house