Problem Solving


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Problem Solving

  1. 2. Problem Solving <ul><li>The key skill of problem solving involves pupils developing the skills and strategies that will help them to solve the problems they face in learning and in life. Problem solving includes the skills of identifying and understanding a problem, planning ways to solve a problem, monitoring progress in tackling a problem and reviewing solutions to problems. All subjects provide pupils with opportunities to respond to the challenge of problems and to plan, test, modify and review the progress needed to achieve particular outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>DfES/QCA 1999 </li></ul>
  2. 4. Two men went into a restaurant. They both ordered the same dish from the menu. After they tasted it, one of the men went outside the restaurant and shot himself. Why?
  3. 6. <ul><li>Logical problems </li></ul><ul><li>Algorithm </li></ul><ul><li>Story problem </li></ul><ul><li>Rule-using problem </li></ul><ul><li>Decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Trouble-shooting </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis-solution </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic performance </li></ul><ul><li>Case analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Designs </li></ul><ul><li>Dilemmas </li></ul>
  4. 7. Case based instruction <ul><li>“ Teaching begins not with a theoretical exegesis of domain concepts but with a real problem… rather than learning (and forgetting) all about a field before being allowed to solve a meaningful problem, case-based instruction is based on the belief that what you learn while trying to solve a complex problem you will better comprehend and retain much longer… The most important rationale for case-based instruction is that it at least simulates the kind of activity that students are preparing for.” </li></ul><ul><li>Jonassen 2004, pp 52-53 </li></ul>
  5. 8. Problem based learning <ul><li>In professional vocational training </li></ul><ul><li>In teacher training </li></ul><ul><li>In the classroom </li></ul>
  6. 10. Troubleshooting <ul><li>Troubleshooting is among the most commonly experienced kinds of problem solving in the professional world… the problems that are most completely and accurately recalled are those that are most difficult to solve, because the problems solver was more conceptually engaged in the process. </li></ul><ul><li>Jonassen 2004, p13 </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the fault </li></ul><ul><li>Construct a mental model </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnose the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Implement the solution </li></ul><ul><li>Record the results </li></ul>
  7. 12. Pragmatic programming tips <ul><li>Stay aware of what you're doing. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't code blindfolded. </li></ul><ul><li>Proceed from a plan. </li></ul><ul><li>Rely only on reliable things. </li></ul><ul><li>Document your assumptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Test assumptions as well as code. </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritize your effort. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't be a slave to history. </li></ul><ul><li>Is there an easier way? </li></ul><ul><li>Am I solving the right problem? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is this a problem? </li></ul><ul><li>What makes it hard? </li></ul><ul><li>Do I have to do it this way? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it have to be done at all? </li></ul>
  8. 13. Advice on programming in Scratch (from a 12 year old) <ul><li>Start simple </li></ul><ul><li>Work on things that you like </li></ul><ul><li>If you have no clue what to do, fiddle around </li></ul><ul><li>Don't be afraid to experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Find a friend to work with, share ideas! </li></ul><ul><li>It’s OK to copy stuff (to give you an idea) </li></ul><ul><li>Keep your ideas in a sketch book </li></ul><ul><li>Build, take apart, rebuild </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of things can go wrong, stick with it </li></ul>
  9. 15. <ul><li>L Mode </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal </li></ul><ul><li>Analytic </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal </li></ul><ul><li>Rational </li></ul><ul><li>Digital </li></ul><ul><li>Logical </li></ul><ul><li>Linear </li></ul><ul><li>R Mode </li></ul>Holistic Intuitive Spatial Non-rational Analogic Concrete Synthetic Non-verbal
  10. 19. Williamson 2009