Ocean Study Text Set


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Ocean Study Text Set

  1. 1. Designed for: 2nd GradeDeveloped by: Melissa-Marie Garcia
  2. 2. Ocean Study Letter to the Teacher The ocean is something I have always found fascinating. Much like outer space, littleis known about the vast deep blue. It seems that every day scientists and marine biologists arefinding new species of ocean creatures! New information about this watery environment isalways being discovered, and many preconceived notions have been found to be wrong. Not only is the ocean full of secrets, it can also be full of harmful garbage. The ocean,like the land, can also become polluted: making it dangerous for the animals that live there andeven dangerous to humans if we eat animals that are affected with this pollution. Ocean pollutionis a very big threat to the sea environment. Other dangers can also be over fishing andcommercial fishing. All of these can set the delicate balance of ocean life into a fast decline. What else lies in the dark, cold depths of the ocean? What have we yet to discover?What do we already know about the ocean? How can we keep the ocean clean and healthy?These are only some of the questions I hope this Ocean Study text set can answer, or at leastpoint you and your class in the right direction! A Friend of the Ocean, Melissa-Marie Garcia 2
  3. 3. Ocean Study Annotated Bibliography1. Arnold, L. & Sanders, J. (2000). I’m a sea star. Monterey bay aquarium. Retrieved from http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/lc/teachers_place/activity_popup_imaseastar.asp? bhcp=12. Beatty, R., Bright, D., Green, J., Kinchen, J., MacDonald, R., Rohr, S., et al. (2001). Aquatic life of the world: Vol. 1-11. New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation.3. Carle, E. (1987). A house for hermit crab. New York: Scholastic Inc.4. Cole, J., & Degen, B. (1994). The magic school bus on the ocean floor. New York: Scholastic Press.5. (2010) Earth: Whats an ocean garbage patch? Discovery. Retrieved from http://news.discovery.com/videos/earth-whats-an-ocean-garbage-patch.html6. (2010). Giant squid: Architeuthis dux. National geographic. Retrieved from http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/invertebrates/giant-squid/7. Handwerk, B. (2010). Whale sharks killed, displaced by gulf oil? National Geographic. Retrieved from http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/09/100924-whale-sharks- gulf-oil-spill-science-environment/8. (2010). Help save the sharks. Discovery. Retrieved from http://dsc.discovery.com/sharks/help-save-the-sharks.html9. Kelley, C. & Sanders, G. (1941). I’m a little teapot. BusSongs: Lyrics and words for children’s nursery rhymes and songs. Retrieved from http://bussongs.com/songs/im_a_little_teapot.php10. Lionni, L. (1963). Swimmy. New York: Pantheon Books.11. McGowan, M. (2003). Ocean songs & poetry: I’m a little fish. Retrieved from http://www.kllynch2000.com/oceansongs.html12. McGowan, M. (2003). Ocean songs & poetry: Five little fishes. Retrieved from http://www.kllynch2000.com/oceansongs.html13. Mulvaney, K. (2010) Of Plastic and Whales and Other Marine Life. Discovery. Retrieved from http://news.discovery.com/earth/of-plastics-and-whales-and-other-marine-life.html 3
  4. 4. 14. Muzik, K., & Brown-Wing, K. (1992). At home in the coral reef. Watertown, MA: Charlesbridge Publishing.15. (2009, March 16). National Geographic: Exploring Oceans Overview [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3GRA7ilM70816. (1999). Ocean word search. Kansas city public library. Retrieved from http://www.kckpl.lib.ks.us/ys/PUZZLES/Oceanws.htm17. Pallotta, J. & Mazzola, F. (1986). The ocean alphabet book. Watertown, MA: Charlesbridge Publishing.18. (2010). Pop Up Books. Oracle think quest: Education foundation. Retrieved from http://library.thinkquest.org/J001156/makingbooks/em_popup.htm19. Prevost, J. (1996). Great white sharks. Edina, MN: Abdo & Daughters Publishing.20. Prevost, J. (1996). Hammerhead Sharks. Edina, MN: Abdo & Daughters Publishing.21. (2010). Sea web: Ocean news. Sea web. Retrieved from http://www.seaweb.org/news/news.php22. Tompkins, G. (2009). 50 literacy strategies: Step-by-step 3rd edition. Boston, MA: Prentice Hall. 4
  5. 5. Ocean Study Summary of TEKS Scienceo (1) Scientific investigation and reasoning.  (C) identify and demonstrate how to use, conserve, and dispose of natural resources and materials such as conserving water and reuse or recycling of paper, plastic, and metal.o (2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student develops abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry in classroom and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:  (A) ask questions about organisms, objects, and events during observations and investigations;  (C) collect data from observations using simple equipment such as hand lenses, primary balances, thermometers, and non-standard measurement tools;  (D) record and organize data using pictures, numbers, and words;  (E) communicate observations and justify explanations using student-generated data from simple descriptive investigations; ando (3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows that information and critical thinking, scientific problem solving, and the contributions of scientists are used in making decisions. The student is expected to:  (A) identify and explain a problem in his/her own words and propose a task and solution for the problem such as lack of water in a habitat;  (B) make predictions based on observable patterns; and  (C) identify what a scientist is and explore what different scientists do.o (7) Earth and space. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials. The student is expected to:  (B) identify and compare the properties of natural sources of freshwater and saltwater; and  (C) distinguish between natural and manmade resources.o (9) Organisms and environments. The student knows that living organisms have basic needs that must be met for them to survive within their environment. The student is expected to:  (A) identify the basic needs of plants and animals;  (B) identify factors in the environment, including temperature and precipitation, that affect growth and behavior such as migration, hibernation, and dormancy of living things;o (10) Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms resemble their parents and have structures and processes that help them survive within their environments. 5
  6. 6.  (A) observe, record, and compare how the physical characteristics and behaviors of animals help them meet their basic needs such as fins help fish move and balance in the water; Language Arts/Readingo (1)Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Print Awareness.o (2) Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonics.  (E) identify and read abbreviations (e.g., Mr., Ave.);  (G) identify and read at least 300 high-frequency words from a commonly used list; and  (H) monitor accuracy of decoding.o (3) Reading/Beginning Reading/Strategies.  (A) use ideas (e.g., illustrations, titles, topic sentences, key words, and foreshadowing) to make and confirm predictions;  (B) ask relevant questions, seek clarification, and locate facts and details about stories and other texts and support answers with evidence from text; and  (C) establish purpose for reading selected texts and monitor comprehension, making corrections and adjustments when that understanding breaks down (e.g., identifying clues, using background knowledge, generating questions, re-reading a portion aloud).o (4) Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to read aloud grade-level appropriate text with fluency (rate, accuracy, expression, appropriate phrasing) and comprehension.o (5) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing.  (D) alphabetize a series of words and use a dictionary or a glossary to find words.o (8) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the elements of dialogue and use them in informal plays.o (9) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:  (B) describe main characters in works of fiction, including their traits, motivations, and feelings.o (10) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and respond by providing evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to distinguish between fiction and nonfiction. 6
  7. 7. o (12) Reading/Comprehension of Text/Independent Reading. Students read independently for sustained periods of time and produce evidence of their reading. Students are expected to read independently for a sustained period of time and paraphrase what the reading was about, maintaining meaning.o (14) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about and understand expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding.  (A) identify the main idea in a text and distinguish it from the topic;  (B) locate the facts that are clearly stated in a text;  (C) describe the order of events or ideas in a text; and  (D) use text features (e.g., table of contents, index, headings) to locate specific information in text.o (15) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Text. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:  (A) follow written multi-step directions; and  (B) use common graphic features to assist in the interpretation of text (e.g., captions, illustrations).o (16) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts.  (A) recognize different purposes of media (e.g., informational, entertainment);  (B) describe techniques used to create media messages (e.g., sound, graphics); ando (17) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text.  (A) plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing (e.g., drawing, sharing ideas, listing key ideas);  (B) develop drafts by sequencing ideas through writing sentences;  (C) revise drafts by adding or deleting words, phrases, or sentences;  (D) edit drafts for grammar, punctuation, and spelling using a teacher-developed rubric; and  (E) publish and share writing with others.o (18) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas.  (A) write brief stories that include a beginning, middle, and end; ando (19) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes.  (A) write brief compositions about topics of interest to the student; 7
  8. 8.  (B) write short letters that put ideas in a chronological or logical sequence and use appropriate conventions (e.g., date, salutation, closing); and  (C) write brief comments on literary or informational texts.o (20) Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write persuasive statements about issues that are important to the student for the appropriate audience in the school, home, or local community.o (21) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:  (A) understand and use the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:  (i) verbs (past, present, and future);  (ii) nouns (singular/plural, common/proper);  (iii) adjectives (e.g., descriptive: old, wonderful; articles: a, an, the);  (iv) adverbs (e.g., time: before, next; manner: carefully, beautifully);  (v) prepositions and prepositional phrases;  (vi) pronouns (e.g., he, him); and  (vii) time-order transition words;  (B) use complete sentences with correct subject-verb agreement; and  (C) distinguish among declarative and interrogative sentences.o (22) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions.  (A) write legibly leaving appropriate margins for readability;  (B) use capitalization for:  (i) proper nouns;  (ii) months and days of the week; and  (iii) the salutation and closing of a letter; and  (C) recognize and use punctuation marks, including:  (i) ending punctuation in sentences;  (ii) apostrophes and contractions; and  (iii) apostrophes and possessives.o (23) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly.  (C) spell high-frequency words from a commonly used list;  (D) spell base words with inflectional endings (e.g., -ing and -ed);  (E) spell simple contractions (e.g., isnt, arent, cant); and  (F) use resources to find correct spellings.o (24) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. 8
  9. 9.  (A) generate a list of topics of class-wide interest and formulate open-ended questions about one or two of the topics; and  (B) decide what sources of information might be relevant to answer these questions.o (25) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather.  (B) use text features (e.g., table of contents, alphabetized index, headings) in age- appropriate reference works (e.g., picture dictionaries) to locate information; and  (C) record basic information in simple visual formats (e.g., notes, charts, picture graphs, diagrams).o (28) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:  (A) listen attentively to speakers and ask relevant questions to clarify information; and  (B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a short related sequence of actions.o (29) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to share information and ideas that focus on the topic under discussion, speaking clearly at an appropriate pace, using the conventions of language.o (30) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to follow agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, and making appropriate contributions. Mathematics.o (2.1) Number, operation, and quantitative reasoning. The student understands how place value is used to represent whole numbers.  (C) use place value to compare and order whole numbers to 999 and record the comparisons using numbers and symbols (<, =, >).o (2.3) Number, operation, and quantitative reasoning. The student adds and subtracts whole numbers to solve problems.  (A) recall and apply basic addition and subtraction facts  (C) select addition or subtraction to solve problems using two-digit numbers, whether or not regrouping is necessary;o (2.11) Probability and statistics. The student organizes data to make it useful for interpreting information. The student is expected to:  (A) construct picture graphs and bar-type graphs; 9
  10. 10.  (B) draw conclusions and answer questions based on picture graphs and bar-type graphs; ando (2.12) Underlying processes and mathematical tools. The student applies Grade 2 mathematics to solve problems connected to everyday experiences and activities in and outside of school. The student is expected to:  (A) identify the mathematics in everyday situations; 10
  11. 11. Ocean Study Components Book: Cole, J., & Degen, B. (1994). The magic school bus on the ocean floor. New York: Scholastic Press. Genre: Narrative NonfictionSynopsis: Ms. Frizzle’s students are working hard on their ocean science projects when theysuddenly take an exciting field trip right into the ocean. Ms. Frizzle and her students explore theocean’s tides, shelves and floor. They also discover the busy ocean life of dolphins, shark, tunas,whales and many more other creatures.Reading Strategy: The “Collaborative Book” strategy lends a hand to this text well, tying inLanguage Arts. However, in order to do this activity, students must have been already exposed tomany nonfiction texts and be explicitly taught nonfiction elements. Students will work in smallgroups, contributing one page to a book that will be, ultimately, written by the entire class. Theywill use the writing process of drafting, revising, and editing (as well as demonstrate theirnonfiction aspect awareness) to create their page. The students will create two sentences and onepicture or other visual aid in their small group. These sentences will be about an ocean animal orother aspect they found interesting from the text (these sentences must be factual in nature,therefore, other texts may be used for research purposes). No topics can be repeated, the groupmust sign up with their topic. Students must also include one nonfiction aspect: colored words,bolded words, heading, subheading, etc. After the students have completed their pages, the bookwill be titled by the class (through brainstorming and voting- Mathematics will be tied in whenmaking a chart of how many votes per title and which has the most). The pages will then be 11
  12. 12. bounded and placed in the classroom library next to The Magic School Bus on the Ocean Floorfor students to check out.Additional Activities: After reading select sections of this book aloud to the class, the studentswill be asked to close their eyes and visualize an ocean scene: Would what the environment belike? What types of sea creatures would live there? Then the students would decorate a paperplate with their ocean scene, taking ideas from the book. With markers, crayons, stickers, andglitter the students would make their ocean scene come to life. They would cut a large square inanother paper plate (colored yellow) and attach saran wrap to one side so it looks like a window.The student’s would then glue the window plate to the top of the decorated plate so it looks likethey are looking into the ocean from a school bus window. They would then hang their scenesfrom the classroom ceiling. This activity can be used to activate student’s schema and decoratethe classroom with the new topic theme.Teacher Tidbits: Before hanging the student’s “Magic School Bus window”, have the studentsshare their artwork with at least three other students. Have them explain why they chose thatparticular ocean scene.TEKS: Science: 7a Mathematics: 2.1c, 2.3 ac, 2.11ab, 2.12a Language Arts: 3abc, 5d, 14abcd, 15a, 17abcde, 21a(ii,ii,iii,iv,v,vi,vii)bc, 22ab(i,ii,iii)c(i,ii,iii), 23cdef, 25b, 28a 12
  13. 13. Book: Muzik, K., & Brown-Wing, K. (1992). At home in the coral reef. Watertown, MA: Charlesbridge Publishing. Genre: NonfictionSynopsis: At Home in the Coral Reef describes what life is like living on the Coral Reef. What isa Coral Reef? What are the parts of the Coral Reef? What animals live there? What do they do?All of these questions can be answered! With full color illustrations and a “picture-word bank”on every page, this book will be sure to enlighten all readers.Reading Strategy: “All About Books” is the reading strategy that will be used for this text.Students will write their own book about the coral reef using the information they learned in thetext. Each book will be four pages long. Each page includes one sentence with a correspondingillustration. Before writing their book, students will gather and organize their ideas. They willthen conference with the teacher checking and correcting spelling, grammar, and sentencestructure. Once they have created their book, they will share it with their peers using the author’schair. The audience will clap when the reader is done reading their work and have time to askquestions or to make comments.Additional Activities: Create a classroom Coral Reef. Use a large and long piece of butcherpaper to create the Coral Reef. Have students color the bottom brown for the sand and the topblue for the water. The students will be asked to choose an animal or plant found in the text.They will draw and label it on the butcher paper. Have the students plan their Coral Reef sceneas a class beforehand. Using the chalk or dry erase board, have them roughly sketch out and plan 13
  14. 14. their scene. Have each student practice writing their label on scratch paper before labeling on theactual butcher paper. These labels, when clearly and correctly spelled out, can be used as part ofthe “Read Around the Room” activity where students go around the room to point and readwords posted on walls (high frequency and unit related words).Teacher Tidbits: The “All About Books” reading strategy can be done with fiction as well. Forwriter’s workshop, have students choose their own topic. Though students may also choosenonfiction for this activity, they have the freedom to choose any topic. For example, a studentcould write a five page story about his hamster, Charlie. The student will follow the samedirections: drafting, conferencing, composing, and then sharing.TEKS: Science: 7bc, 9ab, 10a Language Arts: 2gh, 3b, 4, 14abcd, 15ab, 17abcde, 18a, 19a, 21a(i,ii,iii,iv,v,vi,vii)bc, 22ab(i,ii,iii)c(i,ii,iii), 23cdef, 25bc Book: Prevost, J. (1996). Great white sharks. Edina, MN: Abdo & Daughters Publishing. Genre: Nonfiction Book: Prevost, J. (1996). Hammerhead Sharks. Edina, MN: Abdo & Daughters Publishing. Genre: Nonfiction 14
  15. 15. Synopsis: Great White Sharks is written by John Prevost, a long time marine biologist and diver.Every section includes interesting information about Great Whites and includes a full colorphotograph. What do Great Whites look like? Where do they live? Do they attack humans? Somany questions can be answered by Prevost’s book. A table of contents, glossary, and indexmake this book reader friendly and easy to navigate. Hammerhead Sharks is also written by John Prevost. This book also includes manyinteresting facts and full color photographs. Each section’s page numbers correspond to theGreat White Sharks book, so comparison between the two is quite easy. Why do HammerheadSharks have a hammer shaped head? Where do they live? What do they eat? These are somequestions that can also be answered by Prevost’s book. A table of contents, glossary, and indexmake this book reader friendly and easy to navigate.Reading Strategy: Using the “Venn Diagrams” strategy with these two texts work wonderfully.Because the two texts are from the same author and series, the page numbers correspond to eachother. For example, page 6 for the Great White is about how they look, which includes a labeleddiagram of their body. Page 6 on the Hammerhead Shark is also about how they look, andincludes a labeled diagram as well. Have students compare and contrast the two texts. Theteacher will explain and draw a Venn diagram on a large sheet of chart paper and complete thediagram as a class. Students will them summarize the information orally. After they haveexperience in making and understanding Venn diagrams, students can create them independentlyfor other units. These can then be displayed on a bullet board, where they can read their peer’swork. 15
  16. 16. Additional Activities: Have the students create a tri-fold shark book by simply folding a paperhotdog style, three ways, so that it looks like a pamphlet. The pamphlet will then be cut (whencompletely folded) so that there is a top fin, shark nose, and tail. Students will get into a group ofthree. Two students are responsible for one word or fact they found interesting (total of twowords/facts on the tri-fold). The other student will be responsible for writing the shark’s name onthe center part of the tri-fold (must be spelled correctly). These can then be stapled to a bulletinboard, where student can go to open the tri-folds and read what their peers wrote.Teacher Tidbit: The tri-fold can be pre-cut for the students. Half of the tri-folds can be theshape of the Great White while the other half can be the shape of a Hammerhead. Students mustguess which shark they have by the shape before completing their tri-fold.TEKS: Science: 9ab, 10a Language Arts: 1, 2h, 3b, 5d, 10, 14abcd, 15ab, 17de, 21a(i,ii,iii,iv,v,vi,vii)bc, 22ab(i,ii,iii)c(i,ii,iii), 23cdef, 25b, 30 Mathematics: 2.11ab Book: Beatty, R., Bright, D., Green, J., Kinchen, J., MacDonald, R., Rohr, S., et al. (2001). Aquatic life of the world: Vol. 1-11. New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation. Genre: Nonfiction 16
  17. 17. Book: Pallotta, J. & Mazzola, F. (1986). The ocean alphabet book. Watertown, MA: Charlesbridge Publishing. Genre: NonfictionSynopsis: Aquatic Life of the World includes a total of 11 volumes. Each volume containsapproximately 25 entries on sea life and creatures. These entries include large coloredphotographs, maps, diagrams, fun facts, and information. The Ocean Alphabet Book is an A through Z book of ocean animals. Every letter of thealphabet corresponds to a sea creature and includes a few sentences of information and largecolor illustrations. Can you come up with an ocean animal for "X"? This book can!Reading Strategy: The "Alphabet Book" reading strategy works very well with these set oftexts. Students will first be introduced to Pallottas The Ocean Alphabet Book. They will then betold that they will make their own ocean alphabet book. Students will browse all 11 volumeswhile receiving instruction on how to read nonfiction books (headings, subheadings, bolded text,indicating phrases, etc). They will then use these volumes to construct an "Ocean Life A-Z"booklet. The students will make a booklet from plain printing paper and decorate the front andback covers. They will give their books titles, distinguish themselves as the author andillustrator, and create a table of contents. They will then label each page with a letter of thealphabet and add one ocean creature that begins with that letter to the page. They will do this forevery letter of the alphabet. Then the students will go back and illustrate their examples.Additional Activities: Before students create their Ocean Life A-Z booklet, they can participatein brainstorming. Using a large chart paper, list the letters of the alphabet. Have students think of 17
  18. 18. multiple words for each letter and write them down as they are said. These lists can be used tohelp students come up with words for their booklets.Teacher Tidbit: Have each student come up to the chart paper to write their word. Provide helpif necessary.TEKS: Science: 7b, 9ab, 10a Language Arts: 1, 2h, 3abc, 5d, 10, 14abcd, 15ab, 17abcde, 19c, 21a(i,ii,iii,iv,v,vi,vii)bc, 22ab(i,ii,iii)c(i,ii,iii), 23cdef, 24b, 25b, 30 Book: Lionni, L. (1963). Swimmy. New York: Pantheon Books. Genre: FictionSynopsis: When Swimmy is the only fish that survives an attack by a large tuna fish, he searchesfor a new home. After swimming the ocean alone and seeing amazing sights, he finds a newschool of fish. However, these fish are scared to explore the ocean. Swimmy helps them find away to work together and overcome their fears.Reading Strategy: The "Grand Conversations" reading strategy can be used with this text. Afterthe book is read aloud to the class, the students will be asked to think about the story by drawingin their journals. The students will then be asked to form small groups where they will talk aboutthe story (How did the story make them feel? What was it about?). They will them come back 18
  19. 19. together as a whole class, sitting in a circle on the floor. The students will take turns discussingtheir ideas, thoughts, and comments. If any important elements are missed in the conversation,the teacher may pose questions to the students. For the conclusion, the teacher may summarizethe conversation and the conclusions that were drawn.Additional Activities: After reading this story aloud and having student’s follow along withtheir own copy, the student’s will be asked to write a five sentence paragraph in their journal.The teacher will ask them to think about a time that they were scared. What were they scared of?How did they overcome this fear? Did they ask others for help? And if so, who? What would youdo if you were Swimmy? After finishing their journal, they may share their entries with apartner. This activity targets students with an inclination for interpersonal and intrapersonallearning styles.Teacher Tidbit: These journal entries can be used for student inspiration for fiction ornonfiction writing. Have students go back in their journals to see if they can find something theywant to elaborate on for a new activity.TEKS: Science: 2a, 10a Language Arts: 1, 2gh, 3ab, 4, 9b, 12, 14ac, 18, 19ac, 21a(i,ii,iii,iv,v,vi,vii)bc, 22ab(i,ii,iii)c(i,ii,iii), 23cdef, 25c, 28ab, 29, 30 19
  20. 20. Book: Carle, E. (1987). A house for hermit crab. New York: Scholastic Inc. Genre: FictionSynopsis: When Hermit Crab becomes too large for his shell, he must find a new, bigger, shellto live in. Once he finds one that is large enough for him, he decides that the shell is too plain.He searches the ocean for things to decorate his shell with and ends up finding friendship alongthe way.Reading Strategy: Students will complete the "Reading Log" reading strategy for this text.Using a booklet made of stapled paper or designated reading journal, students write entries aboutwhat they read or hear during teacher read-alouds. These entries can consist of reactions ,reflections, and questions. They can also summarize events and connect what they read to theirpersonal lives. Other things students may write are interesting phrases, unknown words, quotesthey liked, and notes about characters and events. It is important that the teacher reviews theseentries and comments back to the student.Additional Activities: Have students create a pop-up book. Have students draw and color smallreplicas of the creatures and friends Hermit Crab encounters in the book. Students will cut themout use them to create their simple pop-up book by gluing them to small folds in the inside of afold paper (hamburger style). Construction paper can be glued to the cover side of the paper tohide the cuts on the outside. Here is where they can write the title of the book. This pop-up bookcan be used to have students remember and retell the events in the story. 20
  21. 21. Teacher Tidbit: The cuts and folds for the pop-up book can be pre-made for students. Thefollowing link offers easy instructions and other ideas for pop-up books:http://library.thinkquest.org/J001156/makingbooks/em_popup.htmTEKS: Science: 2a, 9ab, 10a Language Arts: 1, 2h, 3abc, 9b, 14abc, 15ab, 18a, 19ac, 21a(i,ii,iii,iv,v,vi,vii)bc, 22ab(i,ii,iii)c(i,ii,iii), 23cdef, 25c, 28ab, 29 Song: McGowan, M. (2003). Ocean songs & poetry: I’m a little fish. Retrieved from http://www.kllynch2000.com/oceansongs.htmlSynopsis: The song, “I’m a Little Fish”, describes a little fish swimming in the ocean. This short4 lined song is sung to the tune of “I’m a Little Teapot”: “Im a little fish in the ocean blue. There are so many things, I can do. I can swim aroundwith my tail and fin. The water is fine-just jump right in!”Reading Strategy: The lyrics to this song, along with a burned copy of the music on a CDplayer with headphones, can be placed in a literacy center. This reading strategy is best known asa “Listening Literacy Center”. Students can visit this center to review the lyrics printed on alarge sheet of paper and follow along while they listen to the music. They may choose to sing thewords in their head or sing softly to themselves. 21
  22. 22. Additional Activities: Students will be seated around the teacher on a carpeted area. The teacherwill begin by asking students who knows the tune of “I’m a Little Teapot.” The teacher will thenplay a recording of just the music and ask the students to listen. A recording can be found at thefollowing link: http://bussongs.com/songs/im_a_little_teapot.php. Afterward, the teacher willexplain that they can change the words to a song. The teacher will introduce the lyrics to “I’m aLittle Fish” printed on a large piece of paper. The students will practice reading the lyrics whilethe teacher points to the words. Afterward, the students will sing “I’m a Little Fish” to therecording. This activity appeals to student’s with a musical inclination.Teacher Tidbits: Have students create hand movements or dances for the song.TEKS: Language Arts: 1, 2h, 4, 14abcd, 15a, 16ab, 21a(i,ii,iii,iv,v,vi,vii)bc, 28ab, 29, 30 Song: McGowan, M. (2003). Ocean songs & poetry: Five little fishes. Retrieved from http://www.kllynch2000.com/oceansongs.htmlSynopsis: The short poem, “Five Little Fishes”, uses numbers and movements to tell a fun fishstory. Students may interact with the poem by counting on their fingers, answering in unison, andfollowing alone with physical movements: 22
  23. 23. “Five little fishes swimming in a pool (wiggle five fingers, move arms as if swimming).The first fish said, "This pool is cool!" (shiver and hug self). The second fish said, "This pool isdeep" (use low voice). The third fish said, "I want to sleep" ( yawn and stretch). The fourth fishsaid, "I spy a ship" (hand shading eyes) A Fishing boat comes, line goes kersplash! (throw inline). Away the five little fishes dash (fingers "swim" away quickly).”Reading Strategy: This song can be used with “Reader’s Theatre”, using each line of the songas a part in a script. The audience can participate in the corresponding physical movements foundin the song. First, voluneteers will be asked to read a part. The students that choose to have a linewill have time to practice their line and decide how they will use their voice, facial expressions,and inflections to make their line come to life. The audience will practice their physicalmovements and remember when to do what. After students have had time to practice, theproduction will take place. Each reader stands or steps forward to read their lines.Additional Activities: This activity can be down before the reading strategy, to get studentsfamiliar with the song. The students will be asked to gather around the teacher on a carpetedarea. The teacher will share the short poem, “Fish Story”, to the class. She will then display theshort poem on a large sheet of paper. The students will read the poem together, counting on theirfingers along with the poem along with physical movements.Teacher Tidbit: Props can be set around the reading area. For example: a Betta fish can becomea prop and easy class pet when placed in a medium sized bowl. Enlist students to feed the fishdaily, change half of the water once a week, and take notes of its behavior to make sure the fishis happy and healthy in its environment. “Behavior Notes” can be kept in a journal by the fish 23
  24. 24. bowl so that other students can read it. This is a great way to include scientific note taking inreading and writing. Other books, fiction and nonfiction, can also be placed around the fish bowl.Tie in mathematics when deciding the fish’s name by taking a poll and having the studentsdecipher the outcome.TEKS: Science: 2cde Language Arts: 1, 4, 8, 15a, 16ab, 28ab, 29, 30 Mathematics: 2.3a, 2. 12a Article: (2010). Giant squid: Architeuthis dux. National geographic. Retrieved from http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/invertebrates/giant-squid/Synopsis: National Geographic’s website includes an interesting article about recent findings onGiant Squids (Architeuthis dux). The article discusses the mysterious nature of these creaturesand the little known facts that scientists have discovered.Reading Strategy: The “KWL chart” reading strategy works well with this article. Because thisarticle is well beyond the student’s reading level, the article will be read aloud by the teacher.Before the article is read, the teacher will tape three poster boards, preferably in different oralternation colors. The first board will be labeled “What We Know”, the second “What We Want 24
  25. 25. to Learn” and the third will be labeled “What We Learned”. Students will be asked to raise theirhand and tell the teacher what they already know about jellyfish. They will then decide what theywant to learn about jellyfish. The article will then be read. The students will then be asked whatthey learned after hearing the article. All responses must be written on the appropriate board.Additional Activities: The teacher will let her students know that there is constantly newinformation being discovered about ocean creatures and animals in general. The teacher will alsodiscuss the important role that scientists play in discovering new species and facts. She will letthe students know that they, too, can discover new information by researching and askingquestions.Teacher Tidbit: Other ocean related articles can be read to the students whenever there is downtime or extra time during the day. A great time to do this is when students are eating breakfast inthe classroom or lining up to go to lunch. Be sure to choose a quick article or excerpt that willcapture the student’s imagination and attention.TEKS: Science: 3c Language Arts: 3c, 14ab, 16a, 28a, 29, 30 25
  26. 26. Video: (2010) Earth: Whats an Ocean Garbage Patch? Discovery. Retrieved from http://news.discovery.com/videos/earth-whats-an-ocean- garbage-patch.html Article: Mulvaney, K. (2010) Of Plastic and Whales and Other Marine Life. Discovery. Retrieved from http://news.discovery.com/earth/of- plastics-and-whales-and-other-marine-life.htmlSynonpsis: What is an ocean garbage patch? Little is known about this environmental hazard.There are also many misconceptions about why it exists and where it is coming from. “Earth:What’s an Ocean Garbage Patch” video, found on www.discovery.com, explains the basic facts.The article, “Of Plastic and Whales and Other Marine Life”, is also found onwww.discovery.com. This article discusses the contents of whale’s stomach. They found thewhale dead on a beach and did an autopsy to find out the cause of its death. Inside the whale’sstomach they found more than 20 plastic bags, sweat pants, a golf ball, and other non-food items.Could this be the cause of the whale’s death? What other harm could come with so muchgarbage in our oceans? This article explores these questions.Reading Strategy: Students can prepare their “Reading Logs” for this text by stapling papertogether or writing in their journals and titling the top with the name of the article. The teacherwill show the video to the students and read aloud the article. Because this video and article maystir some emotions, journaling about them is a good way to show students how to channel theiremotions into creating something creative and reflective. Have students write their ideas, whatthey thought, quotes they liked, or a summary of the article and video. It is important that theteacher reviews these entries and comments back to the student. 26
  27. 27. Additional Activities: Have students brainstorm a plan on how to keep the ocean clean andhealthy. What would they propose the government to do? What could we, as citizen, do? Howwould it work? Have the students discuss and debate the best possible solutions.Teacher Tidbit: From the above activity students can: write a letter to the government, researchplans already in action, or sketch and write instructions for their plan.TEKS: Science: 1c, 3abc, 7c, 9ab Language Arts: 2egh, 3bc, 10, 14b, 16ab, 17abcde, 19abc, 20, 21a(i,ii,iii,iv,v,vi,vii)bc, 22ab(i,ii,iii)c(i,ii,iii), 23cdef, 24ab 27
  28. 28. Ocean Study Related Websites1. Help Save the Sharks URL: http://dsc.discovery.com/sharks/help-save-the-sharks.html Synopsis: Every year, 100 million sharks are killed by commercial fishing. Though sharks are not as “cute” as dolphins or turtles, they are in grave danger of being extinct. Sharks are an important part of the delicate balance of life in the ocean. Learn about what you can do and what has been done to help save these sharks.2. Gulf Oil Spill: Whales, Sharks, and the Environment URL: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/09/100924-whale-sharks-gulf- oil-spill-science-environment/ Synopsis: The Gulf oil spill has left many ocean animals at risk. Many have already died and there are still efforts to save those who have been affected. This article explores the effect of the oil spill on whale sharks and other large ocean creatures.3. Daily Ocean News URL: http://www.seaweb.org/news/news.php Synopsis: Sea Web is the “leading voices for a healthy ocean”. The news section of this websites offers two to three articles daily to keep people of all ages up to date on current news and events that have an effect on the ocean. 28
  29. 29. 4. Printable Ocean Word Search URL: http://www.kckpl.lib.ks.us/ys/PUZZLES/Oceanws.htm Synopsis: Have fun searching for these ocean creature words!5. “I’m a Sea Star” Sing Along URL:http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/lc/teachers_place/activity_popup_imase astar.asp?bhcp=1 Synopsis: Students will enjoy singing along to “I’m a Sea Star”. The Monterey Bay Aquarium offers printable lyrics, music, and accompanying vocals. 29
  30. 30. Ocean Study Conclusion I hope this Ocean Study text set has helped you and your class explore the ocean. Usingfiction and nonfiction, as well as other sources, I hoped to have compiled a list of useful textsthat can be used with educational strategies that are not merely a reproduced worksheet. Thepurpose of this text set was to introduce the ocean in a variety of ways and have students thinkcritically about the ocean, the creatures that live there, and its safety. There are so many mysteries out there in the deep blue, waiting to be discovered by you!All it takes is the right resources, an inquiry state of mind, and the desire to learn. A Friend of the Ocean, Melissa-Marie Garcia To learn more about the Ocean, watch the following video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3GRA7ilM708 30