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Kanban = Violet Pill

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Kanban talk presented at Italian Agile Day 2011 #iad11

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Kanban = Violet Pill

  1. 1. Kanbanviolet pill Gaetano Mazzanti @mgaewsj Gama-Tech
  2. 2. disruptiveno change change
  3. 3. révolution?
  4. 4. inspired by Joakim Sunden
  5. 5. changes often end up being local:big impact on a few people,small/no impacton the whole org
  6. 6. a storm in a glass?company technical dept SW teams change impacts just here
  7. 7. (scared) orgs, prefer smallimprovements, no change inroles and responsibilities(and they don’t like to be told thatmanagers should be kept out of the loop)
  8. 8. no cross functional team?
  9. 9. no product owner?
  10. 10. firefighting?
  11. 11. people working onmultiple projects?
  12. 12. scared to change?
  13. 13. sometimes you cannottransform first observe, visualize work, apply continuous improvement,then transform
  14. 14. Purpose > Observe, Measure > Method method should come last!
  15. 15. a complex journey, unknown destinationsame pattern:Code un  ProductProcess (BTW you need a Vision…)
  16. 16. Kanban 101make work visiblelimit Work In Process(WIP)help work to flow
  17. 17. kanban vs Kanban 1950 2004
  18. 18. kanban & JIT in manufacturingonly what is neededonly in the amounts neededonly when it is needed pull
  19. 19. simple kanbanhome milk delivery
  20. 20. muri, mura, muda
  21. 21. if you can’t see ityou can’t manage it
  22. 22. Limit WIP
  23. 23. let work flowlet work flow
  24. 24. context matters
  25. 25. principles of the Kanban methodstart with what you do nowpursue incremental, evolutionarychangerespect the current process,roles, responsibilities & titles David J Anderson
  26. 26. five core propertiesvisualize the workflowlimit WIPmanage flowmake process policies explicitimprove collaboratively(let people design their own process)
  27. 27. yes, and…two rules for improv…isation:1. agree2. add Tina Fey EMENT  
  28. 28. “the aim of kanban is to maketroubles come to the surface andlink them to kaizen activity” Taichi Ohno, 1984
  29. 29. map the mess empower the team to fix it workflow bottlenecks queuesmake visible teamwork time type of work
  30. 30. expose dysfunctionsdo you keep stinky food in the fridge?
  31. 31. visualize your actual work(flow)backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   A   B   C   D   E   F  
  32. 32. visualize your actual work(flow)backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   A   B   C   D   E   F  
  33. 33. visualize your actual work(flow)backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   B   A   C   D   E   F  
  34. 34. visualize your actual work(flow)backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   A   C   B   D   E   F  
  35. 35. visualize your actual work(flow)backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   C   A   B   D   E   F  
  36. 36. limit WIPbacklog   to do   in progress   test   done   F   C   A   E   G   D   B   H   I   J  
  37. 37. limit WIP measure flowbacklog   to do   in progress   test   done   F   C   A   E   G   D   B   H   I   J   cycle time   lead time  
  38. 38. why should we limit WIP? Little’s Law cycle time = WIP / throughput(throughput = average completion rate)
  39. 39. why should we limit WIP? Little’s Law length of queue =arrival rate * average wait time
  40. 40. why should we limit WIP?too much WIP increases cycle timetoo much WIP leads to queuesqueues lead to delaysqueues lead to multitaskingqueues lead to … many additionaldysfunctions (variability, lowerquality, demotivation, higher risks, etc.)
  41. 41. Cost of Delay source David J Anderson
  42. 42. causes of delay
  43. 43. multitasking sucks ABC  ABC  ABC   AAA  BBB  CCC  
  44. 44. multitasking sucks multitaskers optimize for capacity, not for throughput 100   80  percent   60   ABC  ABC  ABC   AAA  BBB  CCC   40   20   0   context  switching  4me   1   2   working  4me   3   4   5   number  of  simultaneous  projects   working  4me   context  switching  4me   source Jerry Weinberg
  45. 45. let work flow backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   H   F   C   E   A   I   G   J   D   B  can’t push anything here  
  46. 46. let work flowbacklog   to do   in progress   test   done   H   F   C   E   A   I   G   J   D   B  
  47. 47. let work flowbacklog   to do   in progress   test   done   H   F   C   A   I   E   G   J   D   B  
  48. 48. let work flowbacklog   to do   in progress   test   done   H   F   C   A   I   E   G   J   D   B  
  49. 49. who’s working on what?backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   F   C   A   E   G   D   B   H   I   J  
  50. 50. total WIPbacklog   to do   in progress   test   done   F   C   A   E   G   D   B   H   I   J   total WIP = 4  
  51. 51. buffersbacklog   [ to do   in progress   test   done   [ G   H   C   A   I   F   J   E   D   B  
  52. 52. buffers with no WIP limitbacklog   to do   in progress   test   done   I   G   C   A   J   D   B   K   E   L   F   H  
  53. 53. no WIP limits => queuebacklog   to do   in progress   test   done   C   O   N   K   A   D   M   P   L   E   B   F   Q   G   H   I   J  
  54. 54. no WIP limits => queuebacklog   to do   in progress   test   done   O   N   K   A   M   P   L   B   Q  
  55. 55. flow = speed * density
  56. 56. flow = speed x density density flow vehiclesvehicles per Kmper hour Km per hour speed Km per hour
  57. 57. queues cumulative flow diagram cycle timecumulative WIP quantity time
  58. 58. cumulative flow diagram large batches => long queuescumulative quantity time
  59. 59. cumulative flow diagram small batches => short queuescumulative quantity time
  60. 60. what to do next (help)backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   G   F   C   A   H   B   I   E   D   J  
  61. 61. what to do next (pull)backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   G   F   C   A   H   D   B   I   E   J  
  62. 62. stuck (cannot break WIP limit)backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   H   G   D   A   F   I   J   E   B   C  
  63. 63. stuck (nothing to pull)backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   G   E   D   A   H   I   F   B   C  
  64. 64. slack (%) absorb variations 25   20   15  queue size 10   queue size 5   grows exponentially 0   0   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   80   90   100   at high capacity % capacity utilization
  65. 65. no testers
  66. 66. non-instant availability
  67. 67. non instant availability external parking
  68. 68. what’s on a stickie?ID 326 As a user I want to So that blocked due date 12 Nov 2011 this is just an example
  69. 69. type of work
  70. 70. types of workstandard due dateexpedite bug
  71. 71. classes of service and WIP standard work = 60% expedite = 10% due date = 20% bug = 10%
  72. 72. classes of service, WIP, expedite lane backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   G   H   E   A   C   J   F   D   B   I  6   M   L   K  2   O   N   EXPEDITE LANE  1   Q   P  1  
  73. 73. cost of delay & classes of servicecost     6me   cost     6me  cost     6me  
  74. 74. explicit policies -­‐  standups  at  11.45  am   -­‐  2  hours  pairing  3  days/week   -­‐  retrospec6ve  every  Friday  at  2pm  backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   =>  In  Progress:   =>  Done:   -­‐  Acceptance  Test  defined   -­‐  Acceptance  Tests  verified   on  test  server   -­‐  Signed  Off  by  Marke6ng   -­‐  Test  coverage  >  80%    
  75. 75. multiple projects project A project B project C
  76. 76. multiple projectsbacklog   to do   in progress   test   done   G   E   A   C   J   F   B   M   L   K   D   O   N   H  
  77. 77. peopleworking on multiple parallel projects
  78. 78. portfolio Kanban ouch!
  79. 79. portfolio Kanban one month later
  80. 80. world is not linear…backlog   to do   in progress   test   done  
  81. 81. multiple routes DEVELOPERS   design   code   test   H   E   BACKLOG   DONE  backlog   to do   D   deploy   done   N   M   C   A   L   SUPPORT   B   script   test   I   F   G  
  82. 82. networked Kanban source Jurgen Appelo
  83. 83. Kanban is not a processKanban is something that isoverlaid over an existing processKanban is a catalyst for change
  84. 84. a drug for all seasons Agile Teams running out of steamprocess maturity traditional chaotic
  85. 85. gateway drug theory softer drugs (Kanban) can lead to harder drugs (Scrum, XP, whatever…) Michael Sahota
  86. 86. a trojan horse?
  87. 87. dogma? no, thanks
  88. 88. don’t stop improving
  89. 89. don’t stop improving Z Z Z Z Z  process time
  90. 90. overburden task switching command & controlKan’t Ban?YESB UT Kan…but?
  91. 91. it’s a never ending journey K anban enjoy the ride learn from the peopleGaetano Mazzanti plan with the people@mgaewsj begin with what they haveGama-Tech build on what they know Lao-Tzu
  92. 92. it’s a never ending journey K anban enjoy the rideGaetano Mazzanti@mgaewsjGama-Tech

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