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Kanban


violet pill

           Gaetano Mazzanti
                    @mgaewsj
                   Gama-Tech
disruptive
no change
              change
révolution?
inspired by Joakim Sunden
changes often end up being local:
big impact on a few people,
small/no impact
on the whole org
a storm in a glass?




company
          technical
          dept
                SW
               teams



                          change
                         impacts
                       just here
(scared) orgs, prefer small
improvements, no change in
roles and responsibilities
(and they don’t like to be told that
managers should be kept out of the loop)
no cross functional team?
no product owner?
firefighting?
people working on
multiple projects?
scared to change?
sometimes you cannot
transform   first
         observe, visualize work,
    apply continuous improvement,


then   transform
Purpose > Observe, Measure > Method
     method should come last!
a complex journey,
   unknown destination
same pattern:

Code
                un	
  
Product
Process



    (BTW you need a Vision…)
Kanban 101

make work visible

limit Work In Process
(WIP)

help work to flow
kanban   vs   Kanban
  1950         2004
kanban & JIT in
         manufacturing
only what is needed
only in the amounts needed
only when it is needed

         pull
simple kanban
home milk delivery
muri, mura, muda
if you can’t see it
you can’t manage it
Limit WIP
let work flow
let work flow
context matters
principles of the
       Kanban method

start with what you do now

pursue incremental, evolutionary
change

respect the current process,
roles, responsibilities & titles
                       David J Anderson
five core properties

visualize the workflow
limit WIP
manage flow
make process policies explicit
improve collaboratively
(let people design their own process)
yes, and…
two rules for improv…isation:
1. agree
2. add
    Tina Fey               EMENT	
  
“the aim of kanban is to make
troubles come to the surface and
link them to kaizen activity”
       Taichi Ohno, 1984
map the mess
                empower the team to fix it



           workflow
         bottlenecks
            queues
make                      visible
           teamwork
             time
         type of work
expose dysfunctions




do you keep stinky food in the fridge?
visualize your actual
                 work(flow)

backlog	
               to do	
     in progress	
     test	
     done	
  

            A	
  
 B	
  

    C	
  
               D	
  

 E	
  
                F	
  
visualize your actual
                 work(flow)

backlog	
            to do	
     in progress	
     test	
     done	
  

                      A	
  
 B	
  

    C	
  
            D	
  

 E	
  
             F	
  
visualize your actual
              work(flow)

backlog	
         to do	
     in progress	
     test	
     done	
  

                   B	
          A	
  


                     C	
  

         D	
  

 E	
  
          F	
  
visualize your actual
              work(flow)

backlog	
        to do	
     in progress	
     test	
     done	
  

                               A	
  


                   C	
                 B	
  

                  D	
  
 E	
  
         F	
  
visualize your actual
              work(flow)

backlog	
        to do	
     in progress	
             test	
     done	
  

                                   C	
         A	
  



                                                        B	
  

                  D	
  
 E	
  
         F	
  
limit WIP

backlog	
                    to do	
     in progress	
           test	
      done	
  



            F	
                              C	
                     A	
  
                                E	
  

         G	
                                         D	
     B	
  
                    H	
  

 I	
  
                     J	
  
limit WIP
                                 measure flow
backlog	
                    to do	
     in progress	
              test	
      done	
  



            F	
                              C	
                        A	
  
                                E	
  

         G	
                                         D	
        B	
  
                    H	
  

 I	
  
                     J	
  
                                                      cycle time	
  


                                            lead time	
  
why should we limit WIP?

           Little’s Law

            cycle time
                  =
        WIP / throughput
(throughput = average completion rate)
why should we limit WIP?




          Little’s Law

        length of queue
               =
arrival rate * average wait time
why should we limit WIP?

too much WIP increases cycle time

too much WIP leads to queues

queues lead to delays

queues lead to multitasking

queues lead to … many additional
dysfunctions (variability, lower
quality, demotivation, higher risks, etc.)
Cost of Delay




         source David J Anderson
causes of delay
multitasking sucks




                     ABC	
  ABC	
  ABC	
  
                     AAA	
  BBB	
  CCC	
  
multitasking sucks
                       multitaskers optimize for capacity,
                                        not for throughput
        100	
  

              80	
  
percent	
  




              60	
  
                                                                                                    ABC	
  ABC	
  ABC	
  
                                                                                                    AAA	
  BBB	
  CCC	
  
              40	
  

               20	
  

                  0	
                                                                  context	
  switching	
  4me	
  
                          1	
         2	
                                            working	
  4me	
  
                                                   3	
        4	
            5	
  
                          number	
  of	
  simultaneous	
  projects	
  

                          working	
  4me	
       context	
  switching	
  4me	
       source Jerry Weinberg
let work flow

   backlog	
         to do	
          in progress	
             test	
      done	
  


            H	
      F	
  
                                                    C	
  
                                        E	
                         A	
  
    I	
  
                              G	
  
             J	
  
                                                D	
         B	
  




can’t push
 anything
   here	
  
let work flow

backlog	
         to do	
          in progress	
             test	
      done	
  


         H	
      F	
  
                                                 C	
  
                                     E	
                         A	
  
 I	
  
                           G	
  
          J	
  
                                             D	
         B	
  
let work flow

backlog	
         to do	
          in progress	
             test	
     done	
  


         H	
      F	
  
                                                 C	
                     A	
  
 I	
                                 E	
  
                           G	
  
          J	
  
                                             D	
         B	
  
let work flow

backlog	
         to do	
          in progress	
             test	
     done	
  


         H	
      F	
  
                                                 C	
                     A	
  
 I	
                                 E	
  
                           G	
  
          J	
  
                                             D	
         B	
  
who’s working on what?

backlog	
                    to do	
     in progress	
           test	
      done	
  



            F	
                              C	
                     A	
  
                                E	
  

         G	
                                         D	
     B	
  
                    H	
  

 I	
  
                     J	
  
total WIP

backlog	
                    to do	
       in progress	
           test	
      done	
  



            F	
                                C	
                     A	
  
                                E	
  

         G	
                                           D	
     B	
  
                    H	
  

 I	
  
                     J	
  



                                         total WIP = 4	
  
buffers

backlog	
         [   to do	
        in progress	
           test	
      done	
  




                  [
                  G	
  
         H	
                             C	
                     A	
  
 I	
  
                             F	
  
          J	
                          E	
       D	
     B	
  
buffers with no WIP limit

backlog	
                to do	
           in progress	
       test	
     done	
  


   I	
               G	
                       C	
                A	
  
           J	
  
                                   D	
                 B	
  
 K	
                                         E	
  
             L	
               F	
  

                                 H	
  
no WIP limits => queue

backlog	
            to do	
         in progress	
                    test	
          done	
  


                                                     C	
  
    O	
             N	
                K	
                                    A	
  
                                                D	
  
                             M	
  
            P	
                         L	
               E	
         B	
  
                                                  F	
  
   Q	
                                                    G	
  
                                                 H	
  
                                                              I	
  
                                                J	
  
no WIP limits => queue

backlog	
            to do	
         in progress	
     test	
          done	
  


    O	
             N	
                K	
                     A	
  
                             M	
  
            P	
                         L	
  
                                                       B	
  

   Q	
  
flow = speed * density
flow = speed x density

           density
                        flow
                                   vehicles
vehicles                            per Km
per hour
                                      Km
                                   per hour


                      speed

                     Km per hour
queues
   cumulative flow diagram

               cycle time



cumulative   WIP
 quantity




             time
cumulative flow diagram
   large batches => long queues




cumulative
 quantity




               time
cumulative flow diagram
   small batches => short queues




cumulative
 quantity




               time
what to do next (help)

backlog	
                    to do	
     in progress	
       test	
     done	
  


    G	
              F	
                     C	
                A	
  
            H	
  
                                                     B	
  
 I	
                                       E	
  
                      D	
  
             J	
  
what to do next (pull)

backlog	
                    to do	
         in progress	
       test	
     done	
  


    G	
              F	
                         C	
                A	
  
            H	
  
                                     D	
                 B	
  
 I	
                                           E	
  
             J	
  
stuck
    (cannot break WIP limit)
backlog	
             to do	
        in progress	
          test	
      done	
  


         H	
      G	
  
                                                D	
             A	
  
                             F	
  
 I	
  
          J	
                          E	
              B	
  
                                                C	
  
stuck (nothing to pull)

backlog	
              to do	
     in progress	
          test	
      done	
  


          G	
      E	
  
                                              D	
             A	
  
 H	
  
           I	
       F	
                              B	
  
                                              C	
  
slack (%)
                                                                                                                      absorb variations


             25	
  



             20	
  



             15	
  
queue size




             10	
  

                                                                                                                          queue size
               5	
                                                                                                        grows
                                                                                                                          exponentially
               0	
  
                       0	
     10	
     20	
     30	
     40	
     50	
     60	
     70	
     80	
     90	
     100	
  
                                                                                                                          at high capacity

                                        % capacity
                                        utilization
no testers
non-instant availability
non instant availability
  external parking
what’s on a stickie?
ID 326




           As a user
           I want to
           So that
                                 blocked



   due date
  12 Nov 2011

                 this is just an example
type of work
types of work


standard        due date




expedite          bug
classes of service and WIP

      standard work = 60%


      expedite = 10%


      due date = 20%


      bug = 10%
classes of service, WIP,
             expedite lane
 backlog	
                           to do	
        in progress	
          test	
         done	
  


    G	
                      H	
                               E	
                A	
  
                                                      C	
  
        J	
                                 F	
  
                                                               D	
     B	
  
                     I	
  
6	
  

            M	
                             L	
       K	
  
2	
  
                    O	
                                N	
                     EXPEDITE LANE	
  
1	
  
                Q	
                         P	
  
1	
  
cost of delay &
               classes of service

cost	
  	
  




               6me	
     cost	
  	
  




                                        6me	
  
cost	
  	
  




               6me	
  
explicit policies
                    -­‐	
  standups	
  at	
  11.45	
  am	
  
                    -­‐	
  2	
  hours	
  pairing	
  3	
  days/week	
  
                    -­‐	
  retrospec6ve	
  every	
  Friday	
  at	
  2pm	
  

backlog	
      to do	
             in progress	
                         test	
                    done	
  




               =>	
  In	
  Progress:	
                                =>	
  Done:	
  
               -­‐	
  Acceptance	
  Test	
  defined	
                  -­‐	
  Acceptance	
  Tests	
  verified	
  
                                                                      on	
  test	
  server	
  
                                                                      -­‐	
  Signed	
  Off	
  by	
  Marke6ng	
  
                                                                      -­‐	
  Test	
  coverage	
  >	
  80%	
  	
  
multiple projects

 project A


 project B


 project C
multiple projects
backlog	
                 to do	
        in progress	
                 test	
                 done	
  


 G	
                                                       E	
                     A	
  
                                           C	
  
                 J	
             F	
  
                                                                   B	
  



         M	
                     L	
       K	
                             D	
  


                 O	
                               N	
                                     H	
  
people
working on
  multiple
  parallel
  projects
portfolio Kanban




 ouch!
portfolio Kanban
  one month later
world is not linear…

backlog	
     to do	
     in progress	
     test	
     done	
  
multiple routes
                                 DEVELOPERS	
  
                             design	
   code	
   test	
  

                                 H	
                                E	
  
     BACKLOG	
                                                                    DONE	
  
backlog	
   to do	
                              D	
                        deploy	
   done	
  

  N	
        M	
  
                                                                                C	
               A	
  
                     L	
  
                                   SUPPORT	
                                              B	
  
                              script	
   test	
  

                                         I	
                     F	
  


                                                         G	
  
networked Kanban




            source Jurgen Appelo
Kanban is not a process
Kanban is something that is
overlaid over an existing process
Kanban is a catalyst for change
a drug for all seasons



                   Agile Teams running out of steam
process maturity




                        traditional


                                 chaotic
gateway drug theory

    softer drugs (Kanban)
    can lead to harder
    drugs (Scrum, XP,
    whatever…)




                 Michael Sahota
a trojan horse?
dogma? no, thanks
don’t stop improving
don’t stop improving


                    Z Z Z Z Z 	
  
process




                  time
overburden
               task switching
             command & control
Kan’t Ban?


YES
B UT   Kan…but?
it’s a never ending journey


                   K anban


            enjoy the ride
                        learn from the people
Gaetano Mazzanti        plan with the people
@mgaewsj                begin with what they have
Gama-Tech               build on what they know
                                           Lao-Tzu
it’s a never ending journey


                   K anban


            enjoy the ride

Gaetano Mazzanti
@mgaewsj
Gama-Tech

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Kanban = Violet Pill

  • 1. Kanban violet pill Gaetano Mazzanti @mgaewsj Gama-Tech
  • 5. changes often end up being local: big impact on a few people, small/no impact on the whole org
  • 6. a storm in a glass? company technical dept SW teams change impacts just here
  • 7. (scared) orgs, prefer small improvements, no change in roles and responsibilities (and they don’t like to be told that managers should be kept out of the loop)
  • 13. sometimes you cannot transform first observe, visualize work, apply continuous improvement, then transform
  • 14. Purpose > Observe, Measure > Method method should come last!
  • 15. a complex journey, unknown destination same pattern: Code un   Product Process (BTW you need a Vision…)
  • 16. Kanban 101 make work visible limit Work In Process (WIP) help work to flow
  • 17. kanban vs Kanban 1950 2004
  • 18. kanban & JIT in manufacturing only what is needed only in the amounts needed only when it is needed pull
  • 20.
  • 22. if you can’t see it you can’t manage it
  • 24. let work flow let work flow
  • 26. principles of the Kanban method start with what you do now pursue incremental, evolutionary change respect the current process, roles, responsibilities & titles David J Anderson
  • 27. five core properties visualize the workflow limit WIP manage flow make process policies explicit improve collaboratively (let people design their own process)
  • 28. yes, and… two rules for improv…isation: 1. agree 2. add Tina Fey EMENT  
  • 29. “the aim of kanban is to make troubles come to the surface and link them to kaizen activity” Taichi Ohno, 1984
  • 30. map the mess empower the team to fix it workflow bottlenecks queues make visible teamwork time type of work
  • 31. expose dysfunctions do you keep stinky food in the fridge?
  • 32. visualize your actual work(flow) backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   A   B   C   D   E   F  
  • 33. visualize your actual work(flow) backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   A   B   C   D   E   F  
  • 34. visualize your actual work(flow) backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   B   A   C   D   E   F  
  • 35. visualize your actual work(flow) backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   A   C   B   D   E   F  
  • 36. visualize your actual work(flow) backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   C   A   B   D   E   F  
  • 37. limit WIP backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   F   C   A   E   G   D   B   H   I   J  
  • 38. limit WIP measure flow backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   F   C   A   E   G   D   B   H   I   J   cycle time   lead time  
  • 39. why should we limit WIP? Little’s Law cycle time = WIP / throughput (throughput = average completion rate)
  • 40. why should we limit WIP? Little’s Law length of queue = arrival rate * average wait time
  • 41. why should we limit WIP? too much WIP increases cycle time too much WIP leads to queues queues lead to delays queues lead to multitasking queues lead to … many additional dysfunctions (variability, lower quality, demotivation, higher risks, etc.)
  • 42. Cost of Delay source David J Anderson
  • 44. multitasking sucks ABC  ABC  ABC   AAA  BBB  CCC  
  • 45. multitasking sucks multitaskers optimize for capacity, not for throughput 100   80   percent   60   ABC  ABC  ABC   AAA  BBB  CCC   40   20   0   context  switching  4me   1   2   working  4me   3   4   5   number  of  simultaneous  projects   working  4me   context  switching  4me   source Jerry Weinberg
  • 46. let work flow backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   H   F   C   E   A   I   G   J   D   B   can’t push anything here  
  • 47. let work flow backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   H   F   C   E   A   I   G   J   D   B  
  • 48. let work flow backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   H   F   C   A   I   E   G   J   D   B  
  • 49. let work flow backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   H   F   C   A   I   E   G   J   D   B  
  • 50. who’s working on what? backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   F   C   A   E   G   D   B   H   I   J  
  • 51. total WIP backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   F   C   A   E   G   D   B   H   I   J   total WIP = 4  
  • 52. buffers backlog   [ to do   in progress   test   done   [ G   H   C   A   I   F   J   E   D   B  
  • 53. buffers with no WIP limit backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   I   G   C   A   J   D   B   K   E   L   F   H  
  • 54. no WIP limits => queue backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   C   O   N   K   A   D   M   P   L   E   B   F   Q   G   H   I   J  
  • 55. no WIP limits => queue backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   O   N   K   A   M   P   L   B   Q  
  • 56. flow = speed * density
  • 57. flow = speed x density density flow vehicles vehicles per Km per hour Km per hour speed Km per hour
  • 58. queues cumulative flow diagram cycle time cumulative WIP quantity time
  • 59. cumulative flow diagram large batches => long queues cumulative quantity time
  • 60. cumulative flow diagram small batches => short queues cumulative quantity time
  • 61. what to do next (help) backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   G   F   C   A   H   B   I   E   D   J  
  • 62. what to do next (pull) backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   G   F   C   A   H   D   B   I   E   J  
  • 63. stuck (cannot break WIP limit) backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   H   G   D   A   F   I   J   E   B   C  
  • 64. stuck (nothing to pull) backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   G   E   D   A   H   I   F   B   C  
  • 65. slack (%) absorb variations 25   20   15   queue size 10   queue size 5   grows exponentially 0   0   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   80   90   100   at high capacity % capacity utilization
  • 68. non instant availability external parking
  • 69. what’s on a stickie? ID 326 As a user I want to So that blocked due date 12 Nov 2011 this is just an example
  • 71. types of work standard due date expedite bug
  • 72. classes of service and WIP standard work = 60% expedite = 10% due date = 20% bug = 10%
  • 73. classes of service, WIP, expedite lane backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   G   H   E   A   C   J   F   D   B   I   6   M   L   K   2   O   N   EXPEDITE LANE   1   Q   P   1  
  • 74. cost of delay & classes of service cost     6me   cost     6me   cost     6me  
  • 75. explicit policies -­‐  standups  at  11.45  am   -­‐  2  hours  pairing  3  days/week   -­‐  retrospec6ve  every  Friday  at  2pm   backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   =>  In  Progress:   =>  Done:   -­‐  Acceptance  Test  defined   -­‐  Acceptance  Tests  verified   on  test  server   -­‐  Signed  Off  by  Marke6ng   -­‐  Test  coverage  >  80%    
  • 76. multiple projects project A project B project C
  • 77. multiple projects backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   G   E   A   C   J   F   B   M   L   K   D   O   N   H  
  • 78. people working on multiple parallel projects
  • 80. portfolio Kanban one month later
  • 81. world is not linear… backlog   to do   in progress   test   done  
  • 82. multiple routes DEVELOPERS   design   code   test   H   E   BACKLOG   DONE   backlog   to do   D   deploy   done   N   M   C   A   L   SUPPORT   B   script   test   I   F   G  
  • 83. networked Kanban source Jurgen Appelo
  • 84. Kanban is not a process Kanban is something that is overlaid over an existing process Kanban is a catalyst for change
  • 85. a drug for all seasons Agile Teams running out of steam process maturity traditional chaotic
  • 86. gateway drug theory softer drugs (Kanban) can lead to harder drugs (Scrum, XP, whatever…) Michael Sahota
  • 90. don’t stop improving Z Z Z Z Z   process time
  • 91. overburden task switching command & control Kan’t Ban? YES B UT Kan…but?
  • 92. it’s a never ending journey K anban enjoy the ride learn from the people Gaetano Mazzanti plan with the people @mgaewsj begin with what they have Gama-Tech build on what they know Lao-Tzu
  • 93. it’s a never ending journey K anban enjoy the ride Gaetano Mazzanti @mgaewsj Gama-Tech