Successfully reported this slideshow.
PEOPLE AS
BOTTLENECKS
Gaetano Mazzanti
Agile42
@mgaewsj
BOTTLENECK:
DEFINITIONS
1 
A : A NARROW ROUTE

B : A POINT OF TRAFFIC CONGESTION

2 
A : SOMEONE OR SOMETHING THAT

 
RETA...
BOTTLENECKS EVERYWHERE
WATER
TRAFFIC
MANUFACTURING
COMPUTER NETWORKS
KNOWLEDGE WORK
TRAFFIC JAMS
IS SLOW TRAFFIC CAUSED BY
BAD DRIVERS?
Deming	
  
95/5	
  
TRAFFIC JAMS
WHAT ABOUT THESE?
Deming	
  
95/5	
  
BOTTLENECKS
PHYSICAL
NONPHYSICAL
LET’S	
  FOCUS	
  ON	
  THESE	
  
UNFORTUNATELY	
  THEY’RE	
  
NOT	
  SO	
  EASY	
  TO	
 ...
NONPHYSICAL BOTTLENECKS
POLICIES
SKILLS
 ATTITUDE
PEOPLE AND BOTTLENECKS
BEING A BOTTLENECK
VS
INDUCING/CREATING
BOTTLENECKS
BEING A BOTTLENECK
NOT AVAILABLE (OVERLOAD, TRAVEL, HIDING)
DEFERRING/NOT MAKING DECISIONS
(OVERBURDEN, INCOMPETENCE, CYA)...
INDUCING/CREATING
BOTTLENECKS
OFTEN DUE TO
OBSESSION WITH
EFFICIENCY AND CONTROL
INDUCING/CREATING
BOTTLENECKS
OVERLOADING PEOPLE
ASSIGNING MULTIPLE TASKS
NO FILTERING (“I WANT EVERYTHING”)
HIDING INFORM...
WEAPONS OF
FLOW DESTRUCTION
HOW DO YOU SPOT
BOTTLENECKS?
WARNING:
THE MAIN ISSUE IS NOT BOTTLENECKS
BUT THEIR ECONOMIC IMP...
FOCUS ON FLOW
VISUALIZE AND MEASURE
VISUALIZE FLOW
ideas	
   elaborate	
   do	
   delivered	
  validate	
  
B	
  C	
  
D	
  
F	
  
E	
  
A	
  
VISUALIZE FLOW
B	
  
C	
  
D	
  
F	
  
E	
  
A	
  
ideas	
   elaborate	
   do	
   delivered	
  validate	
  
MEASURE FLOW
B	
  
C	
  D	
  
F	
  
E	
  
A	
  
ideas	
   elaborate	
   do	
   delivered	
  validate	
  
G	
  
H	
  
I	
  ...
MEASURE # OF ITEMS
IN SYSTEM (WIP)
B	
  
C	
  D	
  
F	
  
E	
  
A	
  
ideas	
   elaborate	
   do	
   delivered	
  validate...
SPEED AT BOTTLENECK
FLOW = VELOCITY x AREA
VELOCITY IS LOWER BEFORE BOTTLENECK
BOTTLENECKS
B	
  
C	
  D	
  F	
  
E	
  
A	
  
ideas	
   elaborate	
   do	
   delivered	
  validate	
  
G	
  
H	
  
I	
  
g...
BOTTLENECKS
B	
  
C	
  
D	
  
F	
  
E	
  
A	
  
ideas	
   elaborate	
   do	
   delivered	
  validate	
  
G	
  
H	
  
I	
  ...
BOTTLENECKS
B	
  
C	
  
D	
  
F	
  
E	
  
A	
  
ideas	
   elaborate	
   do	
   delivered	
  validate	
  
G	
  
H	
  
I	
  ...
CHARTING
CC (CONTROL CHART)
CFD (CUMULATIVE FLOW DIAGRAM)
CONTROL CHART
4	
  
6	
  
8	
  
10	
  
12	
  
14	
  
16	
  
average	
  cycleLme	
  
UCL	
  
LCL	
  
cycle	
  Lme	
  
KNOWL...
CONTROL CHART
EFFECT OF
BOTTLENECK
0	
  
5	
  
10	
  
15	
  
20	
  
25	
  
average	
  cycleLme	
  
UCL	
  
LCL	
  
cycle	
...
CFD
Lme	
  
cumulaLve	
  quanLty	
  
arrivals	
  
departures	
  
WIP	
  
(avg.	
  queue	
  size)	
  
cycle	
  Lme	
  
(avg...
CFD
Lme	
  
cumulaLve	
  quanLty	
  
arrivals	
  
departures	
  
WIP	
  
(avg.	
  queue	
  size)	
  
cycle	
  Lme	
  
(avg...
CFD
Lme	
  
cumulaLve	
  quanLty	
  
arrivals	
  
departures	
  
WIP	
  
(avg.	
  queue	
  size)	
  
cycle	
  Lme	
  
(avg...
CFD
Lme	
  
cumulaLve	
  quanLty	
  
faster	
  
arrivals	
  
AIRPORT CHECK-IN
Lme	
  
cumulaLve	
  quanLty	
  
QUEUE	
  LENGTH	
  
AND	
  WAITING	
  TIME	
  
INCREASE	
  
WIP	
  
cycle	
  Lme	
  
AIRP...
Lme	
  
cumulaLve	
  quanLty	
  
WIP	
  
cycle	
  Lme	
  
CFD
AIRPORT CHECK-IN
FASTER ARRIVALS
arrivals
 departures
Lme	
  
cumulaLve	
  quanLty	
  
WIP	
  
cycle	
  Lme	
  
CFD
AIRPORT CHECK-IN
FASTER ARRIVALS
arrivals
 departures
BACK TO OUR
BOTTLENECK EXAMPLE
CFD
BACK TO OUR
BOTTLENECK EXAMPLE
CFD
FLAT	
  LINE,	
  HEIGHT	
  
GOES	
  TO	
  ZERO	
  
INCREASING	
  
HEIGHT	
  (QUEUE)	
  
CONSTRAIN WIP
HIGH WIP -> LONG CYCLE TIMES
HIGH UTILIZATION LEADS TO QUEUES (USE
SLACK)
THE BIGGER THE QUEUES THE MORE THE...
0"
2"
4"
6"
8"
10"
12"
14"
16"
18"
1" 2" 3" 4" 5" 6"
ideas"
elaborate"
do"
validate"
delivered"
BOTTLENECKS AND
WIP CONSTR...
FOCUS ON THE REAL PROBLEM
REDUCE BATCH SIZE
SMALLER BATCHES REDUCE
QUEUE SIZE
CYCLE TIME
FLOW VARIABILITY
FEEDBACK DELAY
RISK
OVERHEAD
BEFORE ATTACK...
IT IS EASIER TO START
THAN IT IS TO FINISH
MULTITASKING
MULTITASKING SUCKS
MULTITASKING MAKES YOU LOOK
BUSY AND SMART
MULTI-TASKERS
MAKE VERY POOR
MULTI-TASKERS
(Stanford study, ...
MULTITASKING SUCKS
visualphotos.com	
  
1
2
3
4
5
6
YOUR	
  MULTITASKING	
  
IS	
  MY	
  BOTTLENECK	
  
Jim	
  Benson	
  
...
T.O.C. APPROACH
1.  IDENTIFY THE CONSTRAINT
(CCR - Capacity Constrained Resource)
2.  DECIDE HOW BEST TO EXPLOIT THE
CONST...
LIMITS OF T.O.C.
FLOW ISSUES DO NOT ALWAYS IMPLY A
BOTTLENECK
KNOWLEDGE WORK HAS HIGH
VARIABILITY
CCR NOT EASY TO FIND IN ...
LOOKING AT THE WHOLE
BOTTLENECKS BEFORE OR AFTER DEVELOPMENT
CONCEPT PHASE TOO SLOW? PRODUCING
INCOHERENT, CONFUSED INFORM...
AGILE HAS INTRODUCED
A NEW BOTTLENECK
BACKLOG	
  
TECH	
  BUSINESS	
  
UNFORTUNATELY
POTENTIAL
v
AGILE HAS INTRODUCED
A NEW BOTTLENECK
BACKLOG	
  
COMMITTED	
  OR	
  NOT?	
  
STATIC	
  OR	
  DYNAMIC?	
  
PUSH	
  OR	
  P...
THE	
  PRODUCT	
  OWNER	
  
NOT	
  AVAILABLE	
  
NOT	
  KNOWLEDGEABLE	
  
NOT	
  AUTHORITATIVE	
  
NOT	
  COMMUNICATIVE	
 ...
YES
BUT
YET ANOTHER
KIND OF BOTTLENECK
RESISTANCE TO CHANGE 
EMBRACING JUST SOME OF IT
NEVER CHANGING BOARD DESIGN,
POLICI...
WRAPPING UP
FOCUS ON FLOW
BEWARE OF VARIABILITY
REDUCE BATCH SIZE
CONSTRAIN WIP
“the greatest waste…
is failure to use the abilities of people…
to learn about their frustrations…” 
E.Deming
BUT WAIT, TH...
TRUST
LEARN
KANBAN BUILDS TRUST
AND FOSTERS A LEARNING CULTURE
TRUST != HERO CULTURE

TRUST CAN SCALE
HEROES DON’T
C.Moody	
  
AM I THE BOTTLENECK?
NEVER STOP ASKING YOURSELF
Gaetano Mazzanti
Agile42
@mgaewsj
gaetano.mazzanti@agile42.com
People as Bottlenecks
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

People as Bottlenecks

3,518 views

Published on

my talk at Lean Kanban Netherlands 2013
a slightly modified version of the talk I gave at Lean Kanban Nordic 2013

Published in: Technology, Business

People as Bottlenecks

  1. 1. PEOPLE AS BOTTLENECKS Gaetano Mazzanti Agile42 @mgaewsj
  2. 2. BOTTLENECK: DEFINITIONS 1 A : A NARROW ROUTE B : A POINT OF TRAFFIC CONGESTION 2 A : SOMEONE OR SOMETHING THAT RETARDS OR HALTS FREE MOVEMENT AND PROGRESS B : IMPASSE Merriam-Webster www.m-w.com
  3. 3. BOTTLENECKS EVERYWHERE WATER TRAFFIC MANUFACTURING COMPUTER NETWORKS KNOWLEDGE WORK
  4. 4. TRAFFIC JAMS IS SLOW TRAFFIC CAUSED BY BAD DRIVERS? Deming   95/5  
  5. 5. TRAFFIC JAMS WHAT ABOUT THESE? Deming   95/5  
  6. 6. BOTTLENECKS PHYSICAL NONPHYSICAL LET’S  FOCUS  ON  THESE   UNFORTUNATELY  THEY’RE   NOT  SO  EASY  TO  SPOT  
  7. 7. NONPHYSICAL BOTTLENECKS POLICIES SKILLS ATTITUDE
  8. 8. PEOPLE AND BOTTLENECKS BEING A BOTTLENECK VS INDUCING/CREATING BOTTLENECKS
  9. 9. BEING A BOTTLENECK NOT AVAILABLE (OVERLOAD, TRAVEL, HIDING) DEFERRING/NOT MAKING DECISIONS (OVERBURDEN, INCOMPETENCE, CYA) CENTRALIZING DECISIONS/NEVER DELEGATE (CONTROL FREAK) LACK OF COMMUNICATION SKILLS SPECIALIST* (MULTIPLE CLIENTS) *formally not a bottleneck but effects are the same
  10. 10. INDUCING/CREATING BOTTLENECKS OFTEN DUE TO OBSESSION WITH EFFICIENCY AND CONTROL
  11. 11. INDUCING/CREATING BOTTLENECKS OVERLOADING PEOPLE ASSIGNING MULTIPLE TASKS NO FILTERING (“I WANT EVERYTHING”) HIDING INFORMATION, MAKING IT AVAILABLE TOO LATE (GENERATING EMERGENCIES) CREATING/MAINTAINING SILOS AND CEILINGS MICROMANAGING PUSH  
  12. 12. WEAPONS OF FLOW DESTRUCTION HOW DO YOU SPOT BOTTLENECKS? WARNING: THE MAIN ISSUE IS NOT BOTTLENECKS BUT THEIR ECONOMIC IMPACT
  13. 13. FOCUS ON FLOW VISUALIZE AND MEASURE
  14. 14. VISUALIZE FLOW ideas   elaborate   do   delivered  validate   B  C   D   F   E   A  
  15. 15. VISUALIZE FLOW B   C   D   F   E   A   ideas   elaborate   do   delivered  validate  
  16. 16. MEASURE FLOW B   C  D   F   E   A   ideas   elaborate   do   delivered  validate   G   H   I   sub-cycle times
  17. 17. MEASURE # OF ITEMS IN SYSTEM (WIP) B   C  D   F   E   A   ideas   elaborate   do   delivered  validate   G   H   I   # of items in a specific state = 2 # of items in specific area = 4 total # of items = 9
  18. 18. SPEED AT BOTTLENECK FLOW = VELOCITY x AREA VELOCITY IS LOWER BEFORE BOTTLENECK
  19. 19. BOTTLENECKS B   C  D  F   E   A   ideas   elaborate   do   delivered  validate   G   H   I   gate J   K  
  20. 20. BOTTLENECKS B   C   D   F   E   A   ideas   elaborate   do   delivered  validate   G   H   I   gate J   K   L  
  21. 21. BOTTLENECKS B   C   D   F   E   A   ideas   elaborate   do   delivered  validate   G   H   I   J   K   L   gate ITEMS     QUEUEING  UP   EMPTY   AREA  
  22. 22. CHARTING CC (CONTROL CHART) CFD (CUMULATIVE FLOW DIAGRAM)
  23. 23. CONTROL CHART 4   6   8   10   12   14   16   average  cycleLme   UCL   LCL   cycle  Lme   KNOWLEDGE WORK HAS HIGH VARIABILITY
  24. 24. CONTROL CHART EFFECT OF BOTTLENECK 0   5   10   15   20   25   average  cycleLme   UCL   LCL   cycle  Lme  
  25. 25. CFD Lme   cumulaLve  quanLty   arrivals   departures   WIP   (avg.  queue  size)   cycle  Lme   (avg.  Lme  in  queue)   arrivals departures AIRPORT CHECK-IN
  26. 26. CFD Lme   cumulaLve  quanLty   arrivals   departures   WIP   (avg.  queue  size)   cycle  Lme   (avg.  Lme  in  queue)   arrivals departures AIRPORT CHECK-IN
  27. 27. CFD Lme   cumulaLve  quanLty   arrivals   departures   WIP   (avg.  queue  size)   cycle  Lme   (avg.  Lme  in  queue)   arrivals departures AIRPORT CHECK-IN
  28. 28. CFD Lme   cumulaLve  quanLty   faster   arrivals   AIRPORT CHECK-IN
  29. 29. Lme   cumulaLve  quanLty   QUEUE  LENGTH   AND  WAITING  TIME   INCREASE   WIP   cycle  Lme   AIRPORT CHECK-IN FASTER ARRIVALS CFD
  30. 30. Lme   cumulaLve  quanLty   WIP   cycle  Lme   CFD AIRPORT CHECK-IN FASTER ARRIVALS arrivals departures
  31. 31. Lme   cumulaLve  quanLty   WIP   cycle  Lme   CFD AIRPORT CHECK-IN FASTER ARRIVALS arrivals departures
  32. 32. BACK TO OUR BOTTLENECK EXAMPLE CFD
  33. 33. BACK TO OUR BOTTLENECK EXAMPLE CFD FLAT  LINE,  HEIGHT   GOES  TO  ZERO   INCREASING   HEIGHT  (QUEUE)  
  34. 34. CONSTRAIN WIP HIGH WIP -> LONG CYCLE TIMES HIGH UTILIZATION LEADS TO QUEUES (USE SLACK) THE BIGGER THE QUEUES THE MORE THEY COST
  35. 35. 0" 2" 4" 6" 8" 10" 12" 14" 16" 18" 1" 2" 3" 4" 5" 6" ideas" elaborate" do" validate" delivered" BOTTLENECKS AND WIP CONSTRAINTS QUEUE   MOVES  HERE   TWO  FLAT   LINES   ARTIFICIAL   BOTTLENECK  
  36. 36. FOCUS ON THE REAL PROBLEM
  37. 37. REDUCE BATCH SIZE SMALLER BATCHES REDUCE QUEUE SIZE CYCLE TIME FLOW VARIABILITY FEEDBACK DELAY RISK OVERHEAD BEFORE ATTACKING BOTTLENECKS
  38. 38. IT IS EASIER TO START THAN IT IS TO FINISH MULTITASKING
  39. 39. MULTITASKING SUCKS MULTITASKING MAKES YOU LOOK BUSY AND SMART MULTI-TASKERS MAKE VERY POOR MULTI-TASKERS (Stanford study, 2009) “they felt productive because they touched so many different tasks – but when tested against people who focused on one thing at a time, multi-taskers lost and lost big”. Eyal Ophir
  40. 40. MULTITASKING SUCKS visualphotos.com   1 2 3 4 5 6 YOUR  MULTITASKING   IS  MY  BOTTLENECK   Jim  Benson   1 2 3 4 5 6
  41. 41. T.O.C. APPROACH 1.  IDENTIFY THE CONSTRAINT (CCR - Capacity Constrained Resource) 2.  DECIDE HOW BEST TO EXPLOIT THE CONSTRAINT 3.  SUBORDINATE EVERYTHING ELSE TO THE ABOVE DECISIONS 4.  ELEVATE THE CONSTRAINT 5.  RE-EVALUATE E.GoldraA  
  42. 42. LIMITS OF T.O.C. FLOW ISSUES DO NOT ALWAYS IMPLY A BOTTLENECK KNOWLEDGE WORK HAS HIGH VARIABILITY CCR NOT EASY TO FIND IN THIS CONTEXT ADDING CAPACITY AT BOTTLENECK NOT ALWAYS CONVENIENT BOTTLENECK NEVER RUNNING OUT OF WORK NOT ALWAYS CONVENIENT
  43. 43. LOOKING AT THE WHOLE BOTTLENECKS BEFORE OR AFTER DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT PHASE TOO SLOW? PRODUCING INCOHERENT, CONFUSED INFORMATION? LOTS OF REWORK? STAGING AND DEPLOYMENT ISSUES? LAUNCHING PRODUCTS TOO EARLY? LOTS OF REWORK? SUPPORT  
  44. 44. AGILE HAS INTRODUCED A NEW BOTTLENECK BACKLOG   TECH  BUSINESS   UNFORTUNATELY POTENTIAL v
  45. 45. AGILE HAS INTRODUCED A NEW BOTTLENECK BACKLOG   COMMITTED  OR  NOT?   STATIC  OR  DYNAMIC?   PUSH  OR  PULL?   COST  OF  DELAY?   UNFORTUNATELY POTENTIAL v
  46. 46. THE  PRODUCT  OWNER   NOT  AVAILABLE   NOT  KNOWLEDGEABLE   NOT  AUTHORITATIVE   NOT  COMMUNICATIVE   TOO  MUCH  FOR  ONE  PERSON?  
  47. 47. YES BUT YET ANOTHER KIND OF BOTTLENECK RESISTANCE TO CHANGE EMBRACING JUST SOME OF IT NEVER CHANGING BOARD DESIGN, POLICIES, WIP LIMITS, ETC. KANBUT
  48. 48. WRAPPING UP FOCUS ON FLOW BEWARE OF VARIABILITY REDUCE BATCH SIZE CONSTRAIN WIP
  49. 49. “the greatest waste… is failure to use the abilities of people… to learn about their frustrations…” E.Deming BUT WAIT, THERE’S MORE
  50. 50. TRUST LEARN KANBAN BUILDS TRUST AND FOSTERS A LEARNING CULTURE
  51. 51. TRUST != HERO CULTURE TRUST CAN SCALE HEROES DON’T C.Moody  
  52. 52. AM I THE BOTTLENECK? NEVER STOP ASKING YOURSELF
  53. 53. Gaetano Mazzanti Agile42 @mgaewsj gaetano.mazzanti@agile42.com

×