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Question-Answer Relationship

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Ch 8 Power Point

  1. 1. Chapter 8: Question-Answer Relationship (QAR)
  2. 2. Chapter Eight Objectives <ul><li>You will gain a better understanding of the model. </li></ul><ul><li>You will be able to identify the different stages of the model. </li></ul><ul><li>You will understand the philosophical and psychological foundations of the model. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Question-Answer Relationship (QAR) <ul><li>This model was developed by Taffy Raphael (1982). </li></ul><ul><li>It was developed as a means for improving students’ abilities in answering comprehension questions. </li></ul><ul><li>This model can be used for content area reading or narrative types of text. </li></ul><ul><li>It helps students find the relationship between questions and their answers and give them the language to describe them. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Stages of QAR <ul><li>The QAR model consists of two broad categories and four subcategories. </li></ul><ul><li>To teach the process itself, Raphael (1986) recommends starting with the broader categories of “In the Book” and “In My Head.” </li></ul><ul><li>Once students have gained an understanding of these, they can be broken down into the four subcategories: “Right There,” “Putting it Together,” “Author and You” and “On My Own.” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Question-Answer Relationship A Sequence for Initial Instruction Based on the work of Reutzel & Cooter, 1992; Raphael, 1986 Step 1 Introduction of broad categories Using a pre-selected text or one prepared in advance for this lesson, introduce students to “In the Book” and “In My Head.” In the Book: The reader is asked to locate or recall information using what the author tells the reader. In My Head: The reader locates information using his own background knowledge and understandings, as well as what is suggested by the text. Sometimes the answer is independent of the text.
  6. 6. Question-Answer Relationship A Sequence for Initial Instruction (continued) Step 2 Introduction of the “In the Book” subcategories When asking students about the text, distinguish between the two text dependent types Right There: The reader can locate or recall the answer in one line of the text. Putting it Together: The reader can locate parts of the answer in different sources within the text
  7. 7. Question-Answer Relationship A Sequence for Initial Instruction (continued) Step 3 Introduction of the “In My Head” subcategories When asking students about question-answer relationships that require the use of their own background knowledge and understandings, distinguish between those that are less text dependent or independent of the text. Author and You: The reader uses information found in the text as well as in his background to make interpretations or application. On My Own: The reader relies solely upon his own background knowledge, independent of the text.
  8. 8. In the Book <ul><li>“ In the Book” relationships are just what the name implies. </li></ul><ul><li>The reader is asked to locate information at the literal level, namely, what the author explicitly tells the reader (Raphael, 1986). </li></ul><ul><li>The questions asked can be answered by surveying the information provided by the author. </li></ul><ul><li>The relationship between the questions and answers should be explicit. </li></ul>
  9. 9. In My Head <ul><li>Students are asked to locate information as they read a text and to make interpretations using their background knowledge and understandings </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike “In the Book” stage, “In My Head” require more application and analysis cognitive skills. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Right There <ul><li>QARs fitting into the “Right There” category are the most literal types. Answers to questions asked can be found “right there” in the text in one sentence (Raphael, 1986). </li></ul><ul><li>The reader is only required to locate or recall the information (Ruddell, 1999). </li></ul><ul><li>Locating and recalling information that is explicitly stated in text is a valuable skill, both for reading and for using text to learn about content. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Putting it Together <ul><li>QARs fitting into the “Putting it Together” category require the reader to look for parts of the answer in different sentences found throughout the text. </li></ul><ul><li>The reader will find parts of the answer in more than one sentence and then will typically have to make some inferences or draw a conclusion to construct an answer– as she is “putting it together” (Ruddell, 1999). </li></ul>
  12. 12. Author and You <ul><li>QARs that can fit into this category use information found in the text and the reader’s own background information and understandings. </li></ul><ul><li>These types of relationships may require the learner to make interpretations and/or application of what they learn from the text (Jacobson, 1998). </li></ul>
  13. 13. On My Own <ul><li>Teachers are expected to help students to think about the content of a text by asking questions that rely solely upon the reader’s own background knowledge or understandings – independent of the text itself (Gunning, 1992; Ruddell, 1999). </li></ul><ul><li>“ On My Own” category of relationships can gauge students knowledge and understanding of the text. </li></ul>
  14. 14. QAR and Research on Teaching <ul><li>In a study conducted by Ezell, Hunsicer, and Quinque (1996), two groups of students were observed during fourth and fifth grades. They found that students were able to maintain the use of QAR over time. </li></ul><ul><li>In another study, the same researchers determined that QAR instruction could be equally effective in increasing reading comprehension regardless of whether the instruction was delivered through peer or teacher-assisted instructional procedures (Ezell, et al, 1997). </li></ul>
  15. 15. QAR and Research on Teaching (continued) <ul><li>Research showed that students using QAR outperformed others in answering reading comprehension questions based on text (Ezell, et al, 1996). </li></ul><ul><li>Students using QAR demonstrated behaviors that showed an ability to consider various sources of information (Raphael, 1986). </li></ul><ul><li>McIntosh and Draper (1996) reported success at using QAR to help students read math text and in applying the question-answer relationships to logic problems and general problem solving in mathematics. </li></ul>
  16. 16. QAR and Learning Theory <ul><li>QAR can be connected to information processing theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Information processing theorists suggest that learning and memory can be facilitated in a variety of ways, such as taking a group of random items and organizing them into a list by specific characteristics (Ormrod, 1999). </li></ul><ul><li>In QAR, students are specifically directed toward increasing metacognition. They are asked to discuss their own thinking by providing rationales and sources for their answers to questions. </li></ul>
  17. 17. QAR and the Cognitive Processes Perspective on Curriculum <ul><li>QAR reflect the cognitive processes perspective on curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>This orientation to curriculum focuses on intellectual processes and developing a set of cognitive skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Students are asked to develop and use such mental skills or processes as classifying, inferring and synthesizing (Burns and Brooks, 1970). </li></ul>
  18. 18. References <ul><li>Burns, R.W. & Brooks, G.D. (1970). Processes, problem solving, and curriculum reform. Educational Technology Publications, Inc., 10-13. </li></ul><ul><li>Ezell, H.K.., Hunsicker, S.A. & Quinque, M. M. (1996). Maintenance and generalization of QAR reading comprehension strategies. Reading Research and Instruction, 36, 64 – 81. </li></ul><ul><li>Ezell, H.K.., Hunsicker, S.A. & Quinque, M.M. (1997). Comparison of two strategies for teaching reading comprehension skills. Education and Treatment of Children, 20(4), 365-382. </li></ul><ul><li>Gunning, T.G. (1992). Creating reading instruction for all children. Massachusetts: Allyn & Bacon. </li></ul>
  19. 19. References (continued) <ul><li>Jacobson, J.M. (1998). Content area reading: Integration with the language arts. New York:Delmar. </li></ul><ul><li>Ormrod, J.E. (1998). Educational psychology: Developing learners. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. </li></ul><ul><li>Raphael, T.E. (1982). Question-answering strategies for children. The Reading Teacher, 36, 186 – 190. </li></ul><ul><li>Raphael, T.E. (1986). Teaching question answer relationships, revisited. The Reading Teacher, 39, 516-520. </li></ul><ul><li>Reutzel, R.D. & Cooter, R.B. (1992). Teaching children to read: From basals to books. New York: Macmillan. </li></ul><ul><li>Ruddell, R.B. (1999). Teaching children to read and write: Becoming an influential teacher. Massachusetts: Allyn & Bacon. </li></ul>