Made by: mohammed alrjoub
To: Dr. Adham Abu taha
Indigestion and Dyspepsia are terms commonly
used to describe a range of somewhat vague
symptoms in the upper GIT that
are generally associated
with the ingestion of food.
Indigestion has many possible causes like Lifestyle:
1. Overeating or eating too quickly.
2. Fatty, greasy or spicy foods.
3. Too much caffeine, alcohol, chocolate or carbonated
6. Certain antibiotics, pain relievers and iron supplements.
Gastritis, Peptic ulcers.
Pancreas inflammation (pancreatitis).
Stomach cancer, Intestinal blockage.
intestinal ischemia .
Indigestion with no obvious cause is known as
functional dyspepsia or nonulcer stomach pain.
weight loss or loss of appetite.
Repeated vomiting or vomiting with blood.
Black, tarry stools.
Trouble swallowing that gets progressively
Fatigue or weakness, which may be symptoms
Seek immediate medical attention if you have:
1. Shortness of breath, sweating or chest pain
radiating to the jaw, neck or arm.
2. Chest pain on exertion or with stress.
The compounds used as antacids are:
1. sodium and potassium bicarbonates
2. calcium carbonate
3. aluminium hydroxide
4. magnesium and bismuth salts
5. magnesium–aluminium complexes.
MOA: These are weak bases that dissociate to form
alkaline salts, thereby neutralizing gastric acidity.
MOA: Alginates act as reflux suppressants, they
form a sponge-like polymer matrix, forming barrier.
1. Alginic acid
2. Magnesium alginate
3. Sodium alginate.
Compounds available are : Famotidine, Ranitidine.
H2-antagonists are more effective treatments than
antacids for non-ulcer dyspepsia.
H2 receptor antagonists occupies receptor sites on the
parietal cells (H+/K+ ATPase) blocking their activity.
Famotidine: 10 mg for symptomatic relief or 1 hour
before consuming food or drink that causes
symptoms; maximum dose 20 mg in 24 hours.
Ranitidine: 75 mg for symptomatic relief, followed
by 75mg 1 hour later if symptoms persist; maximum
dose 300 mg in 24 hours.
H2 antagonists are well tolerated and the incidence of
side-effects is low.
They should not be sold to patients taking NSAIDs
drugs, these may mask the symptoms of developing
H2 antagonists are not licensed for sale to pregnant or
Omeprazole is a selective proton pump inhibitor.
It directly inhibits the H+/K+ ATPase of the parietal
cells of the stomach responsible for gastric acid
It is indicated primarily for pt’s with chronic,
intermittent, relapsing disorder of varying frequency
Who experience recurrent attacks, including at night,
which can be distressing and negatively affect quality
The initial dose is tow 10 mg tablets once daily,
swallowed whole before a meal, with plenty of liquid.
Omeprazole is licensed as OTC in adults aged 18
years and over. It should not be used by pregnant or
Caution should be taken when using anticoagulants
and antiepileptics with them (due to CYP450).
Domperidone is a D2 receptor antagonist.
Domperidone is licensed for the treatment of dysmotility
symptoms of dyspepsia, including sensations of fullness,
bloating, ‘heavy stomach’, belching and nausea.
The recommended dose is one 10 mg tablet three times
daily and at night, when required. The drug is licensed for
use in adults aged 16 years and over.
Not recommended during pregnancy or
Impaired hepatic or renal function.
antiflatulents and carminatives.