Roman Sculpture


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Revision on Roman Sculpture

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Roman Sculpture

  1. 1. Roman Sculpture Revision
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Roman sculpture had a public target: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make known Roman heroes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflect Rome’s History </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The main characteristics are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fidelity to the model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect of the canon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beauty is lost in favour of the truth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The two main genres were: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portrait </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical relief </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Influences <ul><li>Roman sculpture received influences from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Etruria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Funerary portrait </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Realistic depiction of the people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Greece </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portraits of famous people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representation of the psychology in addition to physical characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taste for collections (Greek works were admired and collected). </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Roman Portrait <ul><li>Origins: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wax portraits of dead member of the family to put in the houses (lares) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portraits of the emperor to send to the provinces </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Roman Portrait <ul><li>Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Imagines Maiorum: there were the masques of the ancestors made of wax </li></ul><ul><li>They were “positivated” in different materials </li></ul><ul><li>It was forbidden to depict people who did not have a public job. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Roman Portrait <ul><li>The first images had only the head, but without any part of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to superstitious believes, they so be very realistic and capsize the features of the dead person. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Roman Portrait <ul><li>Portraits are realistic, imitating even defects </li></ul><ul><li>They aim at glorying authorities, not the artists, so they are anonymous </li></ul><ul><li>Bear witnesses of things that happened. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Roman Portrait <ul><li>Evolution </li></ul>Simplified Realistic Idealised Realistic Low Empire IV- V Empire I-III AD High Republic VI-I BC
  9. 9. Roman Portrait <ul><li>Republic: Until 1st century BC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only head and neck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bronze or polychrome stone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grave and serene expressions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individualization of the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>character </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trend to idealise public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>characters. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Roman Portrait <ul><li>High Empire (1st-3rd centuries AD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Official portrait is idealized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They aim at underlining the importance of the character </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expression of character </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Face without beard </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Roman Portrait <ul><ul><li>With the Flavian dynasty (2nd century AD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Realism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hair gains volume </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beard appears </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chiaroscuro effects </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Roman Portrait <ul><li>Low Empire (4 th -5 th centuries AD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anticlassicism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lineal and hieratic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lost humanity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monumental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schematic </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Women Portrait <ul><li>It was the reflect of fashions </li></ul><ul><li>It is a realistic depiction of woman </li></ul><ul><li>Special attention to hair style. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Portrait Typology <ul><li>Thoracatae: victorious emperor </li></ul><ul><li>Apoteosic: as a good, naked and crowned </li></ul>
  15. 15. Portrait Typology <ul><li>Togatae: as a civilian, wearing the toga. </li></ul><ul><li>Pontifex Maximus: wearing the toga and with head covered </li></ul>
  16. 16. Imperial Portrait <ul><li>Was used as propagandistic </li></ul><ul><li>It used the Greek canon </li></ul><ul><li>A bit idealised </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired in classical images (Doriforo) </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological portrait </li></ul><ul><li>Barefoot = divinity </li></ul><ul><li>Use of symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Polychrome </li></ul>
  17. 17. Equestrian Portrait <ul><li>Depicted as military addressing to the citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Pacific character wearing as a philosopher </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced in Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological portrait </li></ul><ul><li>Equilibrated image </li></ul>
  18. 18. Historical Relief <ul><li>It appeared in different locations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Altars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triumphal arches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commemorative columns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sarcophagus </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Historical Relief <ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It aimed at glorifying immortality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They wanted to commemorate something important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Propaganda </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Historical Relief <ul><li>Technical characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pictorial effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perspective and different plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement and volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landscape elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution from naturalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to realism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced on Renaissance </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Historical Relief <ul><li>Altars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ara Pacis is the most famous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It reflects traditions of Augustus times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remains the friezes of the Parthenon </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Historical Relief <ul><li>Triumphal Arches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two of the most famous are those of Tito and Constantine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They explain a historical event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realistic with spatial references </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different plans. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Historical Relief <ul><li>Commemorative Columns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most famous is Trajan’s Column </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helicoidally organised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It narrates the campaign against </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the Dacians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous characters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War scenes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landscape </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Historical Relief <ul><li>Sarcophagus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The relieves are ornamental and memoirist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous depictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At least the frontal part is worked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It can be completely full of images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characters may appear lying on the top </li></ul></ul>