Islamic Art


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Revision on Islamic Art. It includes an special section on Islamic Art in Spain.

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Islamic Art

  1. 1. Islamic Art Revision
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Islamic civilization is based upon a monotheist religion </li></ul><ul><li>The expansion of this culture led to the creation of Muslim civilization </li></ul><ul><li>In Spain they created Al-Andalus </li></ul>
  3. 3. Characteristics <ul><li>Iconoclast art: it is forbidden to depict their God’s image </li></ul><ul><li>Stylised: it is ant naturalistic and full of geometry </li></ul><ul><li>Mutability: show that things are ephemeral, using poor materials and repetitions to create light effects </li></ul><ul><li>Decorative: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetal ( Ataurique ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geometric (lace) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arabesc (flowers and calligraphy) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Architectonic Typology <ul><li>The main buildings of Islamic architecture are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mosque </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Madrasa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mausoleum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Palace </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fortress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering works </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carevanserai </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Architecture: Characteristics <ul><li>It is a synthesis of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Byzantium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copte </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christian </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Buildings are not high, horizontality is underlined </li></ul><ul><li>The main building is the mosque </li></ul><ul><li>Materials are poor in general: brick, tiles, wax </li></ul><ul><li>Shapes tend to be cubic </li></ul><ul><li>Hemispheric domes </li></ul><ul><li>High towers ( minaret ) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Architecture: Characteristics <ul><li>Supports: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Column and pillar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slim and stylised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reused capitals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cimacio over the capital </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Covers: great variety: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat covers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaults and domes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Groin vaults </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pierced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crafted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muqarna </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Architecture: Characteristics <ul><li>Arches: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Types: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horse-shoe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polylobulate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pointed horse-shoe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination of colours </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very decorative </li></ul><ul><li>Walls covered with tiles </li></ul>
  8. 8. Mosque <ul><li>It is the centre of social life </li></ul><ul><li>It consists of a squared area covered by a dome </li></ul><ul><li>It is organised around a courtyard </li></ul><ul><li>In one side there is a tower to call for the pray: minaret </li></ul><ul><li>The main wall is directed to Mecca </li></ul><ul><li>Its origin is the Mahomet’s house in Medina </li></ul>
  9. 10. Mosque <ul><li>Structure: </li></ul><ul><li>Courtyard or Shan, uncovered </li></ul><ul><li>Qibla: wall directed to Mecca </li></ul><ul><li>Mirhab: niche open in the quibla and holiest place of the mosque </li></ul><ul><li>Maqsura: area in front of the Mirhab reserved for the caliph </li></ul><ul><li>Mimbar or pulpit </li></ul><ul><li>Haram or pray rooms </li></ul><ul><li>Minaret: tower to call for the pray </li></ul>
  10. 11. Sahn Qibla Mihrab Maqsura Minbar Haram Minaret
  11. 12. Mosque <ul><li>Typology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With hypostyle room </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With central plan covered with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a dome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With iwans or building on the sides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Iran) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Madrasa <ul><li>Building which functions as a teaching institution primarily of Islamic sciences </li></ul><ul><li>They are linked to a mosque </li></ul><ul><li>Inside there were </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classrooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students’ rooms </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Mausoleum <ul><li>Tombs of important people. </li></ul><ul><li>There were big constructions </li></ul>
  14. 15. Palace <ul><li>They were royal residences </li></ul><ul><li>They consisted of a lot of rooms </li></ul><ul><li>Gardens, courtyards and fountains were common. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Fortress <ul><li>These buildings were prepared for defence </li></ul><ul><li>They were surrounded by walls and built in high places, easy to defend. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Caravanserai <ul><li>Roadside building that provides shelter to travellers and their animals </li></ul><ul><li>They were located in the middle of caravan routes </li></ul><ul><li>They had a first floor with </li></ul><ul><li>a courtyard and spaces </li></ul><ul><li>for animals and products </li></ul><ul><li>The top floor was for travellers. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Bridges <ul><li>It was common the use of ogee arches </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes they are covered. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Other Buildings Observatory Bazaar Bath houses
  19. 20. Islamic Art in Spain <ul><li>Three periods can be distinguished: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Califal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Almohade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nazari </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Islamic Art in Spain Cordoba’s mosque is the most important work of the Califal style. Its construction began in 8th century and it was enlarge until 833.
  21. 22. Islamic Art in Spain The present building is the product of the fusion of the building iniciated by Abderraman I on the space formerly occupied by a christian church, whose constructive materials were reused in the new building. After that it was enlarged by Abderraman II and Almansur.
  22. 23. Islamic Art in Spain Cordoba’s mosque structure Mihrab Qibla Sabil or fountain Sahu or courtyard Minaret
  23. 24. Islamic Art in Spain The outside is similar to a fortress, with walls ending in crenelations and reforced by butresses. Limestome pieces are combined to underline the aspect of fortress.
  24. 25. Islamic Art in Spain <ul><li>The internal space gives a uniformity impression due to the identical naves. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a non-differenced </li></ul><ul><li>space where </li></ul><ul><li>horizontality is </li></ul><ul><li>dominant. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Islamic Art in Spain <ul><li>Columns have shaft without lines </li></ul><ul><li>Capitals are corinthian but very simplified </li></ul><ul><li>Over them appears the cimacio to make them higher </li></ul><ul><li>Arches combine two colours </li></ul><ul><li>There are horse-shoe arches in the first line and high semicircular arches on the second line. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Islamic Art in Spain Two coloured voissoirs Semicircular arches on the second line Horse-shoe arches over the columns, both of them sustained by the supports Two supports one over the other with a pilar elevated
  27. 28. Islamic Art in Spain <ul><li>The most luxurious part is the mihrab </li></ul><ul><li>The interior is covered in wax </li></ul><ul><li>Every type of decoration is used. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Islamic Art in Spain <ul><li>The mihrab is covered by a nerved dome </li></ul><ul><li>It is built on an octagonal basis </li></ul><ul><li>The nerves are not crossed in the centre, leaving an open space, it is a gallonate dome </li></ul><ul><li>It is a symbol of divine wisdom </li></ul>
  29. 30. Islamic Art in Spain <ul><li>The maqsura is an space in front of the mihrab that was reserved for the caliph </li></ul><ul><li>It was covered by four nerved domes, the same as in the mihrab. </li></ul><ul><li>It was limited by polylobulate arches, aligned in two one over the other. </li></ul><ul><li>Over there they are horse-shoe arches with small decorative columns. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Islamic Art in Spain <ul><li>Madinat al Zahra </li></ul>
  31. 32. Islamic Art in Spain <ul><li>Aljaferia palace was built during the Taifa time (11th century) </li></ul><ul><li>It is defensive. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Islamic Art in Spain <ul><li>During the Almohad invasion towers were frequent. </li></ul><ul><li>They have an obvious defensive character. </li></ul>
  33. 34. Islamic Art in Spain <ul><li>The buildings have different sections </li></ul><ul><li>All of them are quite closed on the basis, to have more windows in higher positions </li></ul><ul><li>They can have crenelations. </li></ul>
  34. 35. Islamic Art in Spain <ul><li>The last period of Islamic Art in Spain is the Nazari. </li></ul><ul><li>The main building is the Alhambra palace, in Grenade </li></ul><ul><li>It is a big complex built in the 14th century. </li></ul>
  35. 36. Islamic Art in Spain <ul><li>Different parts were added along History </li></ul><ul><li>The original nucleus it the Comares courtyard </li></ul><ul><li>Other important parts are Arrayans and Lions’ courtyards. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Islamic Art in Spain <ul><li>The alcazaba is the defensive part </li></ul><ul><li>In this area stone is dominant in the walls </li></ul><ul><li>The rest of the construction is made of brick. </li></ul>
  37. 38. Islamic Art in Spain <ul><li>The centre of the building is the Comares palace, to which the main rooms open </li></ul><ul><li>This area is built around the Arrayans courtyard </li></ul><ul><li>The inside is delicately decorated. </li></ul>
  38. 39. Islamic Art in Spain <ul><li>Nazari columns are made in white marble </li></ul><ul><li>They are crowned by different kind of capitals </li></ul><ul><li>They are characterised by being delicate and fragile. </li></ul>
  39. 40. Islamic Art in Spain <ul><li>Materials are poor </li></ul><ul><li>Brick is covered with wax </li></ul><ul><li>Marble is reserved for columns and floors </li></ul><ul><li>Wood is used in some decorations and mainly in the ceilings </li></ul><ul><li>The effect is of richness and sumptuous </li></ul>
  40. 41. Islamic Art in Spain <ul><li>Nature is essential </li></ul><ul><li>Everything is though to delight the senses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The endless noise of water in the fountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The gardens that can be seen from the windows </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When water is calmed it acts as a mirror, duplicating architectures. </li></ul>
  41. 42. Islamic Art in Spain <ul><li>The Lions’ Courtyard is surrounded by elegant columns </li></ul><ul><li>It is the space between the external light and the internal shade and freshness </li></ul><ul><li>It symbolised paradise with the zodiacal lions and the four rivers that fertilize the world </li></ul>
  42. 43. Islamic Art in Spain <ul><li>Some stances are covered by muqarna domes (The Two Sisters’ room) </li></ul><ul><li>This vault symbolises the cosmos, moving around and full of divine light </li></ul><ul><li>It suggest the shape of a star. </li></ul>
  43. 44. Islamic Art in Spain <ul><li>Decoration is sumptuous and delicate </li></ul><ul><li>It uses atauriqe, epigraphy, lace and sebka or a net of rhombus made of mixed lobulate arches combined. </li></ul><ul><li>Materials are characterised by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light reflection </li></ul></ul>
  44. 45. Islamic Art in Spain <ul><li>Muqarnas appear in arches </li></ul><ul><li>They look to be elegant curtains </li></ul><ul><li>It imitates lace work. </li></ul><ul><li>Muqarnas also decorate roofs, mainly vaults. </li></ul>
  45. 46. Islamic Art in Spain <ul><li>In ceilings flat cover dominates </li></ul><ul><li>Some rooms are covered by fully decorated domes </li></ul><ul><li>In the rest of the cases wood dominate. </li></ul>
  46. 47. Islamic Art in Spain <ul><li>There are summer palaces, as El Partal </li></ul><ul><li>As important as the palace itself is the garden and the </li></ul><ul><li>pound in front </li></ul><ul><li>The building is simple, with great arches flanked by alfiz. </li></ul>
  47. 48. Islamic Art in Spain <ul><li>The Generalife repeats the scheme of other palaces in Alhambra </li></ul><ul><li>Water and shade were essential elements to maintain a fresh atmosphere </li></ul>