Goya in Aragon
• The subject matter of these works are generally of a
• They were painted between 1760 and 1781 for his home
parish, his family and members of the Aragonese nobility.
• His most important clients were without doubt the
• Shortly before his departure to Madrid, the canons of the
Basilica del Pilar.
• After had left his home province, he continued to work for
Aragonese clients as a portrait and religious painter.
• In his youth, Goya assimilated various influences
from the atmosphere prevalent in Zaragoza and
Madrid at that time, mostly late Baroque and
• Major influences were painters such as Jose
Luzan, and Francisco Bayeu.
• During his journey to Italy he came into contact
with Classicism and the initial stages of Neo-
Classicism which were to have a temporary,
• He painted works of an
allegorical and mythological nature. However,
the greater part of his work consisted of
religious art, studies of contemporary life and
• During his time as painter for tapestries, a job
which required the study of conventional themes,
Goya committed himself to the pictorial study of
his characters (customs and fashion)
• In his works of a social nature, Goya systematically
addressed the most pressing social, economic and
political problems in Spain:
• the vices of the clergy,
• the philistinism of a large part of the aristocracy,
• the absurd and barbaric repression of the Inquisition,
• the excesses of violence and war,
• prostitution and the exploitation of women
• and obscurantism and superstition.
• In these works Goya revealed himself as an ilustrado, a
supporter of the Enlightenment, a lover of freedom and a
• During his period in Aragon he painted religious
subjects for Church
• He was chosen as a painter of tapestry cartoons
• In 1780 Goya entered the Real Academia de
Bellas Artes de San Francisco with a painting of
Christ on The Cross.
• Once he became famous he worked on portraits,
designs and religious paintings.
• First period: 1762-75
• He arrived to Madrid where he was under the influence of San Fernando’s
• After being in Italy he had the trend to portrait a cartoon realism
• Work: Dome of Zaragoza’s cathedral
Second period: 1775-92
He returned to Madrid and worked
in the Royal Tapestry Factory.
Works are traditional and he
portrayed a positive view of life.
Colours are brilliant and he had the
influence of Velazquez and his free
He started painting portraits.
• In the final decade of the century, Goya became aware of
the grotesque shifts in the socio-political climate. He
suffered a grave illness in 1792 which left him completely
deaf. His experiences of that time matured his work and
led him to adopt a more critical point of view.
• His new way of painting affected his religious work, as
can be seen in the frescos in the church of San Antonio de
• At the beginning of the 19th century, Goya began to work
on highly Romanticist subjects, such as contemporary
stories: scenes of witchcraft and the political role of
Third period: 1792-1808
He was ill and he had the
influence of liberal policy.
He continued painting portraits.
He made religious paintings where popular traditions were depicted.
He painted the “Majas”, with free and elegant technique.
• Another grave illness in 1819 brought about a new phase
in the artist's oeuvre. The fruits of this new change in
direction were the highly enigmatic paintings in his
country house, the Quinta del Sordo
• Here he painted his “black paintings”, creating a
horrifying, hallucinatory world of imagery
• Goya felt obliged to leave Spain in the midst of the
repression unleashed by Fernando VII after the French
invasion. He moved to and settled down in France where
he painted new portraits and some works on the subject
of bullfighting. The painting The Milkmaid of Bordeaux
marks the end of his artistic career
Fourth period: 1808-28
He became the painter of the chronics of
the Independence war, with simple images
but full of violence.
He was isolated and he started painting his
“black paintings”, which advanced
expressionism and surrealism.
Being a liberal, when absolutism was
restored, left Spain to go to France where
he painted “The Burdeos Milkmaid”, his last
• He excelled in the late Baroque and Rococo styles in his
youth, but he never fully incorporated the influence of
Neo-Classicism which was predominant in Spain and
Europe in the final decades of the18th century and the
beginning of the 19th.
• Goya was an artist ahead of his time, who created works
full of personality, both in painting and in engraving
without ever conforming to the conventional.
• He predicted the predominant movements of the 19th and
20th century. Romanticism, Impressionism,
Expressionism and Surrealism were the principal
movements to be influenced by his work.
• Goya was pictorially trained within the confines
of the late Baroque and Rococo styles, as can be
seen in the work produced in his youth.
• His journey to Italy brought him to into contact
with the prevailing pictorial styles of Classicism
and Neo-Classicism, the influences of which can
be seen in his work in Zaragoza.
• At Court he used different styles.
• In the tapestry cartoons, the Rococo was predominant
when dealing with subjects full of joy and vivacity.
• He allowed the new winds of Neo Classicism to influence
him in some of his religious and mythological works, but
he felt uncomfortable with the new style which was
becoming increasingly fashionable.
• He decided to follow his own aesthetic sensibilities.
• In his old age he stated that his masters were Velazquez,
Rembrandt and Nature.
• In the portraits and other works, the influence of
Velazquez can be seen in Goya's treatment of
space, light and staining techniques.
• This tendency became more and more
pronounced to an almost impressionistic degree,
from 1800 onwards.
• Goya's portraits, direct, psychological and
realistic, renewed the genre.
• Etching and aquatint were the predominant types of
engraving used by Goya in which he created a series of
works which were inspired by his personality and
• In the Caprichos fantasy and realism combined to
produce a savage, daring social critique. Similar to these
were the Disparates
• Crude and desolate realism dominate
The Disasters of War.
• The Tauromaquia is based on the bullfighting tradition.
• The world of the subconscious blossomed in the
mysterious, impact full images of the Black
Paintings, painted in the Quinta del Sordo in
• These images were to be appreciated years later
by Expressionists and Surrealists as precursors of
• In paintings he did not used drawing. The images
were realised with colour stains.
• His palette changed with the time:
• At the beginning it was light, full of colour, as if this
was his perception of life
• It became more violent in the paintings depicting the
• After his illness it became dark and with a very limited
number of colours
• His brushstrokes are powerful, but they changed
along his life:
• More regular at the beginning and in portraits
• Irregular and careless but full of strenght in war
paintings and black paintings
• He managed to represent any kind of textures and
sometimes his touch is delicate, specially in
His brush-stroke was more and more free and he was losing colour.
• In etchings and engravings he used different
• Dry point: he did the drawing directly on the surface
by making incisions
• Burin: he prepared the surface with the drawing
realised with a burin
• Aquatint: he used a resine to cover the plaque; he
painted on that and after the plaque was submerged in
an acid that attacked the parts not covered by the
• Religious: Paintings of the Seo of Zaragoza and frescoes
of San Antonio de la Florida
• Customs: La Gallina Ciega, El Quitasol
• Portraits: Duchesse of Alba, Ferdinand VII, Charles IV’s
Family, Duchesse of Chinchón, Floridablanca
• History: Charge of the Mameluques, The Shootings of the
3th of May
• Black paintings: Aquelarre, Saturno Eating His Sons
• Etching and engraving: Caprichos, Disparates, Disasters
of the War, Tauromaquia