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Revision on Expressionist painting.

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  1. 1. EXPRESSIONISM Revision
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>The name Expressionism is used to refer to the German art of the early 20th century. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a European phenomenon that had two branches: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The France based group developed the Fauvism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The German branch paved the way for Der Blaue Reiter. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Phylosophy <ul><li>The name tends to reflect their opposition to the Impressionism. </li></ul><ul><li>The Expressionism is a movement from the inside to the outside. </li></ul><ul><li>Its attitude can be even aggressive. </li></ul><ul><li>The movement has something in common with the Impressionism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>both movements are realistic and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>both ask for the full compromise of the artists in the matter of the reality. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The expressionist are involved in their society, they do not escape from it. </li></ul>
  4. 4. History <ul><li>The first German Expressionism was born in 1905 with the movement known as Die Brüke that is related to the national figurative tradition. </li></ul><ul><li>The artists understood the world as a deep existential condition of the human being: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the desire of having the reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and the anguish of being possessed by the reality </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Die Brücke <ul><li>Die Brücke is a solid artists’ community with a written programme. </li></ul><ul><li>Members of the group are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kirchner, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nolde, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schiele, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kokoschka. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The German situation of the time was obscure, with different artistic influences. </li></ul><ul><li>Die Brücke proposed the union of the revolutionary element to fight against the Impressionism. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Die Brücke <ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it is a realism that creates reality; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they begin from nothing, just from the artist ideas; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the matter influences on the artist; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the subjects reflect daily life (streets, people in the cafes); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the works are a bit rude </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Die Brücke <ul><li>In their opinion technique is not something that can be invented, it is just work. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important the dominance of graphics, especially xylography, in which the carving can be violent and the result is sometimes irregular. </li></ul><ul><li>Technique: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the painting is dense, full of colour, with stains and lack of hues; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it is more important the process than the result. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Die Brücke <ul><li>The artist works directly on the image and chooses the colours depending on their mood. </li></ul><ul><li>Deformations are common and they are sometimes aggressive. </li></ul><ul><li>They find their inspiration in the work of primitive cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>They do not have a concept of beauty, for them it changes to be ugliness, deformity: it is the poetry of the awful </li></ul>
  9. 9. Die Brücke <ul><li>Expressionist artists renounce to be bourgeois and criticise this social group. </li></ul><ul><li>In their opinion, existence is self-creation and they oppose to the industrial work that creates a dehumanized society. </li></ul><ul><li>They are obsessed with the subject of sex because the relation of men and women is the basis of the society </li></ul><ul><li>They consider that society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>deforms, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is perverse, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is negative, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>alienates. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Der Blaue Reiter <ul><li>Die Brücke was dissolved in 1913 when the group Der Blaue Reiter started its investigation with a less compromised attitude. </li></ul><ul><li>Members of this group are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beckmann, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dix, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grosz, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marc, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macke, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kandinsky, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Klee. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They do not have a defined programme. And their orientation is more spiritual. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Der Blaue Reiter <ul><li>Their objective is to coordinate international exhibitions to foster their polemic writings </li></ul><ul><li>The ideas of the artists of this group are not revolutionary but it is anti-classicist. </li></ul><ul><li>They are influenced by Matisse, oriental art and even music. </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols are limited to common objects while the aesthetic communication is dominant. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Der Blaue Reiter <ul><li>Characteristics of the movement are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>importance of the colour and its significance; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>primitivism; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improvisation; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inclusion of different lines and shapes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>curves, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>zigzags, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stain; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>art is understood as communication. </li></ul></ul>