• 1907 is taken as the date in which Cubism
was born, when Picasso and Braque met
• `Les Demoiselles d’Avignon is the painting
considered to be the precursor of the
• After that, Picasso forgot any kind of artistic
depiction different from the cubism.
• The name was given to the movement after
the words of the critic Louis Vauxcelles who
said that the forms were `strange cubic
• Cubism is not something theoretical, but a
• Its characteristics are the following:
– -Plans are independent and
autonomous: smaller ones break big
volumes. Lines around break the images
and when the lines themselves are
broken the image remains a
– Perspective is multiple: each plan is
autonomous. The angles multiply and in
this way we can see the object from
different points of view, all together.
– Light and shade disappear: this is a
consequence of the dissolution of the
– Local colour: Colour is not important. It is
applied through small brushstrokes and
it is valid for any object. Geometrization:
Compositions are full of geometrical
shapes. Any natural depiction is
represented through cylinder, cone,
sphere, or cubes. Cezanne had
pioneered this idea.
– Philosophical basis: the work of some
philosophers as Bergson is essential to
understand this movement. He said that
a person has in his brain a lot of
information about an object and the
experience is the basis for intellectuality.
Cubist painters apply this concept: they
do not want to represent reality, but the
ideas they have about that reality.
• The main representatives of the
– and Juan Gris.
• In a different level
– Robert and Sonia Delaunay
– and Leger.
• Work prior to
• African influence
• Natural forms are
separated in order
to depict things
• Different plans at
depicted at the
• There are three different periods
in Cubism: analytic, hermetic
and synthetic, that developed in
– Analytic Cubism:
Artists investigated nature to
distort and deform it. All the
works are a collection of
different plans completely
impossible to understand.
– Hermetic Cubism: Artists aimed at
making their works easier to be
understood, so that they included some
elements that would be identified such
as musical instruments. During this
period some realist elements appeared
too, as printing characters, numbers,
newspaper pieces, or labels. They
wanted to transmit the idea of a
combination of different materials by
imitating wood or marble.
– Synthetic Cubism: Collages are included
in the works as a sculptural antecedent.
They do not imitate things, but they glue
them to the canvas. These works are
known with the name `papier collé .
Braque was the first using this technique
through which he aimed at linking art
and life. It offers the possibility of having
a real reference. Painting is revised and
new ways are opened for the artists. Now
they are not limited to painting but they
built in some way. This technique paved
the way for the third dimension and for
• These collages would be
– the Dadaist work, where the
`ready-made produced by
Duchamp are the heirs of them.
– Italian futurism took their
simplified forms but with stronger
and vivid colours
• Leger produced works in which
colour had a bigger importance
• He sometimes represented
tubular structures that remain
• In other of his works line and
colour are independent, and do
not fit perfectly well
• He used flat colours limited by
• Sonia and Robert Delaunay
produced works with simple shapes
of harmonic colours, developing an
style known as orphism.
• Their style is full of lyrism
• Robert used straight lines and
sometimes we can distinguish well
known images (not always)
• Sonia preferred harmonic colours
and curve shapes.