Preparing for International
Operations in a Cyberworld
a Norwegian Army Example
Ekaterina Prasolova-Førland and Mikhail Fo...
Motivation (1)
o

3D virtual worlds and game-based simulations are
to an increasing degree used for military training
–

o...
Motivation (2)
o

3

“…the (US) Army lacks both experience in using
GBS (Game-Based Simulations) within a training
program...
Tactical Iraqi (Pashto, Dari, and Indonesian)

4

Source: Johnson, 2009; Surface et al., 2007; www.alelo.com
First Person Cultural Trainer

5

Source: Zielke, 2011; Zielke et al. 2010
Second Life: US Military islands

6
Cultural Awareness in Military
Operations (CAMO): Project Goals
o

o

o

7

create an inexpensive and
flexible simulation ...
Participants
o

Norwegian Armed Forces:
–
–
–
–
–

o
o

8

Norwegian Defense University College (ADL)
Norwegian Army War A...
Theoretical and methodological
background
o

Theoretical basis
–
–

o

Existing methodologies
–
–

9

Situation Awareness ...
Scenario development for military
simulations

Source: Hartog, 2009

10
Learning goals
o

T. Tactics: general tactics (in a concrete cultural
context), e.g. identifying threats based on the rele...
Example: learning sub-goals and
associated mini-scenarios
o
o
o
o
o
o
12

Tactics T3. Securing an
area (village/house)
Rel...
Example: Gender
o

Learning goal G1:
Close contact with
local women
–

–
–

–

13

Cues: a local woman asks
for/needs (med...
Mini-scenarios => story example
o

Scene 5. While passing by a house, the squad
observes a crying local woman, visibly inj...
Outline of the story
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

15

Scene 1: Entering the village and interacting with
local children
Scene 2: Approac...
Virtual Afghan village:
Environment design
o

Focus
–
–
–

o

Types of content
–
–

o

General content for creating the co...
CAMO evaluation

17
Mission Order

18
Evaluation results: an overview
o

Study settings
–
–
–
–

o

Major outcomes
–
–
–

19

14 cadets from Norwegian Army War ...
Feedbacks from the participants
o

Advantages:
–
–

–
–

o

Limitations/improvement suggestions:
–
–
–
–

20

“I got very ...
Conclusions and future work
o

Virtual worlds for cultural awareness training
–
–
–

o

Flexible, inexpensive, suitable fo...
Ongoing work
o
o

Enhancing virtual Afghan village with crowd
simulation to reflect various security situations
Crowd comp...
Questions?
Feedbacks?
Ekaterina Prasolova-Førland
ekaterip@ntnu.no

Mikhail Fominykh

mikhail.fominykh@ntnu.no

23
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Preparing for international operations in a cyberworld a norwegian army example

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Ekaterina Prasolova-Førland, Mikhail Fominykh, Ramin Darisiro, Anders I. Mørch, David Hansen: "Preparing for International Operations in a Cyberworld: a Norwegian Army Example," in Arjan Kuijper and Alexei Sourin ed. the 13th International Conference on Cyberworlds (CW), Yokohama, Japan, October 21–23, 2013, IEEE. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CW.2013.47

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Preparing for international operations in a cyberworld a norwegian army example

  1. 1. Preparing for International Operations in a Cyberworld a Norwegian Army Example Ekaterina Prasolova-Førland and Mikhail Fominykh Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway Ramin Darisiro Norwegian Armed Forces Anders I. Mørch University of Oslo, Norway David Hansen Centre for International and Strategic Analysis, Norway 1
  2. 2. Motivation (1) o 3D virtual worlds and game-based simulations are to an increasing degree used for military training – o o Operational culture: understanding culture is a basic component of operational planning, training, and execution Lack of systematic, research-based methods for using game-based simulations in military training, especially in the area of cultural awareness – 2 demonstrating concepts and situations that are difficult, expensive or unsafe to represent efficiently enough in a classroom setting Few of the existing methods are published and systematized due to security concerns or/and commercial interests
  3. 3. Motivation (2) o 3 “…the (US) Army lacks both experience in using GBS (Game-Based Simulations) within a training program as well as research-based training methods for using GBS in training. In addition, the use of GBS systems requires aids for scenario development, training practices, and performance measurement tools that do not exist”.
  4. 4. Tactical Iraqi (Pashto, Dari, and Indonesian) 4 Source: Johnson, 2009; Surface et al., 2007; www.alelo.com
  5. 5. First Person Cultural Trainer 5 Source: Zielke, 2011; Zielke et al. 2010
  6. 6. Second Life: US Military islands 6
  7. 7. Cultural Awareness in Military Operations (CAMO): Project Goals o o o 7 create an inexpensive and flexible simulation for training cultural awareness among military personnel explore the advantages and limitations of cyberworlds in this context create methodological guidelines and tools for developing 3D educational simulations for future use
  8. 8. Participants o Norwegian Armed Forces: – – – – – o o 8 Norwegian Defense University College (ADL) Norwegian Army War Academy Norwegian Defense Language and Intelligence School Telemark Battalion Norwegian Defense Media Center Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) University of Oslo (UiO)
  9. 9. Theoretical and methodological background o Theoretical basis – – o Existing methodologies – – 9 Situation Awareness theory (Endsley, 1995) Naturalistic Decision Making approach (Klein, 2008; CairdDaley et al., 2009; Zsambok, 1997) UK Human Factors Integration Defence Technology Centre The Royal Netherlands Army/TNO Defense, Security & Safety/Delft University of Technology
  10. 10. Scenario development for military simulations Source: Hartog, 2009 10
  11. 11. Learning goals o T. Tactics: general tactics (in a concrete cultural context), e.g. identifying threats based on the relevant cues from the environment o G. Gender: interacting with women in tribal/clan communities, e.g. how to act towards Afghan women o R. Religion: dealing with religious customs and practices o S. Socializing: observing local customs, e.g. when dealing with children, visiting a house o L. Language: basic language skills for simple tasks like polite greeting, asking for directions, identifying security threats; interactions between the interpreter, the locals and the squad 11
  12. 12. Example: learning sub-goals and associated mini-scenarios o o o o o o 12 Tactics T3. Securing an area (village/house) Religion R1. Correct behavior during a prayer Religion R2. Food during Ramadan Gender G1. Close contact with local women Social interaction S3. Dealing with children Language L1. Basic polite phrases in local language
  13. 13. Example: Gender o Learning goal G1: Close contact with local women – – – – 13 Cues: a local woman asks for/needs (medical) assistance Appropriate reaction: a female soldier approaches the woman, talks to her and provides necessary assistance Typical/possible mistake: a male soldier approaches the woman, talks to her and in the worst case touches her while attempting to provide assistance Typical response in case of mistake: the woman (other locals) gets upset/hostile, further efforts are needed to resolve the situation
  14. 14. Mini-scenarios => story example o Scene 5. While passing by a house, the squad observes a crying local woman, visibly injured – – – – – – – 14 Learning goals: G1. Close contact with local women + S5. Providing medical assistance to local population + T1. Identifying possible threats + T2. Interaction within the squad + L1. Basic polite phrases in local language + L2. Interaction between the interpreter, the locals and the squad Cues to focus and reflect over Responses and possible outcomes (”best/worst case”) Instructions to the players + improvisation Requirements for the virtual environment Story = mission order + role definitions + ‘scenes’ + alternative courses REUSE!
  15. 15. Outline of the story o o o o o o o 15 Scene 1: Entering the village and interacting with local children Scene 2: Approaching the local woman to inquire about the whereabouts of the village chieftain Scene 3: Looking for the mosque Scene 4: Waiting outside and greet the chieftain and his two men appearing from the mosque Scene 5. Observing a crying woman, visibly injured, providing appropriate medical assistance Scene 6: Arriving at the chieftain’s compound Scene 7: Discussing the security situation with the chieftain
  16. 16. Virtual Afghan village: Environment design o Focus – – – o Types of content – – o General content for creating the context and atmosphere Specific content for specific mini-scenarios Phases – – 16 Low cost Short development time Reusability Design and search for the required content Building and co-locating objects (reused in multiple places, copied, and joined in different combinations)
  17. 17. CAMO evaluation 17
  18. 18. Mission Order 18
  19. 19. Evaluation results: an overview o Study settings – – – – o Major outcomes – – – 19 14 cadets from Norwegian Army War Academy 8 students and teachers from Norwegian Defense Language and Intelligence School Pre- and posttests, interviews, observations 2 walk-throughs, 3 debriefs Cadets positive to the use of 3D virtual worlds for training cultural awareness Learning outcomes related to the major topics in the scenarios Learning from taking different perspectives, facing dilemmas, and observing squad leader actions
  20. 20. Feedbacks from the participants o Advantages: – – – – o Limitations/improvement suggestions: – – – – 20 “I got very much out of it during a very short time”, “plenty of ahaexperiences” “This (system) can provide several possibilities in a deployment environment to increase understanding among troops preparing for international operations” Immersion in the role User-friendly, motivating, and fun experience Differentiation of scenarios and challenges according to the different roles within the squad (active and peripheral participation) Crowd simulation (important for identifying threats) Limited selection of gestures and body language Limited range for voice communication
  21. 21. Conclusions and future work o Virtual worlds for cultural awareness training – – – o Flexible, inexpensive, suitable for distance education Support for collaborative work and learning Technological challenges Further development of methodology – – Extension of existing learning goals and corresponding miniscenarios ‘database’ Adjustments for different destinations and different user groups, both military and civilian, for example: – Training of medical workers (military, Red Cross, etc) – Training of humanitarian aid workers – Both inside and outside Afghanistan 21
  22. 22. Ongoing work o o Enhancing virtual Afghan village with crowd simulation to reflect various security situations Crowd composition: size, gender – – – – o Using methodology for creating scenarios for surgical nurses training at St. Olav’s hospital in Trondheim, Norway – 22 Empty village: might mean ambush Many children and families: might be local festival, low threat Predominantly young men present: might be Taliban in disguise Predominantly women/elders present: men might be fighting with Taliban elsewhere Communicating with patients and colleagues prior to a surgery
  23. 23. Questions? Feedbacks? Ekaterina Prasolova-Førland ekaterip@ntnu.no Mikhail Fominykh mikhail.fominykh@ntnu.no 23

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