PhD defense - Collaborative Work on 3D Educational Content

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Mikhail Fominykh: "Collaborative Work on 3D Educational Content," Norwegian University of Science and Technology, ISBN: 978-82-471-3451-1, April 24, 2012.
Degree: PhD in Information Technology. Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Information Technology, Mathematics and Electrical Engineering, Department of Computer and Information Science.

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  • Good afternoon! My name is Mikhail Fominykh. I am a PhD-candidate at NTNU and I study the use of 3D virtual environments for learning.
  • Networking component allows the technology to connect multiple users (learners) and provides them with a possibility to interact. Virtual Reality provides a “parallel reality”, a persistent computer-simulated environment. 3D graphics provides the users with 3D representations – avatars and a 3D space where they can navigate.
  • This technology has several names and definitions and I have chosen the term 3D CVEs for my thesis. The technology has a set of features that can be used for facilitation learning: It allows rich Interaction overcoming the barriers of the physical worlds It also allows to Simulate the required educational context It provides rich possibilities for Communication , including not only text and voice, but also gestures and avatar navigation Last but not least, this technology provide a certain type of Immersion . In addition, the technology requires only a regular computer to access it.
  • There are many challenges, but I focused on three groups of them. Technological and instructional support of learning communities.
  • Given the challenges presented above, the main goal of the research work is: to explore collaborative work on 3D content, including its use in educational context, design of tools and environments, and support of communities. The main question that this research work aims to answer is: MRQ: How to provide learning communities with an adequate support for collaborative work on 3D educational content in a virtual campus and virtual city context?
  • The main research goal can be decomposed into 3 Research Topics . In the context of this research work, the topics are interconnected. Collaborative work on 3D content was studied in the context of Virtual campus and Virtual city environments. The data collected in the studies were used for developing a learning approach for the use of educational visualizations in 3D CVEs. In addition, the data were used for exploring the design of tools and environments . Support of communities was studied in the context of presented virtual environments. The major emphasis was on the technological and instructional support of learning communities in a university and its connections to the other communities in the city.
  • Next, for each Research Topic there is a corresponding Research Question . First, How can collaborative work on 3D content benefit educational activities? Second, How to design tools and environments to benefit these educational activities? And third, How to support learning communities, also in the context of these educational activities, using these tools and environments.
  • Now, each Research Question has two more specific sub-question. Within the first RQ, I studied A: how to characterize 3D content and educational visualizations and B: how to facilitate learning by means of educational visualizations in 3D CVEs.
  • Within the second RQ, the sub-questions were A: How to design tools and B: How to design environments of a virtual campus and a virtual city .
  • And the third RQ was decomposed into A: How to support learning communities by means of collaborative work on 3D content and B: How to support them in an educational virtual city.
  • Now, I would like to demonstrate when the RQs were formulated and how they are all interconnected. The main RQs were formulated earlier and they are more generic, however that sub-questions are more specific and lead directly to the contributions.
  • An iterative method was applied in this research work. The work started from setting initial theoretical propositions on the Planning phase. Then, the first explorative study was conducted and empirical data were collected. The data were analysed and used for two different purposes: deriving requirements for a prototype and building a theoretical framework . Both the prototype and the framework were intended to be used and tested in the next empirical study.
  • In such a way, four empirical studies were conducted. In addition, three iterations of prototype development were conducted.
  • The primary data were collected from the following sources of evidence: direct observation of students’ activities online, virtual artefacts, such as chat log and 3D constructions, and users’ feedback in the form of pre- and post-questionnaires and individual and group essays or blogs. Primary data were analysed using qualitative methods, including discourse analysis, content analysis, and constant comparison.
  • PhD defense - Collaborative Work on 3D Educational Content

    1. 1. Collaborative Work on 3D Educational Content Thesis for the degree of philosophiae doctor Mikhail Fominykh Norwegian University of Science and Technology 24.04.2012 Trondheim, Norway1
    2. 2. Outline o Introduction o Research Design o Results o Evaluation o Future Work2
    3. 3. Technology-Enhanced Learning Technology Learning3
    4. 4. The Technology Networking Virtual 3D Reality Graphics4
    5. 5. Collaborative Virtual Environments o 3D CVEs – three dimensional, multiuser, synchronous, persistent environments, facilitated by networked computers o Features – interaction – simulation – communication – immersion5
    6. 6. Challenges o Collaborative work on 3D content ‒ need for learning approaches methods that exploit advantages of 3D CVEs and overcome limitations o Tools and environments ‒ need for convenient educational tools and environments that would support educational activities in 3D CVEs o Learning communities ‒ need for exploring how 3D CVEs can support learning communities6
    7. 7. Outline o Introduction o Research Design o Results o Evaluation o Future Work7
    8. 8. Research Goal o Main goal ‒ explore collaborative work on 3D content, including its use in educational context, design of tools and environments, and support of communities o Main RQ ‒ How to provide learning communities with an adequate support for collaborative work on 3D educational content in a virtual campus and virtual city context?8
    9. 9. Research Topics Topic 1 Collaborative work on 3D educational content Topic 2 Design of tools and environments within 3D CVEs Topic 3 Support for learning communities in 3D CVEs9
    10. 10. Research Questions RQ1 How can collaborative work on 3D content benefit educational activities? RQ2 How to design tools and environments in 3D CVEs to benefit educational activities? RQ3 How to support learning communities in 3D CVEs?10
    11. 11. Research Questions RQ1 How can collaborative work on 3D content benefit educational activities? RQ1a How to characterise 3D content and educational visualizations in CVEs? RQ1b How to facilitate learning by means of educational visualizations in 3D CVEs? Collaborative work Topic 1 on 3D content11
    12. 12. Research Questions RQ2 How to design tools and environments in 3D CVEs to benefit educational activities? RQ2a How to design tools for a virtual campus and a virtual city? RQ2b How to design environments of a virtual campus and a virtual city? Tools and Topic 2 environments12
    13. 13. Research Questions RQ3 How to support learning communities in 3D CVEs? RQ3a How to support learning communities by means of collaborative work on 3D content? RQ3b How to support learning communities in an educational virtual city? Learning Topic 3 communities13
    14. 14. RQ-Interconnections Timeline RQ1 RQ1a C1 RQ1b C2 RQ2 RQ2a C3 RQ2b C4 RQ3 RQ3a C5 RQ3b C6 2008 2009 2010 201114
    15. 15. General Research Approach Planning Proposal Observation/ Prototype empirical study Development Data Data analysis/ Requirements Framework theoretical study Analysed data15
    16. 16. General Research Approach Planning Proposal Observation/ Prototype empirical study Development (x 3) Data (x 4) Data analysis/ Requirements Framework theoretical study Analysed data16
    17. 17. Methods and Data o Case study method ‒ multiple sources of evidence and multiple cases o Data sources ‒ direct observation ‒ virtual artefacts: chat log and 3D constructions ‒ user feedback: questionnaires and essays/blogs o Analysis ‒ discourse analysis, content analysis, and constant comparison17
    18. 18. Research Process Virtual Research Universcity Arena Theoretical CVW and CVW and Virtual studies Virtual campus Virtual campus and virtual city Virtual campus (I) campus (II) Educational 3D content & visualization visual means methodology Educational Virtual city Empirical studies Educational Educational Educational visualization visualization visualization (I) (II) (III) time 2008 2009 2010 2011 Collaborative work Tools and Learning Topic 1 Topic 2 Topic 3 on 3D content environments communities18
    19. 19. Outline o Introduction o Research Design o Results o Evaluation o Future Work19
    20. 20. Results o 4 Empirical studies – observation, development, and evaluation o 5 Projects – among them, 3 EU-funded o 6 Contributions o 20 Publications – published: 1 book chapter, 3 Journal articles, and 13 conference papers – under review: 3 conference papers20
    21. 21. Contributions to Topic 1 C 1 Typology of 3D Content and Visualization Means – a framework for analyzing 3D educational visualizations C 2 Methodology for learning with 3D educational visualizations – a sequence of well-defined phases for structuring educational process Collaborative work Topic 1 on 3D content21
    22. 22. Student projects – 3D visualizations22
    23. 23. Contributions to Topic 2 C 3 Creative Virtual Workshop – a framework for designing tools to support collaborative work on 3D content – tools at the NTNU virtual campus (prototype) C 4 Guidelines for designing virtual campuses and virtual cities – six-dimension guidance – Virtual City of Yoshkar-Ola (R&D) – Travel in Europe (R&D) Topic 2 Tools and environments – Virtual Campus of NTNU (prototype)23
    24. 24. Virtual Cities VCYO and TiE24
    25. 25. Virtual Campus of NTNU25
    26. 26. Contributions to Topic 3 C 5 Virtual Research Arena – a framework for creating awareness about educational and research activities – Virtual Science Fair (prototype) C 6 Universcity – a framework for designing educational virtual cities – integration of culture, society, education, and entertainment Learning Topic 3 communities26
    27. 27. Virtual Science Fair27
    28. 28. Virtual Science Fair28
    29. 29. Universcity Layer of education and research Virtual Virtual lab campus Information Virtual Virtual place Research museum Arena Cultural layer Social layer Community Virtual facilities Universcity stage Socializing Serious Virtual place game club Multi-user Contextual game game Entertainment layer29
    30. 30. Research Papers Paper 5 Paper 6 Paper 8 ‘Universcity’: Virtual Research 3D CVEs for educational Arena community Virtual City building VSMM 2010 G-Learn 2011 CSCL at work CP 1A CP 1A Aw BC CoA Paper 1 Paper 2 Paper 3 Paper 9 Paper 7 Paper 4 Virtual City: a Integration of Educational 3D CVEs for Educational 3D Educational place for Virtual Campus visualizations in creativity visualizations: content: learning and and Virtual City a virtual campus support Methodology challenges and socializing implications iJET 2009 JILR 2011 G-Learn 2010 E-Learn 2011 ITSE 2012 CATE 2010 JP 1A JP 1A CP CoA CP 1A JP 1A CP CoA JP Journal paper 1A First authorship Aw Awarded paper CP Conference paper CoA Co-authorship Important contribution BC Book chapter Collaborative work Tools and Learning Topic 1 on 3D content Topic 2 environments Topic 3 communities30
    31. 31. Outline o Introduction o Research Design o Results o Evaluation o Future Work31
    32. 32. Evaluation o Goals achieved – collaborative work on 3D content explored, including its use in educational context, design of tools and environments, and support of communities – focus specified – context extended o Main RQ answered – six contributions – multidisciplinary results32
    33. 33. Outline o Introduction o Research Design o Results o Evaluation o Future Work33
    34. 34. Future Work o Collaborative work on 3D Content – new domains, new methods, and new platforms o Design of tools – vAcademia project o Design of environments – CAMO project o Learning communities – international collaboration and creativity34
    35. 35. Thank you! Mikhail Fominykh Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway mikhail.fominykh@ntnu.no35
    36. 36. Virtual Research Arena context Social layer Layer of ed. and research Universcity Cultural layer Entertainment layer Authentic environment Virtual Virtual Learning & researching Research Campus Socializing Arena Workplace (tools & tutorials) Creative Virtual library Virtual Virtual stage Workshop Virtual gallery36
    37. 37. Research Context o Virtual City of Yoshkar-Ola o Travel in Europe (EU) o Virtual Campus of NTNU and Virtual Science Fair o TARGET (EU) summer schools o CoCreat (EU)37
    38. 38. Validity o Construct validity – threat: subjective perception of the participants – multiple sources of evidence and user groups o Internal validity – threat: no control over the variables – multiple sources of evidence and multiple cases o External validity – threat: no representative sample – additional data, multiple contexts and evaluations38

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