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Solar Ice Production


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How can you produce Ice, using Solar energy.

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Solar Ice Production

  1. 1. Overview of possible solutions Martin F.G. van der Jagt Aqua-Aero WaterSystems
  2. 2. • PV and compressor system• Heat driven systems (Sun or bio-fuel): o Absorption o Steam engine – mechanical compressor o Solar Stirling – mechanical compressor
  3. 3. Ref.
  4. 4. • Is available• but expensive
  5. 5. PV Ice Production: The Luis Leon reservoir in the heart of theChihuahuan desert with the Chorreras ice-house. TheChorreras community at the inauguration of their 2.4 kWp PVice-making system in March, 1999. Everybody appreciates alittle extra shade in the desert as well.Ref.
  6. 6. ISAAC Solar Ice MakerThe ISAAC Solar Icemaker is an Intermittent Solar Ammonia-waterAbsorption Cycle. The ISAAC uses a parabolic trough solarcollector and a compact and efficient design to produce ice with nofuel or electric input, and with no moving parts.The ISAAC Solar Icemaker operates in two modes. During the day,solar energy is used to generate liquid ammonia refrigerant. Duringthe night, the generator is cooled by a thermosyphon and ice isformed in the evaporator compartment as ammonia is reabsorbedto the generator.Six ISAAC Solar Icemakers in the Coastal region of Kenya. Thepurpose of installation is to preserve milk so the farmers cantransport their milk to market before it spoils. This will increase theincome of the farmers and decrease poverty in the area.
  7. 7. ISAAC Solar Icemakers in Kenia
  8. 8. ISAAC Solar Icemakers in Kenia
  9. 9. Parameters: Life cycle cost analysis of a diesel operatedicemaker (investment US$15,000) compared to 18 ISAACsolar icemakers (investment US$72,000), both producing0.9 Tons of ice per 24hrs. Discount rate is 15%, economiclife is 20 years, scrap value is US$0,00 and at year 10 anew Diesel generator will be purchased at a cost ofUS$5,000. It is assumed that local assembly will make theISAACs available at US$4,000 each. Because of thecountry specific cost for transportation, import tax,maintenance and labour costs, these cost are assumedequal for both operations and therefore not taken intoaccount in this cost comparison. Assumed energy use is90kWh/ton of ice and the efficiency of the generator isassumed at 3kWh/liter of Diesel.
  10. 10. 5hp steam engines from
  11. 11. Methamatics of Scheffers Parabole
  12. 12. ExplanationDer Spiegel ist ein kleiner, seitlicher Ausschnitt eines wesentlichgrößeren, runden Paraboloids. Durch die schräge Schnittführungentsteht dabei die typische elliptische Kontur des Scheffler-Reflektors.Das von diesem Ausschnitt des Paraboloids reflektierte Licht fällt von derSeite auf den ein Stück weit entfernten Brennpunkt.Die Achse für die tageszeitliche Nachführung liegt in Nord-Süd Richtungparallel zur Erdachse und läuft durch den Schwerpunkt des Reflektors.So ist er immer im Gleichgewicht und das mechanische Uhrwerk mußnur mit einer geringen Kraft angetrieben werden um ihn synchron mit derSonne zu drehen.Damit sich der Brennpunkt dabei nicht bewegt liegt er auf derRotationachse. Der Abstand zwischen Brennpunkt und Reflektormittehängt von der gewählten Ausgangsparabel ab.Das konzentrierte Licht wird so während des Tagesverlaufs nur um seineigenes Zentrum rotieren, sich aber in keiner Richtung seitlich bewegen.Der Brennpunkt bleibt also fixiert, was natürlich praktisch ist, da derKochtopf nun auch nicht bewegt werden muß.
  13. 13. Solar Powered Stirling Generators: Direct E production!
  14. 14. Cummins Power Generation of Columbus, Indiana.5 kW free-piston engine dish/Stirling system. Theconcentrator incorporates 24 stretched-membrane facets(5 feet in diameter). A slight vacuum is drawn between themembranes to obtain an approximately spherical shape.
  15. 15. German/Saudi 50 kW dish/Stirling system ; These machines are located at the SolarVillage of the Saudi Arabian National center for Science and Technology, near Riyadh.The solar concentrator is a single facet stretched membrane dish 17 mtrs in diameter.The engine used is a 50kW United Stirling 4-275. The max operating temperature is 620deg C and max gas pressure 2175 psi. Eficiency of 23% solar to electric have beenachieved at an insolation of 1000 W/m2.
  16. 16. • ISAAC: $ 12- 15.000 ; massprod. $ 4.000, 50 kg ice/day• PV –compressor: € 30-35.000; 500 kg ice/day• Sol. Steam-compr.: € 15.000 +12.000; 300 kg ice/day• Sol. Stirling-comp: € ??????
  17. 17. What is the best option?How can we realize this option? • Solar Steam -> E -> Ice (300 kg/day) o 5 HP steamengine from India o Ice machine from the Netherlands o Solar Steam from Germany? • What must be the form of the Ice • Building Pilot 0,5 year • Testing Pilot: how simulate the sun? 0,5 year • Pilot in Gambia: Aqua-Aero WaterSystems
  18. 18. This presentation is 4 years old. To day I amconvinced, that solar ice production ispossible, but too expensive.I prefere now to use a biogas fired 10 kVAsteamgenerator, connected to an icecubemachine.Apeldoorn11-03-2013