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Energy options, savings and infrastructure

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In the Netherlands the Government has stimulated several energy systems:
Combined Heat and Power (CHP) and District Heating
District Heating with Combined Cycle Plants (in Dutch STEG)
Electrical Heat Pumps (EHP’s)

In most cases the energy saving of these systems was exaggerated by using the false reference or choosing the wrong system boundary.

In this presentation I try to find the truth. And I present the Smart Boiler Room System (SBR)

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Energy options, savings and infrastructure

  1. 1. Energy-options, savings and infrastructure Martin van der Jagt; 24 jan 2014 (Translation of a Dutch presentation)
  2. 2. I prepared this presentation first in Dutch. In the Netherlands the Government has stimulated several energy systems: • Combined Heat and Power (CHP) in combination with District Heating • District Heating with Combined Cycle Plants (in Dutch STEG) • Electrical Heat Pumps (EHP’s) In most cases the energy saving of these systems was exaggerated by using the false reference or choosing the wrong system boundary. In this presentation I try to find the truth. And I present the Smart Boiler Room System (SBR) If you have remarks or questions you can mail me: martin.vd.jagt@gmail.com Martin F.G. Van der Jagt Apeldoorn, 9 feb 2015 Netherlands
  3. 3. Subjects 1. Possible options when the “Slochteren”gas was discovered 2. The effect of the chosen System boundaries 3. Manipulation by choosing a reference 4. Effect of H/P ratio of the demand side 5. Why is CHP a bad option 6. Why are electrical heatpumps a bad option: Problems at “De Teuge Zutphen ” 7. The “Not More Than Gas principle” 8. What is good: The Smart Boiler Room Concept 9. Conclusions
  4. 4. Gas Gas 380 kV Extreme options for the use of Slochteren Gas for E-production
  5. 5. None of the presented options was chosen, WHY? Electricity production in Slochteren only was not possible at that time: The E-GRID was not engineered for that possibility. The second option was not possible, while decentralized E-production in a dwelling was not possible at that time. Nevertheless is it strange that in the Netherlands never is tried to find optimal Energy Infrastructures with Operation Research
  6. 6. Producing more electricity than the consumption in the district In the next slide a STEG is used for district heating in a new city area of Utrecht(UTR): Leidsche Rijn(LR). For the consumption of the over production of electricity 3 dwellings with a gas boiler are needed. So for the calculation of the real energy saving you have to include the dwellings with the gas boilers! So the real primary energy use for 1 dwelling is; 20.9 / 4 = 5.2 The false reproach calculates only 3.4 primary energy use!
  7. 7. Choice of System Boundary E= Electricity W = Heat
  8. 8. STEG with district heating and separated generation
  9. 9. Electrical Heat pumps Gas Heat pumps
  10. 10. Systems Primary Energy Saving [%] STEG +Districtheating REMU 3.4 41 STEG +Districtheating NOVEM 1.7 71 STEG +Districtheating GCN 5.2 10(good calculated value!) Separated Production 5.8 0 STEG + EHP’s 4.7 19 GAS HP’s 4.7 19
  11. 11. Choice of Reference When calculating the savings of CHP: Where is CHP a sustitute for?; • A Coal fired Powerstation • Windturbines • PV • A Gasfired STEG With 60% efficiency
  12. 12. Effect of the H/P ratio from the demand side
  13. 13. Savings of EHP’s Powerstation efficiency = 51 %(W/K=H/P)
  14. 14. Savings of CHP and CHP with EHP’s
  15. 15. Why is CHP a suboptimal choice? 1. CHP ⇒ There is still need for nearly the same number of Central Powerstations 2. Only little CO2 reduction 3. Increase NOx emission 4. CH4 emission 5. Financial result very dependant of electricity prices: Heat Demand Controlled
  16. 16. Disadvantages of Electrical Heat Pumps ● Expensive Grid ● Expensive installation in the building: extra heating surface. ● Expensive heatsource ● Peakinstallation is a problem In the next slide a summary of the differences in costs: EHP<>Gas Boiler; Then some slides in Dutch with more detailed numbers.
  17. 17. Problems with Electrical Heat Pumps in Zutphen (Netherlands) •High electricity notes •A lot glitches •No CO2 reduction: 39 % more than gas boiler heating! •It took years to solve the problems! Difference in Costs: Gas Boiler Heatpump Costs Gas Costs HP Gas/HP m3/year kWh/year kwh/year kwh/year HP €/y €/y [-] Overall 1.304 3.380 7.970 4.590 835 1.102 32%
  18. 18. Bron: presentatie Alliander (site: http://deteuge2.nl/rapporten- alliander/)
  19. 19. Bron: presentatie Alliander (site: http://deteuge2.nl/rapporten- alliander/)
  20. 20. Bron: presentatie Alliander (site: http://deteuge2.nl/rapporten- alliander/)
  21. 21. The Not More Than Gas Principle ● This is promised to users of districtheating ● Is Not Maintained by The Government ● Conflicts residents>energy company: ○ Houten Zuid: Foundation GIGAJoule<>Eneco ○ Almere: Community<>NUON (Eneco and NUON are Energy Distribution Companies)
  22. 22. Smart Boiler Room System WK = CHP, EWP= Electrical Heat Pump, CV= Gas Boiler, Buffer= Heat Storage
  23. 23. Advantages SBR-Concept(1) •Gas > Heat •Gas > Electricity •Electricity > Heat So based on energy market prices you choose the production method!
  24. 24. Heat demand driven systems will have problems with extreme electricity prices. CHP’s must run when there is heat demand and the market price for electricity is low. EHP’s must run when the market price for electricity is high. The SBR can make the choice “Make or Buy”. In a SBR the CHP’s are electrical balanced with the EHP’s. So when the electricity prices are normal the electricity of the CHP’s is used to drive the EHP’s. When electricity is cheap (during nights) you can buy an amount of electricity for the EHP’s and storage the produced heat. When the electricity price is high you can sell the CHP’s electricity on the market. This is to complex for the Dutch Government!
  25. 25. Advantages of SBR-Concept(2) ● Reasonable CO2 reduction ● The price of electricity is not dominant ● Technology is available ● Suitable for portfolio management ● Positive influence on Central Power Stations ● Cheaper electricity grids than CHP and EHP’s
  26. 26. 19 timber frame dwellings Veenendaal with SBR constructed in 1998
  27. 27. In 2011still in operation
  28. 28. Conclusions: Important for the calculation of savings: •Choice of system boundary •Choice of reference system CHP’s and EHP’s: suboptimal choice It’s a pity that SBR is rarely applied People have right on maintenance of the “Not More Than Gas Principle” Privatization has prevented optimization of the energy infrastructure in the Netherlands

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