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In conservative times


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Grace Soto
Michael Fetchet

Published in: Spiritual
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In conservative times

  1. 1. In Conservative Times Grace Soto Michael Fetchet
  2. 2. Reagan & Civil Rights● African Americans had many plans to change the civil rights policies in the U.S● Bush and Reagan (Republicans) cabinets were usually unsympathetic towards civil rights hindering their advancement● 1981- William Bell elected as chair of Equal Employment Commission which most African Americans were against because of his lack of recognition on civil rights● Reagan rescinded his nomination of Bell and elected Clarence Thomas due to his opposition of affirmative action● Nov 1981 the Chair of Commission on U.S. civilrights Arthur S. Flemming was dismissed and wasSupposed to be replaced by Clarence Pendeltonan extreme conservative. It was the first timeever that a president removed its leader
  3. 3. ● In 1982 Reagan made it clear that he would only elect people who were against civil rights since the beginning of the 602● People from the Senate Judiciary Committee asked the president not to elect these people because it "tainted the integrity" of the commission● Reagan however fired leaders of the Civil Rights Commission which almost decimated it● Dec. 1985 Julius Chambers director of the NAACP Legal Defense Fund stated clearly that Reagan fought for voting rights, school desegregation and equal employment● Thornburg v. Gingles- Ruled in favor of a voter, which said that voting districts were discriminatory in North Carolina
  4. 4. George H.W. Bush and the Supreme Court● The courts were beginning to change because of the death and retirement of William J. Brennan and Thurgood Marshall● Richmond v. J.A. Crosson Company- The court found it unconstitutional that minority contractors were receiving contracts ahead of white contractors● June 89 Wards Cove Pcking Company v. Antonio- Discrimination against minority employees to promote a business would no longer be allowed● Many African Americans felt betrayal from these decisions and felt that they were treated unfairly
  5. 5. Clarence Thomas Nomination● Educated at Yale Law School● Under Reagan was the secretary for civil rights in the Department of Education. And was appointed to the U. S. Court of Appeals under President Bush● Many African Americans supported this election. But due to his conservative nature many people werent fully supportive● Many groups were against him and Anita Hill, a fellow student had accused him of sexual harassment, which took away from both his experience and education. He was ultimately selected
  6. 6. Judicial Conservatism● During the Reagan and Bush administration this conservatism was seen as a way to weaken black voters● June 95- Supreme Court found Georgias voting district violated constitutional rights of equal protection for white voters● This decision also occurred in areas of North Carolina & Louisiana● Black voters subsequently joined the Black Caucus● Clinton administration and scholars joined in an effort to overcome the courts decision
  7. 7. Educational Disparities● Racially separate and unequal schools, continued even 45 years after the Supreme Court made the decision to outlaw segregation in public schools● A not-so-subtle argument was being made that the presence of "inferior" blacks was affecting the education of whites● The Bell Curve: Intelligence in Class Structure in American Life published in 1994 by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, spoke on the idea that blacks were inherently intellectually inferior● Herrnstein and Murray agreed that blacks and whites should not have the same educational opportunities
  8. 8. Educational Disparities continued...● Because of the violence in suburban schools, some black parents looked for other options to be able to continue on the education of their children● There were too little All-black privates schools (Milwaukee) to take in all the students whom needed schools● Muslim schools and quasi-public charter schools as well as many others were being located to try to get more students in but the availability of room for more students was too little to help● Catholic schools, especially in Boston, New York, and Chicago became very important alternatives for black parents
  9. 9. ....● By 1999 not enough financial support was given which led to systematic closing of parochial schools (religious) in many inner city areas● Because of lack of financial support for inner city area school black children were deprived of the opportunity of digital divide, then becoming unprepared for the 20th century● By mid 1960s the feared happen, colleges and universities no longer were looking for a racially diverse student body● Civil right era enrollments started (diversity)● This was in hopes to make change, but became very criticised
  10. 10. Opposition to Affirmative Action● In the 1990s Mainstream media became used to help a new voice be heard louder than ever before● The most vocal opposition to affirmative action policies ("reverse discrimination"), were constituted by Economist Professors Thomas Sowell, Walter Williams, and Glenn Loury, as well as English Professor Shelby Steele● California Board of Regent, African American member Ward Connerly, helped organize conservative voters in a campaign that successfully enacted Proposition 209 in 1996
  11. 11. Opposition to Affirmative Action● African American enrollment dropped at the University of Washington after the passing of a California-style law and at the University of Texas Law school● Cheryl Hopwood, a white women who challenged the use of race as a factor in its admissions process (U of Texas Law)
  12. 12. Racial Unrest● More new was being put out about racial profiling and violence● March 1991, Rodney King, an African American, arrested following a high-speed chase by white Los Angeles police officer, severely beaten by the officer, officer accused him of resisting arrest and that he had been threatened● The beating was caught on tape by surveillance camera, because of this a public outcry for the dismissal of Los Angeles chief of police Daryl Gates, and that the officers be tried for using excessive force