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Short story-elements pp


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Short story-elements pp

  1. 1. Short Story Elements Mr. Constantine – English 11
  2. 2. What is a short story?  A brief, imaginative narrative containing few characters, simple plot, conflict, and suspense which leads to a climax and a swift conclusion.  Can be read in one sitting
  4. 4. #1. PLOT The chain of events in a story. Consists of 6 main ingredients: 1. Introduction/Exposition 2. Inciting incident 3. Rising action 4. Climax 5. Falling Action 6. Resolution
  5. 5. PLOT GRAPH An excellent way to map out a story’s plot
  6. 6. Introduction Introduces the reader to:  Setting  Basic situation  Characters involved  Narrative Hook: question or statement that grabs the reader’s attention
  7. 7. Inciting Incident  The first major action in the story that sets the story in motion (gets the ball rolling).
  8. 8. Rising Action Incidents which carry the plot along. It often includes the following:  Foreshadowing  Flashback  Conflict  Suspense
  9. 9. FORESHADOWING  A technique for hinting at events that may occur later in the plot.
  10. 10. FLASHBACK  The insertion of an earlier event into the time order of a narrative.
  11. 11. Conflict  It is what prevents the main character from getting what he or she wants  The plot is driven by climax and it is THE MOST IMPORTANT FEATURE OF THE STORY  There are two types of conflicts: Internal and External
  12. 12. Internal Conflict PERSON VS. SELF
  13. 13. External Conflict PERSON VS. PERSON
  14. 14. External Conflict PERSON VS. SOCIETY
  15. 15. External Conflict PERSON VS.THE ENVIRONMENT
  16. 16. External Conflict PERSON VS. FATE
  17. 17. External Conflict PERSON VS. TECHNOLOGY
  18. 18. External Conflict PERSON VS. THE SUPERNATURAL
  19. 19. SUSPENSE  The feeling of excitement and curiosity that keeps the reader turning the pages; created by making the readers wonder how the conflict will be resolved
  20. 20. CLIMAX  The highest point of interest in the story when the character(s) solves his/her struggles  Usually the point of highest emotion  The climax can be SUBJECTIVE (there may be different answers, so you must prove your choice)
  21. 21. FALLING ACTION  The character completes the action of his/her decision
  22. 22. THE RESOLUTION  The final workings of a story’s conflict  All of the loose ends are tied up (usually)  Narrative Twist: a surprise ending
  23. 23. #2. SETTING  The time (time of day, season, present, past, future) and the location (country, planet, town, buildings, PLUS a description of the surroundings) where the action occurs  Helps to create the mood and atmosphere of the text
  24. 24. ATMOSPHERE  The feeling that the setting evokes (i.e. mysterious, happy, eerie)
  25. 25. MOOD  The author’s emotional attitude toward the subject matter (i.e. excitement, nostalgia)  NOT the mood of the characters
  26. 26. #3. CHARACTERs  Any personalities who are involved in the plot of the story (people, animals, fantasy characters)  Usually less than 6 in a short story
  27. 27. PROTAGONIST  Usually the “good guy” or hero in the story  The main character that we follow  The character that strives to solve the conflict
  28. 28. ANTAGONIST  The “bad guy” or villain in the story  Usually creates conflict for the main character
  29. 29. SECONDARY CHARACTERS  Other characters who are necessary to moving the plot along, but may not be involved with the central conflict
  30. 30. CHARACTER TRAITS Physical and personality characteristics that are revealed through: 1. What the character does 2. What the character says 3. What other characters say or do about the character 4. What the author states directly 5. What the author infers
  31. 31. #4. THEME The central idea about life that the story highlights; THE MAIN IDEA (universal truths). The message the author is conveying. 1. Determine the specific conflict 2. Decide what side of the conflict the story represents 3. How is the conflict resolved? Who wins? Who loses?
  32. 32. THEME  Theme is NOT the moral of the story  Theme is NOT plot  Theme IS the general subject matter of a work of art  Theme may contain a message
  33. 33. THEME  Not all short stories have a theme; some are just for entertainment or fun
  34. 34. THEME OR NOT A THEME? 1) Red Riding Hood is about how you shouldn’t trust strangers 2) Stars Wars is a movie about Luke Skywalker 3) Apocalypse Now is about the insanity of war. 4) This painting is about loneliness 5) That story is about two guys who steal a car 6) Romeo and Juliet is about love 7) Romeo and Juliet is about two families fighting 8) I saw a movie last night about survival 9) Hansel and Gretel is about two children 10) Cinderella is about poetic justice