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  1. 1. BELIEF, REASON, AND EMOTION: Abstract categories across genres and world Englishes Małgorzata Fabiszak Anna Hebda Iwona Kokorniak
  2. 2. Presentation outline <ul><li>A description of the project </li></ul><ul><li>Basic methodological assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>The ICE corpus </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>Further questions </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1. The Project: Our Team
  4. 4. 1. The project: aims and inspiration <ul><li>Inspiration: The linguistic image of the world (Bartmiński); empathy as the basis for understanding other minds (Husserl, Kotarbiński, Kołakowski, Tomasello) </li></ul><ul><li>Method: Corpus linguistics (Stefanowitsch, Gries, Glynn) </li></ul><ul><li>Theory: cognitive linguistics (Langacker, Lakoff) </li></ul><ul><li>General research question: How do folk models of abstract concepts: BELIEF – REASON – EMOTION differ in Polish and English and how can this affect inter-cultural communication? </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1. The project: specific questions <ul><li>Diachronic change in the semantic – syntactic structure of the selected lexemes in English </li></ul><ul><li>Ontological and epistemological status of belief, reason, emotion in European philosophy vs. their folk models in Polish and English </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic-syntactic structure of the lexemes in a comparative perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic usage as evidence of cultural values </li></ul>
  6. 6. 2. Basic methodological assumptions <ul><li>Language users select linguistic expressions from the available repertoire to express their internal mental states and to share them with the other (Halliday – Matthiesen 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Language corpora are repositories of evidence of such usages </li></ul><ul><li>A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods </li></ul>
  7. 7. 3. The ICE corpus <ul><li>International Corpus of English: 20 national or regional varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Each ICE corpus consists of one million words of spoken and written English  produced after 1989. </li></ul><ul><li>East Africa , Great Britain , Hong Kong , India , Ireland , Jamaica , New Zealand , The Philippines , Singapore </li></ul>
  8. 8. 4. Quantitative analysis: method <ul><li>morphological features of the verb form: voice and aspect, </li></ul><ul><li>the syntactic properties of the clause: transitiv ity, mood, clause type </li></ul><ul><li>semantic characteristics of the referents of the elements co-occurring with the verb: its subjects/heads, objects, complements co-occurring with the verb . </li></ul>
  9. 9. 4. Quantitative analysis: problems with tagging - 1 <ul><li><$A> </li></ul><ul><li><ICE-IND:S1A-052#186:1:A> </li></ul><ul><li>Embarassed like you feel </li></ul><ul><li>What is the subject? </li></ul>
  10. 10. 4. Quantitative analysis: problems with tagging - 2 <ul><li><$B> </li></ul><ul><li>I just can't <,> at nine fifteen by nine daddy will come home </li></ul><ul><li>no <,> <{> <[> uhm <,> and I feel shy <,> not shy like <,> I don't I don't </li></ul><ul><li>feel like </li></ul><ul><li>  <$A> </li></ul><ul><li><[> Uhm </[> </{> </li></ul><ul><li>  <$A> </li></ul><ul><li>Embarassed like you feel </li></ul><ul><li>  <$B> </li></ul><ul><li>Yeah </li></ul><ul><li>  <$A> </li></ul><ul><li>In front of everyone </li></ul><ul><li>  <$B> </li></ul><ul><li>Yeah yeah <,> <O> laughs </O> </li></ul>
  11. 11. 4. Quantitative analysis: adjective value <ul><li>Haseeb felt utterly confused <ICE-IND:W2F-001#123:1> </li></ul><ul><li>Subhro felt slightly uncomfortable. <ICE-IND:W2F-006#81:1> </li></ul><ul><li>We feel so happy to be with them <,> <ICE-IND:S1A-001#10 > </li></ul><ul><li>economical status makes a woman to feel very liberated <,> <ICE-IND:S1A-011#37:1:C> </li></ul>
  12. 12. 4. Q.a.: adjective value - problems <ul><li>Married, obliged – Is it an adjective? </li></ul><ul><li>She did not feel married . She felt untouched, pure, virginal. <ICE-IND:W2F-020#91:1 > </li></ul><ul><li>Mr Yadav has compromised on secularism and social justice that he felt obliged to prove his <foreign> bona fides</foreign> by raising the r eservation quota of backward castes in government jobs from 15 to 27 per cent. <ICE-IND:W2E-003#68:2> </li></ul><ul><li>Is it positive or negative? </li></ul><ul><li>Or he her. He felt dizzy with elation <ICE-IND:W2F-017#95:1> </li></ul><ul><li>Positive or negative? </li></ul>
  13. 13. 4. Quantitative analysis: adjective value 1 <ul><li>Graphic representation of Correspondence Analysis: Tense, adjective value and genre. Indian English. Feel. </li></ul>
  14. 14. 4. Quantitative analysis: adjective value 2, Indian English <ul><li>Chi-square=3.62, df=2, p=0.1637 </li></ul><ul><li>Yates chi-square = 2.55, df=1, p=0.1103 </li></ul><ul><li>Pearson’s chi-square=3.49, df=1,p=0.0617 </li></ul>essay letters press novel private public negadj 3 2 0 20 53 8 posadj 0 1 1 10 25 10
  15. 15. 4. Q. a. : subject type by genre <ul><li>Graphic representation of Correspondence Analysis of subject type and genre. Indian, Philippines, Singapore, believe, feel </li></ul>
  16. 16. 4. Q. a.: subject type by genre, chi-square <ul><li>chi-square = 165. ; df= 5 , p < 0.000 1 </li></ul><ul><li>chi-square = 232 ; df = 2 ; p < 0.000 1 </li></ul>public private press essay novel letter subjNP 84 31 42 21 13 8 subjpro 595 757 68 47 176 99 subjPropName 12 3 3 0 31 3 spoken written subjNP 115 84 subjpro 1352 390 SubjPropName 15 34
  17. 17. 5. Qualitative analysis: What do the Indians, Phillipines, Singaporeans and Hong Kongers(?) think of/about? <ul><li>Common themes: people, food, marriage/relationships, career, education, religion, politics. </li></ul><ul><li>Variety specific topics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(geographical) places: Lantau Island, China, Wei Lun Hall , Hirakud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>food: snake soup, eating dogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>politics: ‘one country two systems’, the fulun gong convention, this ayodya problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>people: Kris Acquino </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion: the dussera festival </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>those bayawaks </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. 6. Results <ul><li>Quantitative analyses: </li></ul><ul><li>A correlation between adjective value and tense > no </li></ul><ul><li>A correlation between subject type and genre </li></ul><ul><li>> yes </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>common topics vs. culture specific topics </li></ul>
  19. 19. 7. Suggestions for further research <ul><li>More varied statistical tests for corpus data > Dylan Glynn’s seminar in Poznań. </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative methods for corpora and psycholinguistic experiments. </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative methods for ethnographic interviews. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Bayawak BAYAWAK from <ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>