Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Moral

2,929 views

Published on

Published in: Spiritual, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Moral

  1. 1. Conscience is the voice of God within, a ‘messenger’ from the moral law-giver: God. Moral Argument: Conscience No. ‘Conscience’ is a product of society and the demands from authority which are made on the individual. © Socratic Ideas Limited www.socraticideas.com
  2. 2. Moral Argument: Conscience St Paul St Augustine Joseph Butler John Henry Newman Roman Catholic Church Cultural Relativism Freud Social Development Without Error An Oppressive God? © Socratic Ideas Limited www.socraticideas.com
  3. 3. St Paul St Paul (1st century) • St Paul taught that conscience was located at the very core of the person and that it was at the the centre of the soul where inner convictions were held and moral choices made. • St Paul believed that everyone has been given a conscience by God, “They can demonstrate the effects of the law engraved on their hearts, to which their own conscience bears witness.” ( Romans 2:15)
  4. 4. St Augustine • St Augustine believed that conscience is the “voice of God” directly speaking to us. • Conscience is something a person intuitively senses because God reveals it to them personally. • “ Return to your conscience, question it...Turn inward, brethren, and in everything you do see God as your witness.” ( Confessions ) St Augustine (334-430)
  5. 5. Joseph Butler The Anglican priest, Joseph Butler believed that conscience was an individual person’s God given guide on how to behave and so should always be followed. “ There is a principle of reflection in people by which they distinguish between approval and disapproval of their own actions...this principle in people is conscience.” (Butler, Fifteen Sermons ) Joseph Butler (1692-1752)
  6. 6. Joseph Butler • Conscience, coming from God, has authority and “magisterially asserts itself without being consulted.” • “ Had it strength, as it has right; had it power as it has manifest authority, conscience would absolutely govern the world.” (Butler, Fifteen Sermons ) Joseph Butler (1692-1752)
  7. 7. John Henry Newman Cardinal John Henry Newman (1801-1890) “ Conscience is the voice of God within.” (John Henry Newman, A Grammar of Ascent ) • Conscience enables us to make moral judgements. • Our conscience points to an authority beyond ourselves - God.
  8. 8. Cardinal John Henry Newman (1801-1890) “ If, as is the case, we feel responsibility, are ashamed, are frightened at transgressing the voice of conscience, this implies that there is One to whom we are responsible, before whom we are ashamed, whose claim upon us we fear.” (John Henry Newman, A Grammar of Ascent ) John Henry Newman
  9. 9. The Creator of the world has imprinted in man’s heart an order which his conscience reveals to him and enjoins him to obey.” (Pope Paul VI, Pacem in Terris , Peace On Earth, 1963) Roman Catholic Church Pope Paul VI 1963
  10. 10. Roman Catholic Church “ Deep within his conscience man discovers a law which he has not laid upon himself but which he must obey. It’s voice, ever calling him to love and do what is good and to avoid evil, sounds in his heart at the right moment....For man has in his heart a law inscribed by God.” (Pope Paul VI, Gaudium et Spes, Hope and Joy ) Pope Paul VI 1965
  11. 11. Moral / Cultural Relativism Conscience does not come from God, but societies and cultures which have different values that are relative to their society. This is why people have different ‘consciences’ of what is right and wrong. In the early 20th century the anthropologist, Ruth Benedict, researched how different tribes and cultures had different values: • The Spartans, Ancient Greece, thought stealing was morally right. • A tribe in East Africa threw deformed babies to the hippopotamus. • There were societies that made it a duty for children to kill (sometimes by strangling) their ageing parents. Photograph © AFP
  12. 12. Moral / Cultural Relativism Explain why your conscience agrees/disagrees with the following? • Never cheat on your partner by going out with their best mate? • Homosexuality is wrong. • Compulsory female circumcision, often with no anaesthetic, is good. • You should not marry more than one person. • Pre-marital sex is wrong. • Divorce is always wrong. • Using artificial contraception is wrong. Research different groups / cultures who might agree with the above. Photograph © AFP
  13. 13. • Sigmund Freud explored the human mind with the aim of discovering more about the human personality. • Freud argued that our understanding of conscience does not come from God, but is rather the result of the pressure we feel from authority figures, such as parents, teachers, the law and church leaders. Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud, Psycho-analyst(1856-1939)
  14. 14. Freud: The Human Mind Sigmund Freud, Psycho-analyst( ) Freud believed that an individual’s personality consists of three parts, in conflict, in their mind: Id Super-ego Ego Id: Pleasure Principle Ego: Reality Principle Super-ego: Moral Principle Sigmund Freud, Psycho-analyst(1856-1939)
  15. 15. • Ruled by the Pleasure Principle (Seeking pleasure, avoiding pain, child-like) • Responds directly to our innate desires. • Located in the unconscious mind. • Desires from the body’s needs build up pressure. • Results in an emphasis on immediate gratification. • Pre-socialised part of our make-up. • When we are selfish, demand something immediately, or act on impulse it is our id controlling our behaviour. Describe an example when a person’s behaviour has been controlled by their id? What are the short and long term consequences of this approach? The Id: The Pleasure Principle
  16. 16. • Ruled by the Reality Principle (Self awareness, taking into account one’s environment) • Conscious, rational, logical, planning part. • Develops in the first 2 years of a child’s life. • Will postpone satisfaction until an appropriate time and place, (deferred gratification). • What the ego considers to be right depends on what others find acceptable in that situation. • Tries to balance (1) external reality, (2) id and (3) super-ego. Describe an example when a person’s behaviour has been controlled by their ego? What are the short and long term consequences of this approach? The Ego: The Reality Principle
  17. 17. • Ruled by the Moral Principle • Develops at about the age of five. • Represents the moral branch of personality. • Morality involves internalising a set of moral values in order to determine what behaviour is right. The two components are: 1. Conscience - threatens ego with punishment (sense of guilt). 2. Ego ideal - promises ego rewards (form of pride, self esteem). • Represses unpleasant memories. Describe an example when a person’s behaviour has been controlled by their super-ego? What are the short and long term consequences of this approach? The Super-ego: The Moral Principle
  18. 18. Conscience - Super-ego Sigmund Freud, Psycho-analyst (1856-1939 ) • Freud argued that our understanding of conscience does not come from God, but is rather the result of pressure we feel from authority figures, such as parents, teachers, the law, church leaders. • A person’s super-ego / conscience develops in their early years at about the age of five. • It is social pressure, not God, which forms our super-ego, conscience.
  19. 19. • The 20th century psychologist, Lawrence Kohlberg, believes that conscience is a result of social development. • He suggested 6 levels of development. Conscience: Social Development Lawrence Kohlberg Psychologist (1927 -) Level 1: Punishment / Obedience Level 2: Instrumental Level 3: ‘Good boy’, ‘Nice girl’ Level 4: Law and Order Level 5: Social Contract Level 6: Self Chosen Principles
  20. 20. • The early social development of a person’s conscience, their belief in right and wrong’ comes from fear of punishment. • A fear of punishment leads to people believing something is right / good and obedient behaviour. Level 1: Punishment / Obedience Lawrence Kohlberg Psychologist (1927 -)
  21. 21. 1. Think of an example when you have thought something was right due to fear of punishment. 2. How old were you? 3. Do you still think this way? 4. Research examples of dictators who use fear of punishment to control people’s minds. 5. Do you think ‘fear of punishment’ is an effective form of social control? Give reasons for your view. Think! Level 1: Punishment / Obedience
  22. 22. Level 2: Instrumental Lawrence Kohlberg Psychologist (1927 -) The second level of moral development is Instrumental - which means that right behaviour is that which brings personal reward / benefit.
  23. 23. 1. Think of an example when you have thought something was right because you were rewarded for your behaviour. 2. How old were you? 3. Do you still think this way? 4. Explain advantages and disadvantages of believing “good behaviour” is that which brings personal reward / gain. 5. Does Christianity teach an ethic of “personal reward”. Think carefully, offering examples to explain your views. Think! Level 2: Instrumental
  24. 24. Level 3: ‘Good boy’, ‘Nice Girl’ Lawrence Kohlberg Psychologist (1927 -) The third level of moral development which forms our conscience is “social conformity”. We think what is right is behaviour which pleases others, such as parents, friends, brothers, sisters, teachers.
  25. 25. 1. Think of an example when you have thought something was right because it pleased others. 2. How old were you? 3. Do you still think this way? 4. Explain the reasons why people often conform to social expectations? 5. Do you think Jesus was a social conformist or someone who challenged accepted ideas? Give reasons, with examples, to explain your view. Think! Level 3: ‘Good boy’, ‘Nice Girl’
  26. 26. Level 4: ‘Law and Order’ Lawrence Kohlberg Psychologist (1927 -) Level 4 of Social Development believes that people think good behaviour is doing one’s duty, following laws in an ordered way.
  27. 27. 1. Think of an example when you have thought something was right because it was the law. 2. How old were you? 3. Do you still think this way? 4. Think of a law which you do not think is right, but which you still follow and obey. (a) Why do you continue to obey the law? (b) How could that particular be changed? Think! Level 4: ‘Law and Order’
  28. 28. • Level 5 of social development believes something is ‘right’ if it is democratically agreed. • Following an informed and free discussion people come to an agreement - either by a vote or mutual consent. • This is known as a Social Contract - so that people accept rights and duties because each person has had a democratic say in the matter. Level 5: Social Contract Lawrence Kohlberg Psychologist (1927 -)
  29. 29. 1. Think of an example when you have had a democratic say in agreeing an understanding of right / wrong behaviour.. 2. How old were you? 3. Explain advantages and disadvantages of a Social Contract theory of good / bad behaviour. 4. Do you think the majority are always right? Give reasons and examples to support your view. Think! Level 5: Social Contract
  30. 30. Level 6: Self Chosen Principles Lawrence Kohlberg Psychologist (1927 -) • Level 6 of Social Development believes that ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ is based on a set of self chosen principles which a person follows in their day to day living. • These self chosen principles form the basis for a person’s behaviour. e.g. In believing that a person should not cause unnecessary harm a person might decide to be a pacifist or a vegetarian.
  31. 31. 1. Think of an example when you have chosen your own moral principles and followed these ideas in practice. 2. How old were you? 3. How might a person go about deciding which moral principles to follow? Think! Level 6: Self Chosen Principles
  32. 32. • If conscience is the voice of God then why do Christians make mistakes in their moral decisions? • How can a Christian be sure that their conscience really is the voice of God and not simply social pressure? • Why do people change their moral decisions. e.g. being against abortion as opposed to agreeing with it? Conscience: Without Error?
  33. 33. How might a Christian respond to these arguments? Conscience: Without Error? • If conscience is the voice of God then why do Christians make mistakes in their moral decisions? • How can a Christian be sure that their conscience really is the voice of God and not simply social pressure? • Why do people change their moral decisions. e.g. being against abortion as opposed to agreeing with it?
  34. 34. Conscience: An Oppressive God • The idea that conscience as the voice of God leads to an oppressive view of God. • In the name of freedom I want to be able to make up my own mind. • I don’t wish to be “programmed” to think what is right or wrong. • And I certainly don’t want to be made to feel guilty because I disagree with the Church’s moral teachings.
  35. 35. Conscience: An Oppressive God • The idea that conscience as the voice of God leads to an oppressive view of God. • In the name of freedom I want to be able to make up my own mind. • I don’t wish to be “programmed” to think what is right or wrong. • And I certainly don’t want to be made to feel guilty because I disagree with the Church’s moral teachings. How might a Christian respond to these arguments?

×