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CVS MAKINA - Company Presentation



                  Ø CVS provides plants & equipment for minimills,
                    also in “turn-key” solution.


                  Ø CVS covers the complete design and
                    manufacturing activities for green-field projects
                    as well as revamping/upgrading of existing
                    plants and equipment.


                  Ø CVS manufactures spare parts & components
                    for meltshops & rolling mills.


                  Ø CVS provides technical assistance            and
                    consulting service to steel production.
CVS MAKINA - Company Presentation

                       Quick Info

                    Ø CVS headquarter is placed in the industrial
                      region of Gebze, just east of Istanbul, close
                      to many major ports

                    Ø Our modern facilities consists of more than
                      40,000 sqm of closed area and a land of
                      additional approx. 40,000 sqm

                    Ø CVS workforce is formed by over than 500
                      specialized workers and engineers with a
                      modern machinery park to undertake even
                      the most challenging projects.

                    Ø Over than 200 engineers and administrative
                      employees are involved in the design and
                      management of the projects.
VACUUM DEGASSING UNIT
From Steam Ejector Pump to Dry Mechanical Pump, from single tank to complete
Vacuum Degassing Unit and from Engineering Services to Turn-Key Plants, CVS offers
economically viable solutions at European standards.




    CVS Makina. Company Presentation
CVS - VD/VOD
Design Concept


qCVS Provides VD/VOD units wit a joint venture
 company established in 2007
qTurn-key solutions provider for
   q Process Plants and Installations in Vacuum&Pressure
     Applications
   q SCADA Automation Projects

qDesign and Production Facilities for
   q Vacuum& Pressure Systems
   q Automation and Software

qServices Provider for Energy Sector
CVS - EAF
  Design Main Objective




q Dry Pump technology for Vacuum System
q Integrated solution for Process and Plant Automation (level 1
  + 2 Automation)
q Innovative Process Control: AI@SOLIS and AI@GAS
q Advanced Process Simulation and Optimization
q Substantial Energy Saving Solution
q Environmental Safe Solution
CVS - VD/VOD
 Dry Mechanical Pump versus Steam Ejectors


• Energy and Cost Saving
• Higher Hydrogen Elimination and Better
  Performances on working pressure
• Clean and Environmental Friendly
  Technology
• No cleaning required
• Full computer controll
• Easier Maintenance
• Fast turn on / turn off service
CVS - VD/VOD
Energy and Cost Saving


Steam Ejector Spent Energy a typical VD 30 min. Degassing
process:
 Average steam consume for a 800kg/h Steam Ejector: 16 t/h of
steam
16t/h x0.5h x 0.85Gcal/t = 6.4 GCal = 7.42 MWh (thermal)
 Electrical equivalent of thermal energy for power turbines 40%
Electrical equivalent of thermal energy consumed by Steam Ejector
is therefore: 7.42 MWh x 0.40 = 2.97 MWh (electric)
Energy for water pumping (800m3/h): 300 kWh
Total Steam Ejector Energy Consume 3.3 MWh
Mechanical Pump System consumed power:
 450kW x 0.5 h = 225KWh
Ratio of consumed power: 3.3MWh/0.225MWh=14.6 times

         15 times less energy consume
CVS - VD/VOD
 Higher Nitrogen and Hydrogen Elimination

qSievert Law:
 [ H eq ] = K p H 2
where pH2 is partial pressure of H2 above liquid steel and K is a constant

• In case of a steam ejector pH2 is around 66% of total pressure
  at 1 mbar this means 0.66 mbar; therefore to perform
  degassing of the steel we need to go under this pressure
• In case of dry pumps pH2 is around 0.5% of total pressure
  therefore the degassing process is more efficient and most
  important can be done at higher pressure
• For a dry pumping system 10 mbar is a good degassing
  pressure
CVS - VD/VOD
 Clean and Environmental Friendly

• No water contamination
• Dust concentration in
  exhaust gas < 5mg/m3
• Global Steel Industry
  Requirement of
  Reduced Green House
  Emission is fully
  achieved by using Dry
  Pumping Technology
  instead of Steam
  Ejectors
                               Typical view of a Steam Ejector Pipe
• Saving Energy Effect on
  Reduced Carbon
  Footprint
CVS - VD/VOD
      Dry Pumping System Structure

                                       1st Stage
                                       Roots Type Pumps
                                       Working Pressure 5-0.1 mbar
          2nd Stage
          Roots Type Pump
          Working Pressure 25-5 mbar




3rd Stage
Compressor Pump
Working Pressure 1000-25 mbar
CVS - VD/VOD
      Scale of Evolution
                                                                                                        OUTOKUMPU VOD 2X 80t

Integrated Solution
Process&Plant
Automation
                                                                                       CHONGQING RH 250 t


 Very Large
 Capacity VPS
                                                                        TMK VD 100 t

Turn Key
Solutions
                                                         AVMIN VIM 6T


High Tech
Solution                              MMZ VD/VOD 100 t


Proving DPT
at large scale
Installations
                      COST VOD 12 t
Small Scale
Pilot
Plant



                          1998               2001              2003           2007               2008            2009
CVS - VD/VOD
Vacuum Technology in Secondary Metallurgy


 q First Application of Dry
   Pumping Technology in
   Steel Degassing &
   Processing (VOD)
 q Patent RO118309
 q 12 t VOD
 q Stainless Steel, Special
   Turbines Steel and
   Implant Steel



                              VOD 12t, Romania, 1998
CVS - VD/VOD
  Vacuum Technology in Secondary Metallurgy

VD/VOD100t, Moldova, 2001

   q VD/VOD 100 t
   q First Application of Dry Pumping   Stage 3
     Technology at large Degassing
     Plants
   q Low Carbon Steel
   q Stage 1: 14 x GV 400 Drystar
     Pumps
   q Stage 2: 3 x HV 14000 Dresser
     Roots Blowers                      Stage 2
   q Stage 3: 4 x HV 30000 Dresser
     Roots Blowers




                                        Stage 1
CVS - VD/VOD
Vacuum Technology in Secondary Metallurgy


q Vacuum Induction
  Melting and Casting
  Furnace
q 6 t capacity
q Application: Special
  Steel for Space Industry
q High Vacuum
  Processing Technology:
  10-5 mbar
q Vacuum Pumps: Dry +
  Roots Blowers + Vapor
  Boosters

                             A6t, South Africa, 2003
CVS - VD/VOD
Vacuum Technology in Secondary Metallurgy

 q VD 100 t
 q Turn-key delivery
 q Application: Mechanical
   Pipe Steel
 q Low hydrogen content in
   25 min process time
 q 3 stage vacuum system
   based on skid technology
 q 4 skids at a total of 150
   kg/h @ 0.5 mbar
 q New design for vacuum
   filter and filter control
   system (<5 mg/m3 dust
   load at exhaust)
 q Level 1.5 automation



                 TMVD 100t,
                 Romania, 2007
CVS - VD/VOD
Vacuum Technology in Secondary Metallurgy

q Largest Dry Vacuum
  System for Steel
  Processing
q RH 250 t
q Innovative design for filter
  system
q Application: Special Steel
q Low hydrogen content in
  15 min process time
q 76 pumps arranged in 19
  skids
q 1000kg/h @ 1 mbar pump
  capacity
q Level 1.5 automation



                                 RH 250 t, China, 2009
CVS - VD/VOD
    Vacuum Technology in Secondary Metallurgy

q Twin VOD 80 t
q Process Simulation &
  Control
q Level 2 Automation
q High Temperature Filter for
  VOD Process
q On-line Chemical analysis
  by AI@SOLIS
q Process Gas Analysis by
  AI@GAS
q Optimized Process
  Technology
q Application: ULC
  Superferritic Stainless Steel
                                  2 x VOD 80 t, Finland, 2009
q Ultralow Nitrogen
q Ultralow Sulphur
CVS - VD/VOD
Key Features

 Compact Design

q Advanced Design based on the
  Process Simulation CVS can size
   properly the vacuum system,
   vacuum pipes, filter, tank/process
   chamber and the other process
   equipment using the process
   simulation technique
q 3D Modeling
   AutoDesk® Inventor 2009/2010
   Package is Standard for Plant Design
   and Engineering
CVS - VD/VOD
 Key Features

 Process Mathematical Models




- deH                          - deC


                                                  0.025




- deN                          - deS
                                                   0.02




                                       [S], ppm
                                                  0.015




                                                   0.01
                                                       0   2   4          6   8   10

                                                               Time, mi




- Temperature model
CVS - VD/VOD
                          Key Features

                          Mathematical Models Validation


                  6                                                                   120                                                                     400



                  5                                                                   100

                                                                                                                                                              300

                  4                                                                    80




                                                                                                                                            Calculated, ppm
Calculated, ppm




                                                                    Calculated, ppm
                  3                                                                                                                                           200
                                                                                       60



                  2
                                                                                       40

                                                                                                                                                              100
                  1
                                                                                       20


                  0
                                                                                        0                                                                       0
                      0     1   2         3          4   5   6
                                                                                                                                                                    0   100        200        300   400
                                    Ana lyzed, ppm                                          0   20   40         60         80   100   120
                                                                                                                                                                              Analyzed, ppm
                                                                                                          Ana lyzed, ppm



                                                                 Experimental vs Model


                          • state of the art accuracy
                          • advanced “auto-tuning” techniques for parameter optimization based on measured
                          data
CVS - VD/VOD
Key Features


 Versatile Design


q CVS expertise extends to all
  types of Secondary Metallurgy
  Vacuum Processes: VD, VOD,
  VT, RH, VIM
q AI has designed at least one of
  each during the 10 years of
  activity in SD
q The sizes of the installations
  delivered to industry by CVS’s
  Process Engineering Division
  ranges from 6t up to 230t.
  Standard Design for 12 t; 50t, 80t,
  100t.
CVS - VD/VOD
Key Features

 Innovation – Filtration Equipment


q Mechanical Pumping Technology for Steel Degassing has as a key issue
  for reliable operation:
        the filtration technology used to separate the dust from
        the flow stream
  CVS has developed an efficient Filter System which brings operational
  benefits in regards with other suppliers
q The filter technology must respond at minimum three tasks
    q allow an almost perfect dust separation with a very small pressure drop
    q withstand the harsh conditions of the process without being damaged by
      temperature and ignition of the dust
    q Automatic System for Integrity Filter Monitoring as the filter damage may
      result in pumps destruction
CVS - VD/VOD
Key Features


 Innovation – Filtration Equipment

The Filter System developed
By CVS’s engineers responds to
all three key demands:

q Efficiency of 99% gas load is less
  than 5 mg/m3
q Pressure drop: 0.1-0.2 mbar
  pressure drop;
q Operational temperature range:
  (20 -1000)o C
CVS - VD/VOD
Key Features

 Level 1 Software
CVS - VD/VOD
Key Features

Level 2 Automation System

        Process design
        Process simulation
        Results estimation
        Advanced process calculation
        Process parameters estimation
        Level 2 automated control of the entire plant
        Industrial aware process control of the entire plant
        Plant overview in either automatic or manual control
        Automatic model reaction to manual intervention in process
        control
        Advanced reporting and troubleshooting
CVS - VD/VOD
 Key Features

         Hardware Architecture

Modules located and running on :




                                                                 L1
                                                              Simulator
                                                                                                             OPC Server
                                                                                                                                      • modular architecture
 L2A Primary/Production Server




                                                                                                                                      • 99.9% guaranteed
   L2A Failsafe/Test Server




                                                 L2A Server
                                                                                                                                       availability
                                         Configuration

                                         Best Practices
                                                                                                                                      • low maintenance
                                     Troubleshooting

                                                                                                                    L3
                                     Historical Logs               Database                                      Simulator




                       To L1 Interface                                        To Calculation   To L3 Interface               To HMI
                           Server                                                Server            Server
CVS - VD/VOD
Key Features

Full Automatic Process Control



                                 • the metallurgical
                                 process is fully
                                 controlled by the level 2
                                 software
                                 • the operator is
                                 provided with “one-look”
                                 process status
                                 • however, the operator
                                 can easily at any
                                 moment take control by
                                 overriding the level 2
                                 software
CVS - VD/VOD
Key Features

Process Design




   • unlimited flexibility in process design
   • “technological objects” approach
   • once established a “best practice procedure” through simulations, cost
   analysis and hot tests, the software will automatically follow it
CVS - VD/VOD
 Key Features

 Offline Process Simulation
                                                                                          1000




                                                                                          100




                                                                  vessel pressure, mbar
                                                                                                                                                                                                      presiune la rece mbar
                                                                                            10
                                                                                                                                                                                                      presiune la cald mbar




                                                                                             1
                                                                                                                             0       5       10        15        20              25    30   35   40




                                                                                           0.1
                                                                                                                                                             time, min




                                                                                                                             8




                                                                                                                             7




                                                                                                                             6




                                                                                            Hydrogen content in steel, ppm
                                                                                                                             5




                                                                                                                             4




                                                                                                                             3




                                                                                                                             2




                                                                                                                             1




• great tool in process design                                                                                               0
                                                                                                                                 0       5        10        15              20
                                                                                                                                                                         time, min
                                                                                                                                                                                      25    30




• through process mathematical modeling, the need of industrial tests is greatly reduced - thus
significantly reducing costs
CVS - VD/VOD
Key Features

New Analytical Tools



AI@GAS - Off Gas Analysis System
AI@SOLIS - In Situ Analysis of the Steel Chemical Composition


The Level 2 system can greatly benefit from the interface with these
advanced analytical tools. The calculations are validated through a
validation engine, this greatly improving the mathematical models
accuracy
CVS - VD/VOD
Key Features


         - Precise and fast off-gas
         analysis
         - Better process control
         through double-checking the
         process model results and
         error correction mechanisms
CVS - VD/VOD
Key Features



               - On-line steel
               chemistry analysis

               - On-line slag
               chemistry analysis
               - On-line steel
               temperature
               measurement
CVS - VD/VOD
Key Features

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Vd Presentation Cvs

  • 1.
  • 2. CVS MAKINA - Company Presentation Ø CVS provides plants & equipment for minimills, also in “turn-key” solution. Ø CVS covers the complete design and manufacturing activities for green-field projects as well as revamping/upgrading of existing plants and equipment. Ø CVS manufactures spare parts & components for meltshops & rolling mills. Ø CVS provides technical assistance and consulting service to steel production.
  • 3. CVS MAKINA - Company Presentation Quick Info Ø CVS headquarter is placed in the industrial region of Gebze, just east of Istanbul, close to many major ports Ø Our modern facilities consists of more than 40,000 sqm of closed area and a land of additional approx. 40,000 sqm Ø CVS workforce is formed by over than 500 specialized workers and engineers with a modern machinery park to undertake even the most challenging projects. Ø Over than 200 engineers and administrative employees are involved in the design and management of the projects.
  • 4. VACUUM DEGASSING UNIT From Steam Ejector Pump to Dry Mechanical Pump, from single tank to complete Vacuum Degassing Unit and from Engineering Services to Turn-Key Plants, CVS offers economically viable solutions at European standards. CVS Makina. Company Presentation
  • 5. CVS - VD/VOD Design Concept qCVS Provides VD/VOD units wit a joint venture company established in 2007 qTurn-key solutions provider for q Process Plants and Installations in Vacuum&Pressure Applications q SCADA Automation Projects qDesign and Production Facilities for q Vacuum& Pressure Systems q Automation and Software qServices Provider for Energy Sector
  • 6. CVS - EAF Design Main Objective q Dry Pump technology for Vacuum System q Integrated solution for Process and Plant Automation (level 1 + 2 Automation) q Innovative Process Control: AI@SOLIS and AI@GAS q Advanced Process Simulation and Optimization q Substantial Energy Saving Solution q Environmental Safe Solution
  • 7. CVS - VD/VOD Dry Mechanical Pump versus Steam Ejectors • Energy and Cost Saving • Higher Hydrogen Elimination and Better Performances on working pressure • Clean and Environmental Friendly Technology • No cleaning required • Full computer controll • Easier Maintenance • Fast turn on / turn off service
  • 8. CVS - VD/VOD Energy and Cost Saving Steam Ejector Spent Energy a typical VD 30 min. Degassing process: Average steam consume for a 800kg/h Steam Ejector: 16 t/h of steam 16t/h x0.5h x 0.85Gcal/t = 6.4 GCal = 7.42 MWh (thermal) Electrical equivalent of thermal energy for power turbines 40% Electrical equivalent of thermal energy consumed by Steam Ejector is therefore: 7.42 MWh x 0.40 = 2.97 MWh (electric) Energy for water pumping (800m3/h): 300 kWh Total Steam Ejector Energy Consume 3.3 MWh Mechanical Pump System consumed power: 450kW x 0.5 h = 225KWh Ratio of consumed power: 3.3MWh/0.225MWh=14.6 times 15 times less energy consume
  • 9. CVS - VD/VOD Higher Nitrogen and Hydrogen Elimination qSievert Law: [ H eq ] = K p H 2 where pH2 is partial pressure of H2 above liquid steel and K is a constant • In case of a steam ejector pH2 is around 66% of total pressure at 1 mbar this means 0.66 mbar; therefore to perform degassing of the steel we need to go under this pressure • In case of dry pumps pH2 is around 0.5% of total pressure therefore the degassing process is more efficient and most important can be done at higher pressure • For a dry pumping system 10 mbar is a good degassing pressure
  • 10. CVS - VD/VOD Clean and Environmental Friendly • No water contamination • Dust concentration in exhaust gas < 5mg/m3 • Global Steel Industry Requirement of Reduced Green House Emission is fully achieved by using Dry Pumping Technology instead of Steam Ejectors Typical view of a Steam Ejector Pipe • Saving Energy Effect on Reduced Carbon Footprint
  • 11. CVS - VD/VOD Dry Pumping System Structure 1st Stage Roots Type Pumps Working Pressure 5-0.1 mbar 2nd Stage Roots Type Pump Working Pressure 25-5 mbar 3rd Stage Compressor Pump Working Pressure 1000-25 mbar
  • 12. CVS - VD/VOD Scale of Evolution OUTOKUMPU VOD 2X 80t Integrated Solution Process&Plant Automation CHONGQING RH 250 t Very Large Capacity VPS TMK VD 100 t Turn Key Solutions AVMIN VIM 6T High Tech Solution MMZ VD/VOD 100 t Proving DPT at large scale Installations COST VOD 12 t Small Scale Pilot Plant 1998 2001 2003 2007 2008 2009
  • 13. CVS - VD/VOD Vacuum Technology in Secondary Metallurgy q First Application of Dry Pumping Technology in Steel Degassing & Processing (VOD) q Patent RO118309 q 12 t VOD q Stainless Steel, Special Turbines Steel and Implant Steel VOD 12t, Romania, 1998
  • 14. CVS - VD/VOD Vacuum Technology in Secondary Metallurgy VD/VOD100t, Moldova, 2001 q VD/VOD 100 t q First Application of Dry Pumping Stage 3 Technology at large Degassing Plants q Low Carbon Steel q Stage 1: 14 x GV 400 Drystar Pumps q Stage 2: 3 x HV 14000 Dresser Roots Blowers Stage 2 q Stage 3: 4 x HV 30000 Dresser Roots Blowers Stage 1
  • 15. CVS - VD/VOD Vacuum Technology in Secondary Metallurgy q Vacuum Induction Melting and Casting Furnace q 6 t capacity q Application: Special Steel for Space Industry q High Vacuum Processing Technology: 10-5 mbar q Vacuum Pumps: Dry + Roots Blowers + Vapor Boosters A6t, South Africa, 2003
  • 16. CVS - VD/VOD Vacuum Technology in Secondary Metallurgy q VD 100 t q Turn-key delivery q Application: Mechanical Pipe Steel q Low hydrogen content in 25 min process time q 3 stage vacuum system based on skid technology q 4 skids at a total of 150 kg/h @ 0.5 mbar q New design for vacuum filter and filter control system (<5 mg/m3 dust load at exhaust) q Level 1.5 automation TMVD 100t, Romania, 2007
  • 17. CVS - VD/VOD Vacuum Technology in Secondary Metallurgy q Largest Dry Vacuum System for Steel Processing q RH 250 t q Innovative design for filter system q Application: Special Steel q Low hydrogen content in 15 min process time q 76 pumps arranged in 19 skids q 1000kg/h @ 1 mbar pump capacity q Level 1.5 automation RH 250 t, China, 2009
  • 18. CVS - VD/VOD Vacuum Technology in Secondary Metallurgy q Twin VOD 80 t q Process Simulation & Control q Level 2 Automation q High Temperature Filter for VOD Process q On-line Chemical analysis by AI@SOLIS q Process Gas Analysis by AI@GAS q Optimized Process Technology q Application: ULC Superferritic Stainless Steel 2 x VOD 80 t, Finland, 2009 q Ultralow Nitrogen q Ultralow Sulphur
  • 19. CVS - VD/VOD Key Features Compact Design q Advanced Design based on the Process Simulation CVS can size properly the vacuum system, vacuum pipes, filter, tank/process chamber and the other process equipment using the process simulation technique q 3D Modeling AutoDesk® Inventor 2009/2010 Package is Standard for Plant Design and Engineering
  • 20. CVS - VD/VOD Key Features Process Mathematical Models - deH - deC 0.025 - deN - deS 0.02 [S], ppm 0.015 0.01 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time, mi - Temperature model
  • 21. CVS - VD/VOD Key Features Mathematical Models Validation 6 120 400 5 100 300 4 80 Calculated, ppm Calculated, ppm Calculated, ppm 3 200 60 2 40 100 1 20 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 100 200 300 400 Ana lyzed, ppm 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Analyzed, ppm Ana lyzed, ppm Experimental vs Model • state of the art accuracy • advanced “auto-tuning” techniques for parameter optimization based on measured data
  • 22. CVS - VD/VOD Key Features Versatile Design q CVS expertise extends to all types of Secondary Metallurgy Vacuum Processes: VD, VOD, VT, RH, VIM q AI has designed at least one of each during the 10 years of activity in SD q The sizes of the installations delivered to industry by CVS’s Process Engineering Division ranges from 6t up to 230t. Standard Design for 12 t; 50t, 80t, 100t.
  • 23. CVS - VD/VOD Key Features Innovation – Filtration Equipment q Mechanical Pumping Technology for Steel Degassing has as a key issue for reliable operation: the filtration technology used to separate the dust from the flow stream CVS has developed an efficient Filter System which brings operational benefits in regards with other suppliers q The filter technology must respond at minimum three tasks q allow an almost perfect dust separation with a very small pressure drop q withstand the harsh conditions of the process without being damaged by temperature and ignition of the dust q Automatic System for Integrity Filter Monitoring as the filter damage may result in pumps destruction
  • 24. CVS - VD/VOD Key Features Innovation – Filtration Equipment The Filter System developed By CVS’s engineers responds to all three key demands: q Efficiency of 99% gas load is less than 5 mg/m3 q Pressure drop: 0.1-0.2 mbar pressure drop; q Operational temperature range: (20 -1000)o C
  • 25. CVS - VD/VOD Key Features Level 1 Software
  • 26. CVS - VD/VOD Key Features Level 2 Automation System Process design Process simulation Results estimation Advanced process calculation Process parameters estimation Level 2 automated control of the entire plant Industrial aware process control of the entire plant Plant overview in either automatic or manual control Automatic model reaction to manual intervention in process control Advanced reporting and troubleshooting
  • 27. CVS - VD/VOD Key Features Hardware Architecture Modules located and running on : L1 Simulator OPC Server • modular architecture L2A Primary/Production Server • 99.9% guaranteed L2A Failsafe/Test Server L2A Server availability Configuration Best Practices • low maintenance Troubleshooting L3 Historical Logs Database Simulator To L1 Interface To Calculation To L3 Interface To HMI Server Server Server
  • 28. CVS - VD/VOD Key Features Full Automatic Process Control • the metallurgical process is fully controlled by the level 2 software • the operator is provided with “one-look” process status • however, the operator can easily at any moment take control by overriding the level 2 software
  • 29. CVS - VD/VOD Key Features Process Design • unlimited flexibility in process design • “technological objects” approach • once established a “best practice procedure” through simulations, cost analysis and hot tests, the software will automatically follow it
  • 30. CVS - VD/VOD Key Features Offline Process Simulation 1000 100 vessel pressure, mbar presiune la rece mbar 10 presiune la cald mbar 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0.1 time, min 8 7 6 Hydrogen content in steel, ppm 5 4 3 2 1 • great tool in process design 0 0 5 10 15 20 time, min 25 30 • through process mathematical modeling, the need of industrial tests is greatly reduced - thus significantly reducing costs
  • 31. CVS - VD/VOD Key Features New Analytical Tools AI@GAS - Off Gas Analysis System AI@SOLIS - In Situ Analysis of the Steel Chemical Composition The Level 2 system can greatly benefit from the interface with these advanced analytical tools. The calculations are validated through a validation engine, this greatly improving the mathematical models accuracy
  • 32. CVS - VD/VOD Key Features - Precise and fast off-gas analysis - Better process control through double-checking the process model results and error correction mechanisms
  • 33. CVS - VD/VOD Key Features - On-line steel chemistry analysis - On-line slag chemistry analysis - On-line steel temperature measurement
  • 34. CVS - VD/VOD Key Features