SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 14
Download to read offline
COMPARISON BETWEEN EAF AND IMF

          (D. ERTAS – Project and Contracting Department - CVS MAKINA)

By far, the most important engineering and construction material in the world, steel
application figures prominently in many aspects of human life, from civil structures to
automotive manufacture, from paper clips to refrigerators and washing machines and from
aircrafts to the finest surgical instruments. All major industrial economies have a strong
domestic steel industry which shaped their economic growth in the initial stages of their
development.

Steel is produced either from basic raw materials namely iron ore, lime stone and coke,
using the blast furnace and basic oxygen furnace processes, or from recyclable steel scraps
via the electric arc furnace process or induction melting process. The molten steel is stored
and refined in ladles before being solidified and cast into slabs, blooms, billets and bars by
continuous casting machine and/or ingot casting. Semi-finished steel is re-rolled (formed and
finished) to produce finished steel items like plates, flats, bars, sections, tubes etc of varying
thickness and dimensions.

The High-Frequency induction furnace is widely used to produce tool steel (cast steel). The
melt consists of selected scrap of known carbon content. This is placed in a crucible, which is
surrounded by a water-cooled induction coil. A high frequency alternating current is passed
through the coil and this set up an alternating magnetic field within the melt which
generates intense heat and also has a stirring effect. Not only is it possible to obtain high
temperatures, but the degree of heat may be accurately controlled. The furnace is tilted to
pour out the molten metal. Induction furnace capacities range from less than one kilogram
to twenty tonnes capacity, and are used to melt iron and steel, copper, aluminium, and
precious metals. The one major drawback to induction furnace usage in a foundry is the lack
of refining capacity; charge materials must be clean of oxidation products and of a known
composition, and some alloying elements may be lost due to oxidation (and must be re-
added to the melt).

The electric-arc furnace consists of a large shallow bath with either an acid or basic lining,
carbon electrodes over the hearth which may be raised or lowered. Current is supplied to



                               CVS MAKINA İNŞ. SAN. ve TİC. LTD. ŞTİ.
    Dilovası Organize Sanayii Bölgesi 3. Kısım Muallimköy Cad. No:21 Gebze 41400 KOCAELİ / TURKEY
           Tel. +90 262 759 15 05 Fax. +90 262 759 18 80 www.cvs.com.tr    cvs@cvs.com.tr
these electrodes from special transformers. The hearth is charged with lime to remove the
impurities and form a slag. The metal which forms the melt is scrap steel of known
composition. When the furnace is charged the electrodes are lowered and the current is
switched on. The electrodes are then raised and an electric arc jumps across from the
electrodes to the metal and melting begins. The temperature near to electrode tip reaches
about 4100ºC, which is the heat to melt the scrap. Lime, fluorspar, carbon and Ferro-alloys
are added to de-oxidize the metal. The electric arc furnace can used to produce high grade
alloy steels, HSS, High Tensile Steel and Silver Steel. This is possible because of the greater
control over impurities and thus the steel making. It is increasingly used nowadays in the
production of common steel. Arc furnaces range in size from small units of approximately
one ton capacity used in foundries for producing cast iron products, up to about 400 ton
units used for secondary steelmaking (arc furnaces used in research laboratories and by
dentists may have a capacity of only a few dozen grams).

Following paper aims to give comparison between Electric Arc Furnace Technology with
Induction Melting Furnace Technology.




                               CVS MAKINA İNŞ. SAN. ve TİC. LTD. ŞTİ.
    Dilovası Organize Sanayii Bölgesi 3. Kısım Muallimköy Cad. No:21 Gebze 41400 KOCAELİ / TURKEY
           Tel. +90 262 759 15 05 Fax. +90 262 759 18 80 www.cvs.com.tr    cvs@cvs.com.tr
Induction Furnace

Induction heating process is a method in which the electrical conducting material is heated
through by eddy currents induced by a varying electromagnetic field. The principle of the
induction heating furnace is similar to that of a transformer.

Induction furnace has it's own limitation. The induction process used in foundries lacks
refining capacity. Charge materials must be clean of oxidation products and of a known
composition, and some alloying elements may be lost due to oxidation (and must be re-
added to the melt).




                                                              The   frequency     of   operation    of
                                                              induction furnace also vary. Usually
                                                              it depend on the material being
                                                              melted, the capacity of the furnace
                                                              and the melting speed required. A
                                                              high frequency furnace is usually
                                                              faster to melt a charge whereas
                                                              lower frequencies generate more
                                                              turbulence in the metal, reducing
the power that can be applied to the melt.

When the induction furnace operates it emits a hum or whine (due to magnetostriction), the
pitch of which can be used by operators to identify whether the furnace is operating
correctly, or at what power level.




                               CVS MAKINA İNŞ. SAN. ve TİC. LTD. ŞTİ.
    Dilovası Organize Sanayii Bölgesi 3. Kısım Muallimköy Cad. No:21 Gebze 41400 KOCAELİ / TURKEY
           Tel. +90 262 759 15 05 Fax. +90 262 759 18 80 www.cvs.com.tr    cvs@cvs.com.tr
Following are the features of induction furnace:

         ·   Highest chemical durability.

         ·   High refractoriness.

         ·   Available in various sizes.

         ·   Comes in different capacities.




     Some parameters of induction furnaces are give in the following table:

Title          Unit   0.15Ton       0.3Ton      0.5Ton       1Ton            1.5Ton             2Ton           3Ton
Equipment
                Kw       100          160         250         500             750               1000           1500
rating power
Input
                 V       380          380         380      660        380   660        380   660        380   575-1250
Voltage
Melting rate Kg/hour     160          300         490        1120             1680              2300           3300
Equipment
             ton/hour     5            5           8             10               22               28           35
water rate
Equipment
             kwh/ton     850          800         750         700             650                650            650
power rate
Furnace
                 V       750          750        1500     1400-2500         1400-2500        1400-2500 2300-2500
rating power
Furnace
rating         Ton      0.15          0.3         0.5            1              1.5                2             3
capacity
match cover
               KVA    125-160       160-200    250-315      500-630         800-1000         1000-1250 1600-2000
Transformer
Rating
                'C      1250         1250        1250        1250             1250              1250           1250
Temperature
Capacitor      Kvar     4000         6000        8000    16000 32000 24000 48000 32000 64000                   48000




                                    CVS MAKINA İNŞ. SAN. ve TİC. LTD. ŞTİ.
         Dilovası Organize Sanayii Bölgesi 3. Kısım Muallimköy Cad. No:21 Gebze 41400 KOCAELİ / TURKEY
                 Tel. +90 262 759 15 05 Fax. +90 262 759 18 80 www.cvs.com.tr          cvs@cvs.com.tr
Electric Arc Furnace

Arc furnace provides a simple and effective way of melting various grades of scrap and then
going ahead to refine the metal to desired specification. It is also useful in making all kinds
of steels including tool steels and alloy steels. This provides a method of utilising low cost
scrap, which is available in abundance.The key advantage in EAF melting is that refining is
possible and you can also produce low carbon steels.

An electric arc furnace is mainly used for making steel and consist of devices like refractory-
lined vessel and electrodes. Electrodes are normally round in section and comes in segments
with threaded couplings, so that as the electrodes wear, new segments can be added. The
arc forms between the charged material and the electrode. The charge so formed is heated
both by current passing through the charge and by the radiant energy evolved by the arc.

Through automatic positioning system electrodes are raised and lowered. For positioning
electric winch hoists or hydraulic cylinders are used. The regulating system maintains an
approximately constant current and power input during the melting of the charge, even
though scrap may move under the electrodes while it melts. The mast arms holding the
electrodes are used to convey the current to the electrode holders. The transformer is
installed in a vault to protect it from the heat of the furnace.

The refractory lined vessel having a removable roof is separated from the electrical system.
The bottom of the furnace, is lined with refractory bricks and granular refractory material.
There is a tilting platform on which the furnace is built so that the liquid steel can be poured
into another vessel for transport in the steel making process. To prevent the liquid steel from
the contaminants like nitrogen and slag modern furnaces have a bottom tap-hole on the
spout. In some of the latest plant, scrap pre-heating is applied with different method to
decrease the electric consumption and to increase the productivity.

Operation
Scrap metal is delivered to a scrap bay, located next to the melt shop. The furnace is filled
with the scrap. After putting the scrap inside furnace the roof again cover the top of the
furnace where the melt down goes on.




                               CVS MAKINA İNŞ. SAN. ve TİC. LTD. ŞTİ.
    Dilovası Organize Sanayii Bölgesi 3. Kısım Muallimköy Cad. No:21 Gebze 41400 KOCAELİ / TURKEY
           Tel. +90 262 759 15 05 Fax. +90 262 759 18 80 www.cvs.com.tr    cvs@cvs.com.tr
The electrodes are lowered onto the scrap, an arc is struck and the electrodes are then
pushed into the layer of shred at the top of the furnace. Voltage selected for this level of
operation is usually small. Low voltages protect the roof and walls from excessive heat and
damage from the arcs.

After reaching the base of the furnace and the electrodes can be raised slightly, thereby
increasing the length of the arcs and increasing power to the melt. This helps in the
formation of molten pool even more rapidly. Modern furnaces are designed with some
additional features. In this oxygen is pushed into the scrap. sometimes chemical heat is
provided by wall-mounted oxy-fuel burners. Both processes accelerate scrap meltdown.

The formation of slag is an important part of steel making which floats on the surface of the
molten steel. Slag not only acts as thermal blanket but also reduce erosion of the refractory
lining. For a furnace with basic refractories causes the slag to foam, allowing greater thermal
efficiency, and better arc stability and electrical efficiency.

Once srap has been completely melted down, often another bucket of scrap is charged into
the furnace and melted down. After the second charge is completely melted, refining
operations take place to check and correct the steel chemistry and superheat the melt above
its freezing temperature in preparation for tapping. Once the temperature and chemistry are
correct, the steel is tapped out into a preheated ladle through tilting the furnace.

Alternating current furnaces have three moving graphite electrodes. Heating and melting of
metal is enabled by radiant energy of the arc burning between the electrodes and metal, and
the temperature in the arc zone reaches 4000 °С. The uniform burning of arc is regulated by
means of moving of current-carrying electrodes transversely to the surface of the melt. It is
possible to regulate the radiant energy by stretching and contracting the arc with two
moving electrodes.

Principles of control

Control of electrode movement is, in its turn, based on maintaining of constant level of the
burning electric arc external impedance. During the previous decade they have undergone a
drastic change due to the uprise of the new computing techniques generation in the industry
such as controllers and digital controlled electric drives.



                                CVS MAKINA İNŞ. SAN. ve TİC. LTD. ŞTİ.
     Dilovası Organize Sanayii Bölgesi 3. Kısım Muallimköy Cad. No:21 Gebze 41400 KOCAELİ / TURKEY
            Tel. +90 262 759 15 05 Fax. +90 262 759 18 80 www.cvs.com.tr    cvs@cvs.com.tr
The voltage of furnace power transformer may vary in steps via the tap changing device.
But, as a rule, the transformer taps change is not applied in small furnaces during the
technological process.

The problem of electrode failure at arc ignition in up-to-date electric drives is easily solved by
adjusting current limiting set points in the electrode movement controlled by hydraulic
cylinders, and the overcharge alarm is transmitted to the master controller to ensure the
appropriate system response.

With the help of modern automation equipment it becomes possible to integrate the control
system into a top-level network for organization of recording systems of different types,
control or document management systems.

The use of EAFs allows steel to be made from a 100% scrap metal feedstock, commonly
known as 'cold ferrous feed' to emphasise the fact that for an EAF, scrap is a regulated feed
material. The primary benefit of this is the large reduction in specific energy (energy per unit
weight) required to produce the steel.

EAFs can be rapidly started and stopped, allowing the steel mill to vary production according
to demand. Although steelmaking arc furnaces generally use scrap steel as their primary
feedstock, if hot metal from a blast furnace or direct-reduced iron is available economically,
these can also be used as furnace feed.

Applications
Electric Arc Furnace has following applications:

   ·   Electric arc furnace produces many grades of steel.

   ·   Concrete reinforcing bars common merchant-quality standard channels, bars, and
       flats.

   ·   Special bar quality grades used for the automotive and oil industry.

   ·   A typical steel making arc furnace is the source of steel for a mini-mill, which may
       make bars or strip product.




                               CVS MAKINA İNŞ. SAN. ve TİC. LTD. ŞTİ.
    Dilovası Organize Sanayii Bölgesi 3. Kısım Muallimköy Cad. No:21 Gebze 41400 KOCAELİ / TURKEY
           Tel. +90 262 759 15 05 Fax. +90 262 759 18 80 www.cvs.com.tr    cvs@cvs.com.tr
COMPARISON

When a foundry/meltshop is choosing between state-of-the-art Electric Arc Furnace or
medium frequency coreless induction melting for its operation, the discussion centers on key
factors such as energy costs, environmental regulations, charge materials, labor and
production levels. To perform a proper analysis of what system is best for an operation, all
factors must be quantified in dollars per ton of molten iron and then totaled to determine the
cost-effective melt solution.

This analysis reviews the following factors for both melt systems and assigns them a cost in
dollars per ton of iron:

* charge material/treatment cost;

* operational cost;

* labor cost;

* environmental cost;

* investment and breakeven analysis.



These factors then can be totaled to determine the melt system that is a more cost-effective
option for the specific production situation.



Charge Materials

A major difference between the compared melt processes is the ability to use differing
quality charge materials. Oxidation and reduction reactions take place within and above the
melt zone during electric steelmaking, which allows for the usage of highly oxidized and low
quality scrap material. Induction furnaces are more sensitive to low quality charge materials
and contaminants, resulting in premium scrap costs. A reductive atmosphere is not present
and therefore iron oxide will not be reduced. This increases iron loss through the slag.
Another charge material difference between the melt processes is the cost of alloys and
nonmetallic additions. An induction furnace operation uses a high-grade silicon carbide to




                                CVS MAKINA İNŞ. SAN. ve TİC. LTD. ŞTİ.
    Dilovası Organize Sanayii Bölgesi 3. Kısım Muallimköy Cad. No:21 Gebze 41400 KOCAELİ / TURKEY
           Tel. +90 262 759 15 05 Fax. +90 262 759 18 80 www.cvs.com.tr    cvs@cvs.com.tr
adjust iron chemistry. In addition, pure carbon in the form of graphite is used for
carburization. These additions are costs not required for the EAF.



Electricity

Because of higher electrical energy input with higher electrode current, higher electrical
efficiency with reactors and thanking to additional chemical energy input (nearly 35 % of
total energy) by oxy-fuel burners and C-injection, EAF operation requires lower specific
energy consumption around 380-420 kWh/ton whereas IMF has 680-720 kWh/ton
consumption.



Productivity

Thanking to faster equipment movements, EAF has advantageous for power-of time in one-
heat. Additionally, chemical energy input by supersonic oxygen and carbon injection, power-
on time of EAF is lower. In general, tap-to-tap time of EAF is around 50-60 minutes whereas,
one heat can take 120-150 minutes for IMF. The profitability of any industrial plant increases
and decreases directly with production rates.



Labor
EAF operation with state-of-the-art equipment has the following labor requirements: two EAF
operators, one charge crane operator, one foreman. This results in five workers per shift.

A medium frequency melt system's labor requirements are: two furnace operators, two
charger and crane operators, one supervisor. Five workers per shift are required for melting
within the outlined operation.



Refractory
The EAF is designed for a two-week melt campaign. After the two weeks, the anticipated
repairs would be the breast and tap hole, spout, well and melt zone. In addition, major




                               CVS MAKINA İNŞ. SAN. ve TİC. LTD. ŞTİ.
    Dilovası Organize Sanayii Bölgesi 3. Kısım Muallimköy Cad. No:21 Gebze 41400 KOCAELİ / TURKEY
           Tel. +90 262 759 15 05 Fax. +90 262 759 18 80 www.cvs.com.tr    cvs@cvs.com.tr
replacements and repairs for the spout, well, melt zone and brick lining above the melt zone
must be considered.

For the three medium frequency furnaces, the refractory and labor items to consider are
major furnace relining, general/small furnace repair and pouring spout repair.

The largest differences are in general refractory and small repairs because of the increased
level of materials and man-hours for a three-furnace system. The medium frequency system
does have the advantage of not using a holding furnace, which saves on refractory cost.


Waste Disposal

The wastes accumulating from both systems are slag and dust. The difference lies in the
quantity of waste. EAF generate around 8 % of their melt rate as slag and 20-30 lb of dust
per ton of iron melted. EAF slag from this analysis will have a commercial value for beneficial
reuse.

Medium frequency furnace wastes are less in volume, slag mass is 1% of the melt. This
operation does not produce slag for commercial reuse. In addition, in medium frequency
melting, the dust collected (1 lb/ton melted) in a baghouse requires treatment for leachable
heavy metals.

However, in addition to indirect suction from canopy hood in IMF case, direct suction from
furnace roof fume emission to atmosphere for EAF operation is less due to the chance to
exract the off-gasses from furnace directly



Maintenance
Maintenance costs for both operations are calculated assuming costs for equipment, spare
parts, in-house maintenance and outside contractors and based on reports by foundries.
Costs for the EAF operation are estimated at $6.40/ton of melted iron and $4.40/ton melted
iron for the medium frequency furnace operation.



Buildings and Other




                               CVS MAKINA İNŞ. SAN. ve TİC. LTD. ŞTİ.
    Dilovası Organize Sanayii Bölgesi 3. Kısım Muallimköy Cad. No:21 Gebze 41400 KOCAELİ / TURKEY
           Tel. +90 262 759 15 05 Fax. +90 262 759 18 80 www.cvs.com.tr    cvs@cvs.com.tr
This item includes building operational costs such as electricity and natural gas, office
operation, transportation and safety and is based on reports by foundries. This parameter is
equal for both operations.



Capital Investment

In this analysis, the capital investments for these two systems are based on past projects.
Based on this experience, medium frequency melt systems are installed at a 25% reduced
cost when compared to EAF systems.

For the electric melting system, the major cost factors are the furnaces, charging system,
buildings with power supply and environmental controls.




                               CVS MAKINA İNŞ. SAN. ve TİC. LTD. ŞTİ.
    Dilovası Organize Sanayii Bölgesi 3. Kısım Muallimköy Cad. No:21 Gebze 41400 KOCAELİ / TURKEY
           Tel. +90 262 759 15 05 Fax. +90 262 759 18 80 www.cvs.com.tr    cvs@cvs.com.tr
Which to Choose?

Since it gained prominence in the 1960s, electric melting has been an attractive option for
iron foundries/meltshops. The key is that when the selection of a system is being made, all
the proper data and factors must be considered to ensure the most efficient melt operation.

The temperature of the arc is much higher than the max temperature created by the
induction. A big difference will be the energy costs. Arc is electrically more efficient. Most
coreless induction furnaces are for non-ferrous melting and are much smaller than a small
arc furnace.

EAF practice needs experienced melters and operators who are in short supply. Also the cost
of graphite electrodes and refractories increase the operational cost. Energy cost for melting
compares with Induction furnace. The cost of EAF may be low compared to Induction
furnace, but the cost of electrical transformers,switch gear,cables will be expensive.
Additionally, additional pollution control equipments has to be installed to meet company’s
local laws.

Normally where the liquid metal demand is above 25 tons on a continuous basis, EAF is
installed.

The major drawback in Induction melting is the use of clean and segregated scrap, which is
expensive and the absence of any refining. Installation of the equipment is quick and a low
skilled operator can un the furnace. You are able to produce very low carbon (0.03%) grades
in induction furnace. Also changing grades of steel can be done on a heat to heat basis.

For hot metal requirements below 5 tph, the medium frequency coreless induction furnace
has proven to be the best choice from an operational and economic standpoint.

Dust generation and collection continue to be two serious problems with Induction Furnaces,
and no satisfactory solution appears imminent.

If the refractory and ladle practice is good, arc furnace metal should also be of better quality

Cast steel grades prone to form defects caused by nitrogen or hydrogen may pose a problem
when melted in induction furnaces.




                                 CVS MAKINA İNŞ. SAN. ve TİC. LTD. ŞTİ.
     Dilovası Organize Sanayii Bölgesi 3. Kısım Muallimköy Cad. No:21 Gebze 41400 KOCAELİ / TURKEY
              Tel. +90 262 759 15 05 Fax. +90 262 759 18 80 www.cvs.com.tr   cvs@cvs.com.tr
Both types of melting furnace operations benefit from the use of refining operations
(secondary metallurgy), particularly with respect to "clean steel" requirements.

Each melting operation presents its own set of unique requirements, and the optimum
practice must be developed on a case-by-case basis; rules-of-thumb are inadequate.

Due to the nature of Induction Furnace melting process, refining stage cannot be
accomplished. Consequently phosphorus reduction and slag removal cannot be succeeded.
To obtain proper quality, clean from hazardous elements and dirt free scrap should be used.
These kind of scrap is respectively expensive and difficult to find than the ordinary scrap.

Due to the shape of the Induction Furnace, scrap size is very limited. To prepare scrap blend
brings extra cost.

Electric consumption for EAF is very low. Even less than 400 kwh/ton can be quarantined.

Delivery time of the mechanical equipment is approximately 4 months, but electrical
equipment such as step-down transformer, furnace transformer etc. is 8-10 months. This will
be the same as Induction Furnace.

Productivity of EAF is two times more than the Induction Furnace in terms of ton/hour.

The scrap yield is 90% in EAF but as already mentioned on item 1, EAF has opportunity to
use cheaper scrap than the Induction Furnace




                               CVS MAKINA İNŞ. SAN. ve TİC. LTD. ŞTİ.
    Dilovası Organize Sanayii Bölgesi 3. Kısım Muallimköy Cad. No:21 Gebze 41400 KOCAELİ / TURKEY
           Tel. +90 262 759 15 05 Fax. +90 262 759 18 80 www.cvs.com.tr    cvs@cvs.com.tr
Following table gives the operational cost comparison:

CALCULATED                           UNIT EAF (UNIT EAF (PRICE IMF (UNIT IMF (PRICE
                        30 TON
FURNACE CAPACITY                     PRICE CONS.)   CONS.)     CONS.)    CONS.)

ELECTRICITY             KWH/TON 0,0967 380                   36,75          575             55,60

ELECTRODES              KG/TON       4,9      1,6            7,84           0               -

OXYGEN                  NM3/TON 0,08          30             2,40           0               -

NATURAL GAS             NM3/TON 0,1           2              0,20           0               -

LIME                    KG/TON       0,07     35             2,45           35              2,45

REFRACTORY              KG/TON       0,7      3              2,10           3               2,10

YIELD                   %            150      0,89           133,50         0,89            133,50

POWER-OFF TIME          min                   15             -              25              -

POWER-ON TIME           min                   35             -              55              -
TOTAL
OPERATIONAL COST        USD/TON               185,24                        193,65


Steel production using the electric arc furnace has increased significantly in recent years and
now accounts for a little over one third of total world output.




                               CVS MAKINA İNŞ. SAN. ve TİC. LTD. ŞTİ.
    Dilovası Organize Sanayii Bölgesi 3. Kısım Muallimköy Cad. No:21 Gebze 41400 KOCAELİ / TURKEY
           Tel. +90 262 759 15 05 Fax. +90 262 759 18 80 www.cvs.com.tr    cvs@cvs.com.tr

More Related Content

What's hot

Secondary steel making
Secondary steel making Secondary steel making
Secondary steel making Abhishek Kumar
 
Iron making
Iron makingIron making
Iron makingguddu_92
 
Heat treatment course material
Heat treatment course materialHeat treatment course material
Heat treatment course materialNeeraj Dhakar
 
LADLE FURNACE AND SECONDARY METALLURGY TRAINING PREPARED BY CVS MAKINA
LADLE FURNACE AND SECONDARY METALLURGY TRAINING PREPARED BY CVS MAKINALADLE FURNACE AND SECONDARY METALLURGY TRAINING PREPARED BY CVS MAKINA
LADLE FURNACE AND SECONDARY METALLURGY TRAINING PREPARED BY CVS MAKINAmetudgn
 
Iron making refractories
Iron making refractoriesIron making refractories
Iron making refractoriesN.Prakasan
 
Sintering Technology
Sintering   Technology  Sintering   Technology
Sintering Technology Sajan Agrawal
 
Refractories and Operation of RH and RH-OB Process
Refractories and Operation of RH and RH-OB ProcessRefractories and Operation of RH and RH-OB Process
Refractories and Operation of RH and RH-OB Processsampad mishra
 
Welding of aluminum alloys
Welding of aluminum alloysWelding of aluminum alloys
Welding of aluminum alloysChayon Mondal
 
Steel melting shop (sms) - 2
Steel melting shop (sms) - 2Steel melting shop (sms) - 2
Steel melting shop (sms) - 2NIT - ROURKELA
 
Lf mechanical design_presentation
Lf mechanical design_presentationLf mechanical design_presentation
Lf mechanical design_presentationmetudgn
 
Introduction to steel making processes
Introduction to steel making processesIntroduction to steel making processes
Introduction to steel making processespooja verma
 
Heat affected zone
Heat affected zoneHeat affected zone
Heat affected zonejay prakash
 
TOOL STEELS & THEIR HEAT TREATMENT
TOOL STEELS & THEIR HEAT TREATMENTTOOL STEELS & THEIR HEAT TREATMENT
TOOL STEELS & THEIR HEAT TREATMENTSWAPNIL NIGAM
 
Induction melting technologies and processes
Induction melting technologies and processesInduction melting technologies and processes
Induction melting technologies and processesLeonardo ENERGY
 

What's hot (20)

Secondary steel making
Secondary steel making Secondary steel making
Secondary steel making
 
Hsla steels
Hsla steelsHsla steels
Hsla steels
 
Advances in SPecail Steels : Super alloy ni and ti alloys
Advances in SPecail Steels : Super alloy ni and ti alloysAdvances in SPecail Steels : Super alloy ni and ti alloys
Advances in SPecail Steels : Super alloy ni and ti alloys
 
Induction furnace
Induction furnaceInduction furnace
Induction furnace
 
Steel MAking: Lecture BOS and EAF
Steel MAking: Lecture BOS and EAFSteel MAking: Lecture BOS and EAF
Steel MAking: Lecture BOS and EAF
 
Steel making
Steel makingSteel making
Steel making
 
Iron making
Iron makingIron making
Iron making
 
Heat treatment course material
Heat treatment course materialHeat treatment course material
Heat treatment course material
 
LADLE FURNACE AND SECONDARY METALLURGY TRAINING PREPARED BY CVS MAKINA
LADLE FURNACE AND SECONDARY METALLURGY TRAINING PREPARED BY CVS MAKINALADLE FURNACE AND SECONDARY METALLURGY TRAINING PREPARED BY CVS MAKINA
LADLE FURNACE AND SECONDARY METALLURGY TRAINING PREPARED BY CVS MAKINA
 
Iron making refractories
Iron making refractoriesIron making refractories
Iron making refractories
 
Sintering Technology
Sintering   Technology  Sintering   Technology
Sintering Technology
 
Refractories and Operation of RH and RH-OB Process
Refractories and Operation of RH and RH-OB ProcessRefractories and Operation of RH and RH-OB Process
Refractories and Operation of RH and RH-OB Process
 
Welding of aluminum alloys
Welding of aluminum alloysWelding of aluminum alloys
Welding of aluminum alloys
 
Steel melting shop (sms) - 2
Steel melting shop (sms) - 2Steel melting shop (sms) - 2
Steel melting shop (sms) - 2
 
The arc furnace
The arc furnaceThe arc furnace
The arc furnace
 
Lf mechanical design_presentation
Lf mechanical design_presentationLf mechanical design_presentation
Lf mechanical design_presentation
 
Introduction to steel making processes
Introduction to steel making processesIntroduction to steel making processes
Introduction to steel making processes
 
Heat affected zone
Heat affected zoneHeat affected zone
Heat affected zone
 
TOOL STEELS & THEIR HEAT TREATMENT
TOOL STEELS & THEIR HEAT TREATMENTTOOL STEELS & THEIR HEAT TREATMENT
TOOL STEELS & THEIR HEAT TREATMENT
 
Induction melting technologies and processes
Induction melting technologies and processesInduction melting technologies and processes
Induction melting technologies and processes
 

Viewers also liked

Main part’s drawing of INDUCTION FURNACE
Main part’s drawing of INDUCTION FURNACEMain part’s drawing of INDUCTION FURNACE
Main part’s drawing of INDUCTION FURNACEBhautik Chheta
 
GW-1-750IF Induction Furnace
GW-1-750IF Induction FurnaceGW-1-750IF Induction Furnace
GW-1-750IF Induction FurnaceGuo ke
 
Electrical Heating 03-03
Electrical Heating 03-03Electrical Heating 03-03
Electrical Heating 03-03Vijay Raskar
 
computational investigation for life cycle of alumina based induction furnace...
computational investigation for life cycle of alumina based induction furnace...computational investigation for life cycle of alumina based induction furnace...
computational investigation for life cycle of alumina based induction furnace...IJCMESJOURNAL
 
Petcoke furnace die casting furnace
Petcoke furnace die casting furnacePetcoke furnace die casting furnace
Petcoke furnace die casting furnacepankaj chauhan
 
Neuland foundry Presentation 201602new
Neuland foundry Presentation 201602newNeuland foundry Presentation 201602new
Neuland foundry Presentation 201602newSand Casting Supplier
 
Introduction to casting processes by stead fast engineers pvt ltd – part 2
Introduction to casting processes by stead fast engineers pvt ltd – part 2Introduction to casting processes by stead fast engineers pvt ltd – part 2
Introduction to casting processes by stead fast engineers pvt ltd – part 2steadfast123
 
SIRIM FOUNDRY MALAYSIA
SIRIM FOUNDRY MALAYSIASIRIM FOUNDRY MALAYSIA
SIRIM FOUNDRY MALAYSIAamryaya10
 
Proposal of GW-12T Intermediate Induction Furnace
Proposal of GW-12T Intermediate Induction FurnaceProposal of GW-12T Intermediate Induction Furnace
Proposal of GW-12T Intermediate Induction FurnaceGuo ke
 
Procedure for clearance of steel imports in india
Procedure for clearance of steel imports in indiaProcedure for clearance of steel imports in india
Procedure for clearance of steel imports in indiaMadhusoodhanan Sayeenathan
 
12600KVA Metal Silicon Furnace Technical Proposal
12600KVA Metal Silicon Furnace Technical Proposal12600KVA Metal Silicon Furnace Technical Proposal
12600KVA Metal Silicon Furnace Technical ProposalGuo ke
 
NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE (EAF) AND LADLE FURNACES (LF) BY CVS...
NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE (EAF) AND LADLE FURNACES (LF) BY CVS...NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE (EAF) AND LADLE FURNACES (LF) BY CVS...
NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE (EAF) AND LADLE FURNACES (LF) BY CVS...metudgn
 
How to select a steel Mill (A micro level approach)
How to select a steel Mill  (A micro level approach)How to select a steel Mill  (A micro level approach)
How to select a steel Mill (A micro level approach)Madhusoodhanan Sayeenathan
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Electric arc furnace
Electric arc furnaceElectric arc furnace
Electric arc furnace
 
Main part’s drawing of INDUCTION FURNACE
Main part’s drawing of INDUCTION FURNACEMain part’s drawing of INDUCTION FURNACE
Main part’s drawing of INDUCTION FURNACE
 
GW-1-750IF Induction Furnace
GW-1-750IF Induction FurnaceGW-1-750IF Induction Furnace
GW-1-750IF Induction Furnace
 
Electrical Heating 03-03
Electrical Heating 03-03Electrical Heating 03-03
Electrical Heating 03-03
 
computational investigation for life cycle of alumina based induction furnace...
computational investigation for life cycle of alumina based induction furnace...computational investigation for life cycle of alumina based induction furnace...
computational investigation for life cycle of alumina based induction furnace...
 
Petcoke furnace die casting furnace
Petcoke furnace die casting furnacePetcoke furnace die casting furnace
Petcoke furnace die casting furnace
 
Neuland foundry Presentation 201602new
Neuland foundry Presentation 201602newNeuland foundry Presentation 201602new
Neuland foundry Presentation 201602new
 
Introduction to casting processes by stead fast engineers pvt ltd – part 2
Introduction to casting processes by stead fast engineers pvt ltd – part 2Introduction to casting processes by stead fast engineers pvt ltd – part 2
Introduction to casting processes by stead fast engineers pvt ltd – part 2
 
Die casting furnace
Die casting furnaceDie casting furnace
Die casting furnace
 
SIRIM FOUNDRY MALAYSIA
SIRIM FOUNDRY MALAYSIASIRIM FOUNDRY MALAYSIA
SIRIM FOUNDRY MALAYSIA
 
Financial analysis of steel industry ( JSW)
Financial analysis of steel industry ( JSW) Financial analysis of steel industry ( JSW)
Financial analysis of steel industry ( JSW)
 
Proposal of GW-12T Intermediate Induction Furnace
Proposal of GW-12T Intermediate Induction FurnaceProposal of GW-12T Intermediate Induction Furnace
Proposal of GW-12T Intermediate Induction Furnace
 
Procedure for clearance of steel imports in india
Procedure for clearance of steel imports in indiaProcedure for clearance of steel imports in india
Procedure for clearance of steel imports in india
 
12600KVA Metal Silicon Furnace Technical Proposal
12600KVA Metal Silicon Furnace Technical Proposal12600KVA Metal Silicon Furnace Technical Proposal
12600KVA Metal Silicon Furnace Technical Proposal
 
Midrex shaft process
Midrex shaft processMidrex shaft process
Midrex shaft process
 
Induction Furnace
Induction FurnaceInduction Furnace
Induction Furnace
 
Casting Furnaces
Casting FurnacesCasting Furnaces
Casting Furnaces
 
NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE (EAF) AND LADLE FURNACES (LF) BY CVS...
NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE (EAF) AND LADLE FURNACES (LF) BY CVS...NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE (EAF) AND LADLE FURNACES (LF) BY CVS...
NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE (EAF) AND LADLE FURNACES (LF) BY CVS...
 
How to select a steel Mill (A micro level approach)
How to select a steel Mill  (A micro level approach)How to select a steel Mill  (A micro level approach)
How to select a steel Mill (A micro level approach)
 
Casting furnaces
Casting furnacesCasting furnaces
Casting furnaces
 

Similar to Comparison Between Imf Eaf

High Speed Infra Red Furnace
High Speed Infra Red FurnaceHigh Speed Infra Red Furnace
High Speed Infra Red FurnaceIJMER
 
Eaf Makale
Eaf MakaleEaf Makale
Eaf Makalemetudgn
 
NEW INNOVATIONS IN ARC FURNACE TECHNOLOGY BY CVS MAKINA
NEW INNOVATIONS IN ARC FURNACE TECHNOLOGY BY CVS MAKINANEW INNOVATIONS IN ARC FURNACE TECHNOLOGY BY CVS MAKINA
NEW INNOVATIONS IN ARC FURNACE TECHNOLOGY BY CVS MAKINAmetudgn
 
Induction furnace melting
Induction furnace meltingInduction furnace melting
Induction furnace meltingManoj Kumar
 
modern meltig practises and metal transfer
modern meltig practises and metal transfermodern meltig practises and metal transfer
modern meltig practises and metal transferdeep shankar
 
electric arc furnace
electric arc furnaceelectric arc furnace
electric arc furnaceSanjitDhar
 
Presentation on electric induction furnace by Stead fast engineers Pvt Ltd
Presentation on electric induction furnace by Stead fast engineers Pvt LtdPresentation on electric induction furnace by Stead fast engineers Pvt Ltd
Presentation on electric induction furnace by Stead fast engineers Pvt Ltdsteadfast123
 
Developments in electric arc furnaces
Developments in electric arc furnacesDevelopments in electric arc furnaces
Developments in electric arc furnacesRaghav Saxena
 
A summer training presentation on national thermal power
A summer training presentation on national thermal powerA summer training presentation on national thermal power
A summer training presentation on national thermal powerShishupal03012015
 
Utilization of electric power (17 ee742)9th sept
Utilization of electric power (17 ee742)9th septUtilization of electric power (17 ee742)9th sept
Utilization of electric power (17 ee742)9th septRanganathGaonkar
 
ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE AC COMPONENTES.pdf
ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE AC COMPONENTES.pdfELECTRIC ARC FURNACE AC COMPONENTES.pdf
ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE AC COMPONENTES.pdfKerri Zhang
 
Steel manufacturing.ppthhh>jjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Steel manufacturing.ppthhh>jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjSteel manufacturing.ppthhh>jjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Steel manufacturing.ppthhh>jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjteddiyfentaw
 
Electric Arc Furnace--Xian Hani Tech Co.,Ltd.
Electric Arc Furnace--Xian Hani Tech Co.,Ltd.Electric Arc Furnace--Xian Hani Tech Co.,Ltd.
Electric Arc Furnace--Xian Hani Tech Co.,Ltd.DaisyElectricArcFurn
 
Introduction to induction heating by stead fast engineers
Introduction to induction heating by stead fast engineersIntroduction to induction heating by stead fast engineers
Introduction to induction heating by stead fast engineersCyber Security Infotech
 
rajwest thermal power plant
rajwest thermal power plantrajwest thermal power plant
rajwest thermal power plantRama Charan
 
Ch-19 Gas Welding, Gas Cutting & Arc Welding.pptx
Ch-19 Gas Welding, Gas Cutting & Arc Welding.pptxCh-19 Gas Welding, Gas Cutting & Arc Welding.pptx
Ch-19 Gas Welding, Gas Cutting & Arc Welding.pptxVishwajeetGupta11
 

Similar to Comparison Between Imf Eaf (20)

anku (Arc Furnance report)
anku (Arc Furnance report)anku (Arc Furnance report)
anku (Arc Furnance report)
 
Arc furnaces eaf
Arc furnaces eafArc furnaces eaf
Arc furnaces eaf
 
High Speed Infra Red Furnace
High Speed Infra Red FurnaceHigh Speed Infra Red Furnace
High Speed Infra Red Furnace
 
AARTI training report
AARTI training reportAARTI training report
AARTI training report
 
Eaf Makale
Eaf MakaleEaf Makale
Eaf Makale
 
NEW INNOVATIONS IN ARC FURNACE TECHNOLOGY BY CVS MAKINA
NEW INNOVATIONS IN ARC FURNACE TECHNOLOGY BY CVS MAKINANEW INNOVATIONS IN ARC FURNACE TECHNOLOGY BY CVS MAKINA
NEW INNOVATIONS IN ARC FURNACE TECHNOLOGY BY CVS MAKINA
 
Induction furnace melting
Induction furnace meltingInduction furnace melting
Induction furnace melting
 
modern meltig practises and metal transfer
modern meltig practises and metal transfermodern meltig practises and metal transfer
modern meltig practises and metal transfer
 
electric arc furnace
electric arc furnaceelectric arc furnace
electric arc furnace
 
Presentation on electric induction furnace by Stead fast engineers Pvt Ltd
Presentation on electric induction furnace by Stead fast engineers Pvt LtdPresentation on electric induction furnace by Stead fast engineers Pvt Ltd
Presentation on electric induction furnace by Stead fast engineers Pvt Ltd
 
Developments in electric arc furnaces
Developments in electric arc furnacesDevelopments in electric arc furnaces
Developments in electric arc furnaces
 
A summer training presentation on national thermal power
A summer training presentation on national thermal powerA summer training presentation on national thermal power
A summer training presentation on national thermal power
 
Utilization of electric power (17 ee742)9th sept
Utilization of electric power (17 ee742)9th septUtilization of electric power (17 ee742)9th sept
Utilization of electric power (17 ee742)9th sept
 
ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE AC COMPONENTES.pdf
ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE AC COMPONENTES.pdfELECTRIC ARC FURNACE AC COMPONENTES.pdf
ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE AC COMPONENTES.pdf
 
Steel manufacturing.ppthhh>jjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Steel manufacturing.ppthhh>jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjSteel manufacturing.ppthhh>jjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Steel manufacturing.ppthhh>jjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
 
Electric Arc Furnace--Xian Hani Tech Co.,Ltd.
Electric Arc Furnace--Xian Hani Tech Co.,Ltd.Electric Arc Furnace--Xian Hani Tech Co.,Ltd.
Electric Arc Furnace--Xian Hani Tech Co.,Ltd.
 
Introduction to induction heating by stead fast engineers
Introduction to induction heating by stead fast engineersIntroduction to induction heating by stead fast engineers
Introduction to induction heating by stead fast engineers
 
rajwest thermal power plant
rajwest thermal power plantrajwest thermal power plant
rajwest thermal power plant
 
Ch-19 Gas Welding, Gas Cutting & Arc Welding.pptx
Ch-19 Gas Welding, Gas Cutting & Arc Welding.pptxCh-19 Gas Welding, Gas Cutting & Arc Welding.pptx
Ch-19 Gas Welding, Gas Cutting & Arc Welding.pptx
 
SMS PROJECT
SMS PROJECTSMS PROJECT
SMS PROJECT
 

More from metudgn

CVS MAKİNA-REFRAKTER ERGİTME OCAĞI TEKNOLOJİSİ
CVS MAKİNA-REFRAKTER ERGİTME OCAĞI TEKNOLOJİSİCVS MAKİNA-REFRAKTER ERGİTME OCAĞI TEKNOLOJİSİ
CVS MAKİNA-REFRAKTER ERGİTME OCAĞI TEKNOLOJİSİmetudgn
 
Scrap handling systems
Scrap handling systemsScrap handling systems
Scrap handling systemsmetudgn
 
CCM TECHNOLOGY OF CVS TECHNOLOGY
CCM TECHNOLOGY OF CVS TECHNOLOGYCCM TECHNOLOGY OF CVS TECHNOLOGY
CCM TECHNOLOGY OF CVS TECHNOLOGYmetudgn
 
Energy optimization at EAF
Energy optimization at EAFEnergy optimization at EAF
Energy optimization at EAFmetudgn
 
NEW GENERATION IN PRE-HEATING TECHNOLOGY
NEW GENERATION IN PRE-HEATING TECHNOLOGY NEW GENERATION IN PRE-HEATING TECHNOLOGY
NEW GENERATION IN PRE-HEATING TECHNOLOGY metudgn
 
New generation in pre heating technology
New generation in pre heating technologyNew generation in pre heating technology
New generation in pre heating technologymetudgn
 
Cvs dss ftp_project description
Cvs dss ftp_project descriptionCvs dss ftp_project description
Cvs dss ftp_project descriptionmetudgn
 
Cvs_general_presentation
Cvs_general_presentationCvs_general_presentation
Cvs_general_presentationmetudgn
 
Vd Presentation Cvs
Vd Presentation CvsVd Presentation Cvs
Vd Presentation Cvsmetudgn
 
Cvs Presentation
Cvs PresentationCvs Presentation
Cvs Presentationmetudgn
 
TRAINING FOR VACUUM DEGASSING AND SECONDARY METALLURGY BY CVS MAKINA
TRAINING FOR VACUUM DEGASSING AND SECONDARY METALLURGY BY CVS MAKINATRAINING FOR VACUUM DEGASSING AND SECONDARY METALLURGY BY CVS MAKINA
TRAINING FOR VACUUM DEGASSING AND SECONDARY METALLURGY BY CVS MAKINAmetudgn
 
STEELMAKING TECHNOLOGIES AND NEW INNOVATIONS IN MELTSHOPS - CVS MAKINA
STEELMAKING TECHNOLOGIES AND NEW INNOVATIONS IN MELTSHOPS - CVS MAKINASTEELMAKING TECHNOLOGIES AND NEW INNOVATIONS IN MELTSHOPS - CVS MAKINA
STEELMAKING TECHNOLOGIES AND NEW INNOVATIONS IN MELTSHOPS - CVS MAKINAmetudgn
 

More from metudgn (12)

CVS MAKİNA-REFRAKTER ERGİTME OCAĞI TEKNOLOJİSİ
CVS MAKİNA-REFRAKTER ERGİTME OCAĞI TEKNOLOJİSİCVS MAKİNA-REFRAKTER ERGİTME OCAĞI TEKNOLOJİSİ
CVS MAKİNA-REFRAKTER ERGİTME OCAĞI TEKNOLOJİSİ
 
Scrap handling systems
Scrap handling systemsScrap handling systems
Scrap handling systems
 
CCM TECHNOLOGY OF CVS TECHNOLOGY
CCM TECHNOLOGY OF CVS TECHNOLOGYCCM TECHNOLOGY OF CVS TECHNOLOGY
CCM TECHNOLOGY OF CVS TECHNOLOGY
 
Energy optimization at EAF
Energy optimization at EAFEnergy optimization at EAF
Energy optimization at EAF
 
NEW GENERATION IN PRE-HEATING TECHNOLOGY
NEW GENERATION IN PRE-HEATING TECHNOLOGY NEW GENERATION IN PRE-HEATING TECHNOLOGY
NEW GENERATION IN PRE-HEATING TECHNOLOGY
 
New generation in pre heating technology
New generation in pre heating technologyNew generation in pre heating technology
New generation in pre heating technology
 
Cvs dss ftp_project description
Cvs dss ftp_project descriptionCvs dss ftp_project description
Cvs dss ftp_project description
 
Cvs_general_presentation
Cvs_general_presentationCvs_general_presentation
Cvs_general_presentation
 
Vd Presentation Cvs
Vd Presentation CvsVd Presentation Cvs
Vd Presentation Cvs
 
Cvs Presentation
Cvs PresentationCvs Presentation
Cvs Presentation
 
TRAINING FOR VACUUM DEGASSING AND SECONDARY METALLURGY BY CVS MAKINA
TRAINING FOR VACUUM DEGASSING AND SECONDARY METALLURGY BY CVS MAKINATRAINING FOR VACUUM DEGASSING AND SECONDARY METALLURGY BY CVS MAKINA
TRAINING FOR VACUUM DEGASSING AND SECONDARY METALLURGY BY CVS MAKINA
 
STEELMAKING TECHNOLOGIES AND NEW INNOVATIONS IN MELTSHOPS - CVS MAKINA
STEELMAKING TECHNOLOGIES AND NEW INNOVATIONS IN MELTSHOPS - CVS MAKINASTEELMAKING TECHNOLOGIES AND NEW INNOVATIONS IN MELTSHOPS - CVS MAKINA
STEELMAKING TECHNOLOGIES AND NEW INNOVATIONS IN MELTSHOPS - CVS MAKINA
 

Recently uploaded

What is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdf
What is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdfWhat is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdf
What is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdfMounikaPolabathina
 
Enhancing User Experience - Exploring the Latest Features of Tallyman Axis Lo...
Enhancing User Experience - Exploring the Latest Features of Tallyman Axis Lo...Enhancing User Experience - Exploring the Latest Features of Tallyman Axis Lo...
Enhancing User Experience - Exploring the Latest Features of Tallyman Axis Lo...Scott Andery
 
Connecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdf
Connecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdfConnecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdf
Connecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdfNeo4j
 
Manual 508 Accessibility Compliance Audit
Manual 508 Accessibility Compliance AuditManual 508 Accessibility Compliance Audit
Manual 508 Accessibility Compliance AuditSkynet Technologies
 
The State of Passkeys with FIDO Alliance.pptx
The State of Passkeys with FIDO Alliance.pptxThe State of Passkeys with FIDO Alliance.pptx
The State of Passkeys with FIDO Alliance.pptxLoriGlavin3
 
Decarbonising Buildings: Making a net-zero built environment a reality
Decarbonising Buildings: Making a net-zero built environment a realityDecarbonising Buildings: Making a net-zero built environment a reality
Decarbonising Buildings: Making a net-zero built environment a realityIES VE
 
Arizona Broadband Policy Past, Present, and Future Presentation 3/25/24
Arizona Broadband Policy Past, Present, and Future Presentation 3/25/24Arizona Broadband Policy Past, Present, and Future Presentation 3/25/24
Arizona Broadband Policy Past, Present, and Future Presentation 3/25/24Mark Goldstein
 
Emixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native development
Emixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native developmentEmixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native development
Emixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native developmentPim van der Noll
 
Unleashing Real-time Insights with ClickHouse_ Navigating the Landscape in 20...
Unleashing Real-time Insights with ClickHouse_ Navigating the Landscape in 20...Unleashing Real-time Insights with ClickHouse_ Navigating the Landscape in 20...
Unleashing Real-time Insights with ClickHouse_ Navigating the Landscape in 20...Alkin Tezuysal
 
DevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platforms
DevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platformsDevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platforms
DevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platformsSergiu Bodiu
 
Sample pptx for embedding into website for demo
Sample pptx for embedding into website for demoSample pptx for embedding into website for demo
Sample pptx for embedding into website for demoHarshalMandlekar2
 
How to write a Business Continuity Plan
How to write a Business Continuity PlanHow to write a Business Continuity Plan
How to write a Business Continuity PlanDatabarracks
 
Generative AI for Technical Writer or Information Developers
Generative AI for Technical Writer or Information DevelopersGenerative AI for Technical Writer or Information Developers
Generative AI for Technical Writer or Information DevelopersRaghuram Pandurangan
 
Passkey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Passkey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxPasskey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Passkey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxLoriGlavin3
 
A Deep Dive on Passkeys: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
A Deep Dive on Passkeys: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxA Deep Dive on Passkeys: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
A Deep Dive on Passkeys: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxLoriGlavin3
 
A Journey Into the Emotions of Software Developers
A Journey Into the Emotions of Software DevelopersA Journey Into the Emotions of Software Developers
A Journey Into the Emotions of Software DevelopersNicole Novielli
 
The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...
The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...
The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...Wes McKinney
 
Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...
Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...
Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...panagenda
 
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdf
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdfGenerative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdf
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdfIngrid Airi González
 
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examplesTesting tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examplesKari Kakkonen
 

Recently uploaded (20)

What is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdf
What is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdfWhat is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdf
What is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdf
 
Enhancing User Experience - Exploring the Latest Features of Tallyman Axis Lo...
Enhancing User Experience - Exploring the Latest Features of Tallyman Axis Lo...Enhancing User Experience - Exploring the Latest Features of Tallyman Axis Lo...
Enhancing User Experience - Exploring the Latest Features of Tallyman Axis Lo...
 
Connecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdf
Connecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdfConnecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdf
Connecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdf
 
Manual 508 Accessibility Compliance Audit
Manual 508 Accessibility Compliance AuditManual 508 Accessibility Compliance Audit
Manual 508 Accessibility Compliance Audit
 
The State of Passkeys with FIDO Alliance.pptx
The State of Passkeys with FIDO Alliance.pptxThe State of Passkeys with FIDO Alliance.pptx
The State of Passkeys with FIDO Alliance.pptx
 
Decarbonising Buildings: Making a net-zero built environment a reality
Decarbonising Buildings: Making a net-zero built environment a realityDecarbonising Buildings: Making a net-zero built environment a reality
Decarbonising Buildings: Making a net-zero built environment a reality
 
Arizona Broadband Policy Past, Present, and Future Presentation 3/25/24
Arizona Broadband Policy Past, Present, and Future Presentation 3/25/24Arizona Broadband Policy Past, Present, and Future Presentation 3/25/24
Arizona Broadband Policy Past, Present, and Future Presentation 3/25/24
 
Emixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native development
Emixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native developmentEmixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native development
Emixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native development
 
Unleashing Real-time Insights with ClickHouse_ Navigating the Landscape in 20...
Unleashing Real-time Insights with ClickHouse_ Navigating the Landscape in 20...Unleashing Real-time Insights with ClickHouse_ Navigating the Landscape in 20...
Unleashing Real-time Insights with ClickHouse_ Navigating the Landscape in 20...
 
DevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platforms
DevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platformsDevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platforms
DevEX - reference for building teams, processes, and platforms
 
Sample pptx for embedding into website for demo
Sample pptx for embedding into website for demoSample pptx for embedding into website for demo
Sample pptx for embedding into website for demo
 
How to write a Business Continuity Plan
How to write a Business Continuity PlanHow to write a Business Continuity Plan
How to write a Business Continuity Plan
 
Generative AI for Technical Writer or Information Developers
Generative AI for Technical Writer or Information DevelopersGenerative AI for Technical Writer or Information Developers
Generative AI for Technical Writer or Information Developers
 
Passkey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Passkey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxPasskey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Passkey Providers and Enabling Portability: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
 
A Deep Dive on Passkeys: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
A Deep Dive on Passkeys: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxA Deep Dive on Passkeys: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
A Deep Dive on Passkeys: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
 
A Journey Into the Emotions of Software Developers
A Journey Into the Emotions of Software DevelopersA Journey Into the Emotions of Software Developers
A Journey Into the Emotions of Software Developers
 
The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...
The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...
The Future Roadmap for the Composable Data Stack - Wes McKinney - Data Counci...
 
Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...
Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...
Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...
 
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdf
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdfGenerative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdf
Generative Artificial Intelligence: How generative AI works.pdf
 
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examplesTesting tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
 

Comparison Between Imf Eaf

  • 1. COMPARISON BETWEEN EAF AND IMF (D. ERTAS – Project and Contracting Department - CVS MAKINA) By far, the most important engineering and construction material in the world, steel application figures prominently in many aspects of human life, from civil structures to automotive manufacture, from paper clips to refrigerators and washing machines and from aircrafts to the finest surgical instruments. All major industrial economies have a strong domestic steel industry which shaped their economic growth in the initial stages of their development. Steel is produced either from basic raw materials namely iron ore, lime stone and coke, using the blast furnace and basic oxygen furnace processes, or from recyclable steel scraps via the electric arc furnace process or induction melting process. The molten steel is stored and refined in ladles before being solidified and cast into slabs, blooms, billets and bars by continuous casting machine and/or ingot casting. Semi-finished steel is re-rolled (formed and finished) to produce finished steel items like plates, flats, bars, sections, tubes etc of varying thickness and dimensions. The High-Frequency induction furnace is widely used to produce tool steel (cast steel). The melt consists of selected scrap of known carbon content. This is placed in a crucible, which is surrounded by a water-cooled induction coil. A high frequency alternating current is passed through the coil and this set up an alternating magnetic field within the melt which generates intense heat and also has a stirring effect. Not only is it possible to obtain high temperatures, but the degree of heat may be accurately controlled. The furnace is tilted to pour out the molten metal. Induction furnace capacities range from less than one kilogram to twenty tonnes capacity, and are used to melt iron and steel, copper, aluminium, and precious metals. The one major drawback to induction furnace usage in a foundry is the lack of refining capacity; charge materials must be clean of oxidation products and of a known composition, and some alloying elements may be lost due to oxidation (and must be re- added to the melt). The electric-arc furnace consists of a large shallow bath with either an acid or basic lining, carbon electrodes over the hearth which may be raised or lowered. Current is supplied to CVS MAKINA İNŞ. SAN. ve TİC. LTD. ŞTİ. Dilovası Organize Sanayii Bölgesi 3. Kısım Muallimköy Cad. No:21 Gebze 41400 KOCAELİ / TURKEY Tel. +90 262 759 15 05 Fax. +90 262 759 18 80 www.cvs.com.tr cvs@cvs.com.tr
  • 2. these electrodes from special transformers. The hearth is charged with lime to remove the impurities and form a slag. The metal which forms the melt is scrap steel of known composition. When the furnace is charged the electrodes are lowered and the current is switched on. The electrodes are then raised and an electric arc jumps across from the electrodes to the metal and melting begins. The temperature near to electrode tip reaches about 4100ºC, which is the heat to melt the scrap. Lime, fluorspar, carbon and Ferro-alloys are added to de-oxidize the metal. The electric arc furnace can used to produce high grade alloy steels, HSS, High Tensile Steel and Silver Steel. This is possible because of the greater control over impurities and thus the steel making. It is increasingly used nowadays in the production of common steel. Arc furnaces range in size from small units of approximately one ton capacity used in foundries for producing cast iron products, up to about 400 ton units used for secondary steelmaking (arc furnaces used in research laboratories and by dentists may have a capacity of only a few dozen grams). Following paper aims to give comparison between Electric Arc Furnace Technology with Induction Melting Furnace Technology. CVS MAKINA İNŞ. SAN. ve TİC. LTD. ŞTİ. Dilovası Organize Sanayii Bölgesi 3. Kısım Muallimköy Cad. No:21 Gebze 41400 KOCAELİ / TURKEY Tel. +90 262 759 15 05 Fax. +90 262 759 18 80 www.cvs.com.tr cvs@cvs.com.tr
  • 3. Induction Furnace Induction heating process is a method in which the electrical conducting material is heated through by eddy currents induced by a varying electromagnetic field. The principle of the induction heating furnace is similar to that of a transformer. Induction furnace has it's own limitation. The induction process used in foundries lacks refining capacity. Charge materials must be clean of oxidation products and of a known composition, and some alloying elements may be lost due to oxidation (and must be re- added to the melt). The frequency of operation of induction furnace also vary. Usually it depend on the material being melted, the capacity of the furnace and the melting speed required. A high frequency furnace is usually faster to melt a charge whereas lower frequencies generate more turbulence in the metal, reducing the power that can be applied to the melt. When the induction furnace operates it emits a hum or whine (due to magnetostriction), the pitch of which can be used by operators to identify whether the furnace is operating correctly, or at what power level. CVS MAKINA İNŞ. SAN. ve TİC. LTD. ŞTİ. Dilovası Organize Sanayii Bölgesi 3. Kısım Muallimköy Cad. No:21 Gebze 41400 KOCAELİ / TURKEY Tel. +90 262 759 15 05 Fax. +90 262 759 18 80 www.cvs.com.tr cvs@cvs.com.tr
  • 4. Following are the features of induction furnace: · Highest chemical durability. · High refractoriness. · Available in various sizes. · Comes in different capacities. Some parameters of induction furnaces are give in the following table: Title Unit 0.15Ton 0.3Ton 0.5Ton 1Ton 1.5Ton 2Ton 3Ton Equipment Kw 100 160 250 500 750 1000 1500 rating power Input V 380 380 380 660 380 660 380 660 380 575-1250 Voltage Melting rate Kg/hour 160 300 490 1120 1680 2300 3300 Equipment ton/hour 5 5 8 10 22 28 35 water rate Equipment kwh/ton 850 800 750 700 650 650 650 power rate Furnace V 750 750 1500 1400-2500 1400-2500 1400-2500 2300-2500 rating power Furnace rating Ton 0.15 0.3 0.5 1 1.5 2 3 capacity match cover KVA 125-160 160-200 250-315 500-630 800-1000 1000-1250 1600-2000 Transformer Rating 'C 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 Temperature Capacitor Kvar 4000 6000 8000 16000 32000 24000 48000 32000 64000 48000 CVS MAKINA İNŞ. SAN. ve TİC. LTD. ŞTİ. Dilovası Organize Sanayii Bölgesi 3. Kısım Muallimköy Cad. No:21 Gebze 41400 KOCAELİ / TURKEY Tel. +90 262 759 15 05 Fax. +90 262 759 18 80 www.cvs.com.tr cvs@cvs.com.tr
  • 5. Electric Arc Furnace Arc furnace provides a simple and effective way of melting various grades of scrap and then going ahead to refine the metal to desired specification. It is also useful in making all kinds of steels including tool steels and alloy steels. This provides a method of utilising low cost scrap, which is available in abundance.The key advantage in EAF melting is that refining is possible and you can also produce low carbon steels. An electric arc furnace is mainly used for making steel and consist of devices like refractory- lined vessel and electrodes. Electrodes are normally round in section and comes in segments with threaded couplings, so that as the electrodes wear, new segments can be added. The arc forms between the charged material and the electrode. The charge so formed is heated both by current passing through the charge and by the radiant energy evolved by the arc. Through automatic positioning system electrodes are raised and lowered. For positioning electric winch hoists or hydraulic cylinders are used. The regulating system maintains an approximately constant current and power input during the melting of the charge, even though scrap may move under the electrodes while it melts. The mast arms holding the electrodes are used to convey the current to the electrode holders. The transformer is installed in a vault to protect it from the heat of the furnace. The refractory lined vessel having a removable roof is separated from the electrical system. The bottom of the furnace, is lined with refractory bricks and granular refractory material. There is a tilting platform on which the furnace is built so that the liquid steel can be poured into another vessel for transport in the steel making process. To prevent the liquid steel from the contaminants like nitrogen and slag modern furnaces have a bottom tap-hole on the spout. In some of the latest plant, scrap pre-heating is applied with different method to decrease the electric consumption and to increase the productivity. Operation Scrap metal is delivered to a scrap bay, located next to the melt shop. The furnace is filled with the scrap. After putting the scrap inside furnace the roof again cover the top of the furnace where the melt down goes on. CVS MAKINA İNŞ. SAN. ve TİC. LTD. ŞTİ. Dilovası Organize Sanayii Bölgesi 3. Kısım Muallimköy Cad. No:21 Gebze 41400 KOCAELİ / TURKEY Tel. +90 262 759 15 05 Fax. +90 262 759 18 80 www.cvs.com.tr cvs@cvs.com.tr
  • 6. The electrodes are lowered onto the scrap, an arc is struck and the electrodes are then pushed into the layer of shred at the top of the furnace. Voltage selected for this level of operation is usually small. Low voltages protect the roof and walls from excessive heat and damage from the arcs. After reaching the base of the furnace and the electrodes can be raised slightly, thereby increasing the length of the arcs and increasing power to the melt. This helps in the formation of molten pool even more rapidly. Modern furnaces are designed with some additional features. In this oxygen is pushed into the scrap. sometimes chemical heat is provided by wall-mounted oxy-fuel burners. Both processes accelerate scrap meltdown. The formation of slag is an important part of steel making which floats on the surface of the molten steel. Slag not only acts as thermal blanket but also reduce erosion of the refractory lining. For a furnace with basic refractories causes the slag to foam, allowing greater thermal efficiency, and better arc stability and electrical efficiency. Once srap has been completely melted down, often another bucket of scrap is charged into the furnace and melted down. After the second charge is completely melted, refining operations take place to check and correct the steel chemistry and superheat the melt above its freezing temperature in preparation for tapping. Once the temperature and chemistry are correct, the steel is tapped out into a preheated ladle through tilting the furnace. Alternating current furnaces have three moving graphite electrodes. Heating and melting of metal is enabled by radiant energy of the arc burning between the electrodes and metal, and the temperature in the arc zone reaches 4000 °С. The uniform burning of arc is regulated by means of moving of current-carrying electrodes transversely to the surface of the melt. It is possible to regulate the radiant energy by stretching and contracting the arc with two moving electrodes. Principles of control Control of electrode movement is, in its turn, based on maintaining of constant level of the burning electric arc external impedance. During the previous decade they have undergone a drastic change due to the uprise of the new computing techniques generation in the industry such as controllers and digital controlled electric drives. CVS MAKINA İNŞ. SAN. ve TİC. LTD. ŞTİ. Dilovası Organize Sanayii Bölgesi 3. Kısım Muallimköy Cad. No:21 Gebze 41400 KOCAELİ / TURKEY Tel. +90 262 759 15 05 Fax. +90 262 759 18 80 www.cvs.com.tr cvs@cvs.com.tr
  • 7. The voltage of furnace power transformer may vary in steps via the tap changing device. But, as a rule, the transformer taps change is not applied in small furnaces during the technological process. The problem of electrode failure at arc ignition in up-to-date electric drives is easily solved by adjusting current limiting set points in the electrode movement controlled by hydraulic cylinders, and the overcharge alarm is transmitted to the master controller to ensure the appropriate system response. With the help of modern automation equipment it becomes possible to integrate the control system into a top-level network for organization of recording systems of different types, control or document management systems. The use of EAFs allows steel to be made from a 100% scrap metal feedstock, commonly known as 'cold ferrous feed' to emphasise the fact that for an EAF, scrap is a regulated feed material. The primary benefit of this is the large reduction in specific energy (energy per unit weight) required to produce the steel. EAFs can be rapidly started and stopped, allowing the steel mill to vary production according to demand. Although steelmaking arc furnaces generally use scrap steel as their primary feedstock, if hot metal from a blast furnace or direct-reduced iron is available economically, these can also be used as furnace feed. Applications Electric Arc Furnace has following applications: · Electric arc furnace produces many grades of steel. · Concrete reinforcing bars common merchant-quality standard channels, bars, and flats. · Special bar quality grades used for the automotive and oil industry. · A typical steel making arc furnace is the source of steel for a mini-mill, which may make bars or strip product. CVS MAKINA İNŞ. SAN. ve TİC. LTD. ŞTİ. Dilovası Organize Sanayii Bölgesi 3. Kısım Muallimköy Cad. No:21 Gebze 41400 KOCAELİ / TURKEY Tel. +90 262 759 15 05 Fax. +90 262 759 18 80 www.cvs.com.tr cvs@cvs.com.tr
  • 8. COMPARISON When a foundry/meltshop is choosing between state-of-the-art Electric Arc Furnace or medium frequency coreless induction melting for its operation, the discussion centers on key factors such as energy costs, environmental regulations, charge materials, labor and production levels. To perform a proper analysis of what system is best for an operation, all factors must be quantified in dollars per ton of molten iron and then totaled to determine the cost-effective melt solution. This analysis reviews the following factors for both melt systems and assigns them a cost in dollars per ton of iron: * charge material/treatment cost; * operational cost; * labor cost; * environmental cost; * investment and breakeven analysis. These factors then can be totaled to determine the melt system that is a more cost-effective option for the specific production situation. Charge Materials A major difference between the compared melt processes is the ability to use differing quality charge materials. Oxidation and reduction reactions take place within and above the melt zone during electric steelmaking, which allows for the usage of highly oxidized and low quality scrap material. Induction furnaces are more sensitive to low quality charge materials and contaminants, resulting in premium scrap costs. A reductive atmosphere is not present and therefore iron oxide will not be reduced. This increases iron loss through the slag. Another charge material difference between the melt processes is the cost of alloys and nonmetallic additions. An induction furnace operation uses a high-grade silicon carbide to CVS MAKINA İNŞ. SAN. ve TİC. LTD. ŞTİ. Dilovası Organize Sanayii Bölgesi 3. Kısım Muallimköy Cad. No:21 Gebze 41400 KOCAELİ / TURKEY Tel. +90 262 759 15 05 Fax. +90 262 759 18 80 www.cvs.com.tr cvs@cvs.com.tr
  • 9. adjust iron chemistry. In addition, pure carbon in the form of graphite is used for carburization. These additions are costs not required for the EAF. Electricity Because of higher electrical energy input with higher electrode current, higher electrical efficiency with reactors and thanking to additional chemical energy input (nearly 35 % of total energy) by oxy-fuel burners and C-injection, EAF operation requires lower specific energy consumption around 380-420 kWh/ton whereas IMF has 680-720 kWh/ton consumption. Productivity Thanking to faster equipment movements, EAF has advantageous for power-of time in one- heat. Additionally, chemical energy input by supersonic oxygen and carbon injection, power- on time of EAF is lower. In general, tap-to-tap time of EAF is around 50-60 minutes whereas, one heat can take 120-150 minutes for IMF. The profitability of any industrial plant increases and decreases directly with production rates. Labor EAF operation with state-of-the-art equipment has the following labor requirements: two EAF operators, one charge crane operator, one foreman. This results in five workers per shift. A medium frequency melt system's labor requirements are: two furnace operators, two charger and crane operators, one supervisor. Five workers per shift are required for melting within the outlined operation. Refractory The EAF is designed for a two-week melt campaign. After the two weeks, the anticipated repairs would be the breast and tap hole, spout, well and melt zone. In addition, major CVS MAKINA İNŞ. SAN. ve TİC. LTD. ŞTİ. Dilovası Organize Sanayii Bölgesi 3. Kısım Muallimköy Cad. No:21 Gebze 41400 KOCAELİ / TURKEY Tel. +90 262 759 15 05 Fax. +90 262 759 18 80 www.cvs.com.tr cvs@cvs.com.tr
  • 10. replacements and repairs for the spout, well, melt zone and brick lining above the melt zone must be considered. For the three medium frequency furnaces, the refractory and labor items to consider are major furnace relining, general/small furnace repair and pouring spout repair. The largest differences are in general refractory and small repairs because of the increased level of materials and man-hours for a three-furnace system. The medium frequency system does have the advantage of not using a holding furnace, which saves on refractory cost. Waste Disposal The wastes accumulating from both systems are slag and dust. The difference lies in the quantity of waste. EAF generate around 8 % of their melt rate as slag and 20-30 lb of dust per ton of iron melted. EAF slag from this analysis will have a commercial value for beneficial reuse. Medium frequency furnace wastes are less in volume, slag mass is 1% of the melt. This operation does not produce slag for commercial reuse. In addition, in medium frequency melting, the dust collected (1 lb/ton melted) in a baghouse requires treatment for leachable heavy metals. However, in addition to indirect suction from canopy hood in IMF case, direct suction from furnace roof fume emission to atmosphere for EAF operation is less due to the chance to exract the off-gasses from furnace directly Maintenance Maintenance costs for both operations are calculated assuming costs for equipment, spare parts, in-house maintenance and outside contractors and based on reports by foundries. Costs for the EAF operation are estimated at $6.40/ton of melted iron and $4.40/ton melted iron for the medium frequency furnace operation. Buildings and Other CVS MAKINA İNŞ. SAN. ve TİC. LTD. ŞTİ. Dilovası Organize Sanayii Bölgesi 3. Kısım Muallimköy Cad. No:21 Gebze 41400 KOCAELİ / TURKEY Tel. +90 262 759 15 05 Fax. +90 262 759 18 80 www.cvs.com.tr cvs@cvs.com.tr
  • 11. This item includes building operational costs such as electricity and natural gas, office operation, transportation and safety and is based on reports by foundries. This parameter is equal for both operations. Capital Investment In this analysis, the capital investments for these two systems are based on past projects. Based on this experience, medium frequency melt systems are installed at a 25% reduced cost when compared to EAF systems. For the electric melting system, the major cost factors are the furnaces, charging system, buildings with power supply and environmental controls. CVS MAKINA İNŞ. SAN. ve TİC. LTD. ŞTİ. Dilovası Organize Sanayii Bölgesi 3. Kısım Muallimköy Cad. No:21 Gebze 41400 KOCAELİ / TURKEY Tel. +90 262 759 15 05 Fax. +90 262 759 18 80 www.cvs.com.tr cvs@cvs.com.tr
  • 12. Which to Choose? Since it gained prominence in the 1960s, electric melting has been an attractive option for iron foundries/meltshops. The key is that when the selection of a system is being made, all the proper data and factors must be considered to ensure the most efficient melt operation. The temperature of the arc is much higher than the max temperature created by the induction. A big difference will be the energy costs. Arc is electrically more efficient. Most coreless induction furnaces are for non-ferrous melting and are much smaller than a small arc furnace. EAF practice needs experienced melters and operators who are in short supply. Also the cost of graphite electrodes and refractories increase the operational cost. Energy cost for melting compares with Induction furnace. The cost of EAF may be low compared to Induction furnace, but the cost of electrical transformers,switch gear,cables will be expensive. Additionally, additional pollution control equipments has to be installed to meet company’s local laws. Normally where the liquid metal demand is above 25 tons on a continuous basis, EAF is installed. The major drawback in Induction melting is the use of clean and segregated scrap, which is expensive and the absence of any refining. Installation of the equipment is quick and a low skilled operator can un the furnace. You are able to produce very low carbon (0.03%) grades in induction furnace. Also changing grades of steel can be done on a heat to heat basis. For hot metal requirements below 5 tph, the medium frequency coreless induction furnace has proven to be the best choice from an operational and economic standpoint. Dust generation and collection continue to be two serious problems with Induction Furnaces, and no satisfactory solution appears imminent. If the refractory and ladle practice is good, arc furnace metal should also be of better quality Cast steel grades prone to form defects caused by nitrogen or hydrogen may pose a problem when melted in induction furnaces. CVS MAKINA İNŞ. SAN. ve TİC. LTD. ŞTİ. Dilovası Organize Sanayii Bölgesi 3. Kısım Muallimköy Cad. No:21 Gebze 41400 KOCAELİ / TURKEY Tel. +90 262 759 15 05 Fax. +90 262 759 18 80 www.cvs.com.tr cvs@cvs.com.tr
  • 13. Both types of melting furnace operations benefit from the use of refining operations (secondary metallurgy), particularly with respect to "clean steel" requirements. Each melting operation presents its own set of unique requirements, and the optimum practice must be developed on a case-by-case basis; rules-of-thumb are inadequate. Due to the nature of Induction Furnace melting process, refining stage cannot be accomplished. Consequently phosphorus reduction and slag removal cannot be succeeded. To obtain proper quality, clean from hazardous elements and dirt free scrap should be used. These kind of scrap is respectively expensive and difficult to find than the ordinary scrap. Due to the shape of the Induction Furnace, scrap size is very limited. To prepare scrap blend brings extra cost. Electric consumption for EAF is very low. Even less than 400 kwh/ton can be quarantined. Delivery time of the mechanical equipment is approximately 4 months, but electrical equipment such as step-down transformer, furnace transformer etc. is 8-10 months. This will be the same as Induction Furnace. Productivity of EAF is two times more than the Induction Furnace in terms of ton/hour. The scrap yield is 90% in EAF but as already mentioned on item 1, EAF has opportunity to use cheaper scrap than the Induction Furnace CVS MAKINA İNŞ. SAN. ve TİC. LTD. ŞTİ. Dilovası Organize Sanayii Bölgesi 3. Kısım Muallimköy Cad. No:21 Gebze 41400 KOCAELİ / TURKEY Tel. +90 262 759 15 05 Fax. +90 262 759 18 80 www.cvs.com.tr cvs@cvs.com.tr
  • 14. Following table gives the operational cost comparison: CALCULATED UNIT EAF (UNIT EAF (PRICE IMF (UNIT IMF (PRICE 30 TON FURNACE CAPACITY PRICE CONS.) CONS.) CONS.) CONS.) ELECTRICITY KWH/TON 0,0967 380 36,75 575 55,60 ELECTRODES KG/TON 4,9 1,6 7,84 0 - OXYGEN NM3/TON 0,08 30 2,40 0 - NATURAL GAS NM3/TON 0,1 2 0,20 0 - LIME KG/TON 0,07 35 2,45 35 2,45 REFRACTORY KG/TON 0,7 3 2,10 3 2,10 YIELD % 150 0,89 133,50 0,89 133,50 POWER-OFF TIME min 15 - 25 - POWER-ON TIME min 35 - 55 - TOTAL OPERATIONAL COST USD/TON 185,24 193,65 Steel production using the electric arc furnace has increased significantly in recent years and now accounts for a little over one third of total world output. CVS MAKINA İNŞ. SAN. ve TİC. LTD. ŞTİ. Dilovası Organize Sanayii Bölgesi 3. Kısım Muallimköy Cad. No:21 Gebze 41400 KOCAELİ / TURKEY Tel. +90 262 759 15 05 Fax. +90 262 759 18 80 www.cvs.com.tr cvs@cvs.com.tr