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Christopher Graham Academic English

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Christopher Graham Academic English

  1. 1. EAP & ESP MAKING ACADEMIC ENGLISH DISCIPLINE-SPECIFIC. Christopher Graham Garnet Education, UK
  2. 2. What is EAP ? <ul><li>........ and what should an EAP course cover ? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Let’s take a traditional skills-based approach. <ul><li>Listening </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>So what are the sub-skills for each of these ? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Listening <ul><li>Preparing for a lecture </li></ul><ul><li>Predicting lecture content </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding lecture organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing the best form of notes </li></ul><ul><li>Making notes </li></ul>
  5. 5. Listening 2 <ul><li>Signpost language </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols and abbreviations in note taking </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding speaker emphasis </li></ul><ul><li>Recognising digressions </li></ul><ul><li>Recognising a stance </li></ul>
  6. 6. Speaking <ul><li>Speaking from notes </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting research findings </li></ul><ul><li>Formulating questions </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Formal academic presentation skills </li></ul>
  7. 7. Speaking 2 <ul><li>Seminar skills: </li></ul><ul><li>Asking for clarification </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to requests for clarification </li></ul><ul><li>Referring to other people’s work in seminars </li></ul><ul><li>Building an argument in a seminar </li></ul><ul><li>Agreeing and disagreeing </li></ul>
  8. 8. Reading <ul><li>Using ‘internal’ questions to focus on content </li></ul><ul><li>Using topic sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying topic development </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Using the internet </li></ul><ul><li>Using internet search results </li></ul>
  9. 9. Reading 2 <ul><li>Finding key information in complex sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying confidence or tentativeness </li></ul><ul><li>Inferring implicit ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding linkage in a text </li></ul>
  10. 10. Writing <ul><li>Writing topic sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Summarising a text </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting findings from other sources </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding plagiarism </li></ul><ul><li>Writing complex sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrasing </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding notes into sentences </li></ul>
  11. 11. Writing 2 <ul><li>Different types of essays – descriptive/analytical/comparison/evaluation/argument </li></ul><ul><li>Using direct quotations </li></ul><ul><li>Compiling bibliographies and references </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Writing essay plans </li></ul><ul><li>Writing essays </li></ul><ul><li>Direct quotation vs. paraphrase </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporating quotations </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Writing research reports </li></ul>
  12. 12. A few observations and questions <ul><li>Most of the above have sub skills sets too. </li></ul><ul><li>These are general EAP skills of course, so how can we make them discipline-specific ? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Vocabulary <ul><li>The (relatively) easy one. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Academic </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-technical </li></ul><ul><li>Technical. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Context <ul><li>All sample texts, recordings, practice situations can be made discipline-specific. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Skills <ul><li>Listening </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul>
  16. 16. Listening <ul><li>The amount of lecture content in a typical programme. In other words is the course more lecture or seminar led ? </li></ul><ul><li>  The content – for example is the focus on statistical data or more on ideas ? </li></ul><ul><li>  Is the listening process more or less interactive ? </li></ul><ul><li>  What visual support might be used in lectures ? </li></ul><ul><li>  Is there generally pre or post lecture reading ? </li></ul><ul><li>  Is lecturer stance more or less of an issue ? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Speaking <ul><li>What is the most common format ? Seminar, presentation, thesis defence, questioning within lectures etc. </li></ul><ul><li>  Are there any discipline-specific conventions or formalities in for example group discussions ? </li></ul><ul><li>  What is the general style of the spoken English ? Is it reporting, analytical, creative, challenging etc. </li></ul><ul><li>How are academic presentations perceived and managed ? Think about length, structure, question policy, the level of challenge. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Reading <ul><li>How much reading is there ? </li></ul><ul><li>What is read ? Papers, books, websites, manuals, journals etc </li></ul><ul><li>How quickly ? </li></ul><ul><li>What discipline-specific content is there e.g. statistical data, complex philosophical arguments or case studies? </li></ul><ul><li>What level of comprehension is needed/what other conceptual reinforcement is there ? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Writing <ul><li>How much writing is there ? </li></ul><ul><li>What is written e.g. theses, essays, lab reports, lit. crit. etc. </li></ul><ul><li>What discipline-specific linguistic content is there ? The passive for lab reports for example. </li></ul><ul><li>What stylistic issues are there ? Such as discursive or descriptive text ? </li></ul><ul><li>How critical is accuracy ? </li></ul>
  20. 20. A word about Garnet. <ul><li>The background </li></ul><ul><li>The books </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Product Confrontation </li></ul>

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