Ses 1 basic fundamentals of mathematics and statistics


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Ses 1 basic fundamentals of mathematics and statistics

  1. 1. Basic fundamentals of Mathematics and Statistics<br />
  2. 2. Statistics<br />Or <br />How to make the numbers say whatever you want.<br />
  3. 3. Why use statistics?<br />Determining the difference between chance and real effects<br />
  4. 4. Over Precise Numbers<br />The average American sleeps 8 hours a night<br />The average American sleeps 8.2 hours a night<br />The average American sleeps 8.2339 hours a night<br />
  5. 5. The Right Statistic<br />A person wearing red is 129 times more likely to be gored by a charging bull!<br />
  6. 6. The elusive 'average'<br />1<br />3<br />3<br />2<br />2<br />2<br />Mean = 4.8<br />Median = 3<br />Mode = 2<br />4<br />4<br />27<br />
  7. 7. The elusive 'average'<br />0<br />5<br />4<br />3<br />2<br />1<br />Mean = 7.5<br />Median = 4<br />Mode = 27<br />6<br />27<br />27<br />
  8. 8. The elusive 'average'<br />1<br />23<br />2<br />2<br />1<br />1<br />Mean = 10.7<br />Median = 2<br />Mode = 1<br />24<br />26<br />27<br />
  9. 9. Topics: Basic foundation<br />Variables<br />Matrix<br />Fractions, <br />ratio and proportion<br />Solving equations<br />Graphs<br />Preparing frequency table<br />Permutation ,<br />combination, <br />Probability.<br />
  10. 10. Introduction to Statistics<br />5W 1H<br /><ul><li>What is Statistics?
  11. 11. When to apply Statistics?
  12. 12. Where to apply Statistics?
  13. 13. Who has contributed </li></ul> largely to Statistics?<br />-> Which are the different tools of<br /> Statistics?<br />->How to apply Statistics?<br />
  14. 14. Definition of Statistics:<br />A.L. Bowley defined statistics as“Statistics is the science of counting” <br /> “science of averages”<br />Secrist has given a detailed definition of statistics<br />“Statistics are the numerical statement of facts capable of analysis and interpretation and the science of statistics is the study of the principles and the methods applied in collecting, presenting, analysis and interpreting the numerical data in any field of inquiry.”    <br />
  15. 15. Need of Statistics<br />To approve or disapprove any economic theory.<br />To reveal the structure of the economy.<br />To Plan a strategy.<br />To access the success of programmes and policies of the government.<br />
  16. 16. Frequently used Statistical terms:<br /><ul><li>Data
  17. 17. Variable
  18. 18. Population
  19. 19. Sample</li></ul> -> Under Data Collection<br />1) Primary Data<br />2) Secondary Data<br />
  20. 20. Application in different fields.<br />
  21. 21. Different Statistical Software's used in companies:-<br />SAS<br />MATLAB<br />MINITAB<br />R(freely downloadable from net)<br />SPSS<br />SYSTAT<br />MYSTAT<br />
  22. 22. Limitations<br /> Statistical laws are not exact. Statistics measures the variability of a measurement, not the accuracy of a measurement. <br /> Statistics analyses quantitative data. As a matter of fact, qualitative phenomenon like honesty, poverty, beauty, intelligence etc, cannot be expressed numerically and any statistical analysis cannot be directly applied on these qualitative phenomenon. Statistical techniques may be applied indirectly by first reducing the qualitative expressions to accurate quantitative terms. <br />For example, the intelligence of a group of students can be studied on the basis of their marks in a particular examination. <br />
  23. 23. Limitations<br /><ul><li>Statistics table may be misused. The use of statistical tools by the inexperienced and untraced persons might lead to wrong conclusions.
  24. 24. Statistics does not give any specific importance to the individual items, in fact it deals with an aggregate of objects. </li></li></ul><li>Distribution of Internal Marks will depend on the following:-<br />Attendance in class <br />Test (Surprise & regular)<br /> Assignments<br />Presentation<br />Viva<br />Paper solving<br />
  25. 25. Thank you<br />