Trilogy Model Of Knowledge Creation Cebrian,Methusael


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This is a knowledge creation model i propose which is entirely built around the classroom learning. The model was based on the SECI, OODA, and Kukkonen Models that are specifically designed for transforming a working organization into a learning organization. With the school, which is primarily a learning organization, some processes in the SECI and other models are no longer applicable. Thus, a dedicated knowledge creation model for classroom must be created.

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  • Orientation is the Schwerpunkt.” Organic Design, 16.The Germans referred to a Schwerpunkt (focal point,also known as Schwerpunktprinzip or concentration principle) in the planning of operations; it was a center of gravity towards which was made the point of maximum effort, in an attempt to seek a decisive action.- In organizational Learning, the Schwerpunkt is used as the common ground for learners. Such as Culture, Language, Beliefs and Traditions among others.
  • Internal process – are the “seed” knowledge formed within the person’s brain.
  • Trilogy Model Of Knowledge Creation Cebrian,Methusael

    1. 1. Trilogy Model of the Knowledge Creation Process<br />Methusael B. Cebrian<br />College of Education<br />Capitol University<br />
    2. 2. INTRODUCTION<br /> Not much is understood on how knowledge is created in organizations, nor of how the knowledge creation process can be managed (Tsoukas& Mylonopoulos, 2004). However, some tend to believe that a single model devised to work on Knowledge creation is enough to work on all situations similar to theorems developed in mathematics. These perception is not only deeply flawed but also a disconnect in understanding and respect on the fluidity and dynamism of human learning.<br /> <br />methusael cebrian<br />
    3. 3. Knowledge is regarded as important for creating organizational value and enhancing organizational competitiveness, especially in an unpredictable environment (Nonaka, 1994).Same is very true for learning organizations, in this day and age knowledge is the key to success of the individual, organization and even the nation as a whole. Thus it is imperative that learning organizations must not only have a deep understanding of knowledge construction but also spearheads its understanding adapted for the changing times.<br />methusael cebrian<br />
    4. 4. Today, in the age of knowledge economy, the academe is left behind by the globalized industries and the military organization that is deeply dependent on the efficiency of logistics, innovativeness of processes, products and services and technology in spearheading understanding on the newest school of thought which is knowledge management. As always had been in the past, the role of the academe is to pick on the success of these organizations, analyze and adapt it to academic practices such that future workers will be able to continue and improve on what had been developed in the past.<br />methusael cebrian<br />
    5. 5. The focus of this paper is to understand three models of Knowledge Management developed from three different sectors of society at different time. The OODA Loop (for Observe, Orient, Decide and Act) a concept applied to the combat operations process, often at tactical, operational tactical and grand strategic level in the military that is also adapted today by commercial operations. It was created by military strategist and US AirForce Colonel John Boyd in the 60’s. The SECI Model (Socialization, Externalization, Combination and Internalization) model developed in 1991 by Professor IkujiroNonaka of Japan Institute of Science and Technology and the Organizational Knowledge Creation and ManagementFramework proposed in 2004 by Harri Oinas-Kukkonen of the University of Oulu, Finland and Stanford University, USA.<br />methusael cebrian<br />
    6. 6. The goal of this paper is to propose a conceptual model for knowledge creation, which is tailored for classroom applications derived from the concepts and theories of the three Knowledge Management Models used.<br />methusael cebrian<br />
    7. 7. Understanding the Models<br />OODA Loop<br /> John Boyd emphasized that learning is a product of decision making process within the mind of the person, thus understanding this process and creating a shorter and better way to create learning must be the main focus in order for the organization to ensure that learners will be able to demonstrate his learning at the fastest rate possible and gain advantage against the enemy, in our case the enemy is the time.<br />methusael cebrian<br />
    8. 8. According to John Boyd, this decision making process within the person’s mind can be classified into a Process Loop. This means that a human being can learn and come up with his best decision using a single Process Loop. He called this as OODA Loop, which is derived from, Observe, Orient, Decide and Act Process Loop.<br />methusael cebrian<br />
    9. 9. Observe<br /> John Boyd Theory contends that the very first step to this process is for the person to observe variables around him. These variables can be events and information’s that the person takes notice around him and noting it in order to preposition his thinking to the next phase of the process which orientation.<br />methusael cebrian<br />
    10. 10. Orient<br /> After taking notice of the various information’s around him, the learner now positions himself by taking into account his own previous knowledge, cultures and traditions and the new information. He now analyzes the new information versus his own previous knowledge and connecting it to one another through synthesis. This is the phase where the learner understands what is going on around him. At this point, the learner hasn’t created new knowledge yet but readies himself for the next phase of the process which is to decide. <br />methusael cebrian<br />
    11. 11. Decide<br /> At this point, the learner has gained significant level of understanding regarding the new information around him, he now likewise understands what’s going on and prepares himself to adapt towards the new situation. So, his next step is to decide based on his new experience if he is going to make the new experience a part of his new knowledge. Should the learner decides to neglect the new experience, as shown in the diagram, his next process is to go back into the observation phase and restart the process. If the learner accepts the new experience as a part of his new knowledge the learner is now prepared to demonstrate his new learning to the learner’s environment.<br />methusael cebrian<br />
    12. 12. Act<br />After deciding the best course of action to the given situation, the learner quickly moves into putting that decision into action. This is the time that the learner demonstrates his understanding of the given situation to the best of his ability. However, his action may depend on how he oriented himself to the variables or information fed to him through interaction. Therefore, the learner may act, depending on the level of his understanding to the new knowledge constructed within the learners mind.<br />methusael cebrian<br />
    13. 13. Boyd’s OODA Loop<br />OBSERVE<br />DECIDE<br />ACT<br />ORIENT<br />ImplicitGuidance& Control<br />ImplicitGuidance& Control<br />UnfoldingCircumstances<br />CulturalTraditions<br />Observations<br />Decision(Hypothesis)<br />GeneticHeritage<br />Analyses &Synthesis<br />Action(Test)<br />FeedForward<br />FeedForward<br />FeedForward<br />NewInformation<br />PreviousExperience<br />OutsideInformation<br />UnfoldingInteractionWithEnvironment<br />UnfoldingInteractionWithEnvironment<br />Feedback<br />Quickly understand what’s going on<br />And be able to do it<br />Know whatto do<br />While learning from the experience<br />methusaelcebrian<br />
    14. 14. SECI Model<br /> According to Professor IkujiroNonaka, knowledge creation is a spiraling process of interactions between explicit and tacit knowledge. The interactions between the explicit and tacit knowledge lead to the creation of new knowledge. The combination of the two categories makes it possible to conceptualize four conversion patterns.<br />Nonaka also suggests different &apos;Ba&apos;s which facilitate the knowledge conversion for his SECI Knowledge creation model. <br /> The four conversion patterns of knowledge are illustrated in diagram below:<br />methusael cebrian<br />
    15. 15. Socialization<br /> This mode enables the conversion of tacitknowledge through interaction between individuals. One important point to note here is that an individual can acquire tacit knowledge without language. Apprentices work with their mentors and learn craftsmanship not through language but by observation, imitation and practice. In a business setting, on job training (OJT) uses the same principle. The key to acquiring tacit knowledge is experience. Without some form of shared experience, it is extremely difficult for people to share each other’ thinking process.<br />methusael cebrian<br />
    16. 16. The tacit knowledge is exchanged through join activities – such as being together, spending time, living in the same environment – rather than through written or verbal instructions. <br /> In practice, socialization involves capturing knowledge through physical proximity. The process of acquiring knowledge is largely supported through direct interaction with people. <br />methusael cebrian<br />
    17. 17.  Externalization<br /> Externalization requires the expression of tacit knowledge and its translation into comprehensible forms that can be understood by others. In philosophical terms, the individual transcends the inner and outer boundaries of the self. During the externalization stage of the knowledge-creation process, and individual commits to the group and thus becomes one with the group. The sum of the individuals&apos; intentions and ideas fuse and become integrated with the group&apos;s mental world. <br />methusael cebrian<br />
    18. 18. In practice, externalization is supported by two key factors. <br />First, the articulation of tacit knowledge—that is, the conversion of tacit into explicit knowledge –involves techniques that help to express one’s ideas’ or images as words, concepts, figurative language (such as metaphors, analogies or narratives) and visuals. Dialogues, &quot;listening and contributing to the benefit of all participants,&quot; strongly support externalization. <br />methusael cebrian<br />
    19. 19. The second factor involves translating the tacit knowledge of people into readily understandable forms.This may require deductive/inductive reasoning or creative inference (abduction). <br />methusael cebrian<br />
    20. 20. Combination<br /> Combination involves the conversion of explicit knowledge into more complex sets of explicit knowledge. In this stage, the key issues are communication and diffusion processes and the systemization of knowledge. Here, new knowledge generate in theexternalization stage transcends the ground in analogues or digital signals. <br />methusael cebrian<br />
    21. 21. In practice, the combination phase relies on three processes. <br />Capturing and integrating new explicit knowledge is essential. This might involve collecting externalized knowledge (e.g. public data) from inside or outside the company and the combining such data. <br />methusael cebrian<br />
    22. 22. Second, the dissemination of explicit knowledge is based on the process of transferring this form of knowledge directly by using presentations or meeting. Here new knowledge is spread among the organizational members. <br />Third, the editing or processing of explicit knowledge makes it more usable (e.g. documents such as plans, report, market data).<br />methusael cebrian<br />
    23. 23. In the combination process, justification – the basis for agreement – takes place and allows the organization to take practical concrete steps.<br /> The knowledge conversion involves the process of social processes to combine different bodies of explicit knowledge held by individuals. The reconfiguring of existing information through the sorting, adding, re-categorizing and re-contextualizing of explicit knowledge can lead to new knowledge. This process of creating explicit knowledge from explicit knowledge is referred to as combination. <br />methusael cebrian<br />
    24. 24. Internalization<br /> The internalization of newly created knowledge is the conversion of explicit knowledge into the organization&apos;s tacit knowledge. This requires the individual to identify the knowledge relevant for one’s self within the organizational knowledge. That again requires finding one’s self in a larger entity. Learning by doing, training and exercises allow the individual to access the knowledge realm of the group and the entire organization.<br />methusael cebrian<br />
    25. 25. In practice, internalization relies on two dimensions:<br /> First, explicit knowledge has to be embodied in action and practice. Thus, the process of internalizing explicit knowledge actualizes concepts or methods about strategy, tactics, innovation or improvement. For example, training programs in larger organizations help the trainees to understand the organization and themselves in the whole. <br />methusael cebrian<br />
    26. 26. Second, there is a process of embodying the explicit knowledge by using simulations or experiments to trigger learning by doing processes. New concepts or methods can thus be learned in virtual situation. <br />methusael cebrian<br />
    27. 27. Explicit Knowledge<br />Systemizing ba<br />INPUT<br />New<br />collective<br />understanding<br />OUTPUT<br />Increased<br />collective<br />understanding<br />Connecting<br />Deducing<br />Internal process occurs<br />Combination<br />Internal process occurs<br />Exercising ba<br />Dialoguing ba<br />Individual<br />Group<br />Classroom<br />INPUT<br />Increased<br />collective<br />understanding<br />OUTPUT<br />New<br />collective<br />understanding<br />Internalization<br />Externalization<br />Reflecting<br />Embodying<br />Articulating<br />Conceptualizing<br />INPUT<br />New<br />individual<br />understanding<br />OUTPUT<br />Increased<br />individual<br />understanding<br />Socialization<br />Internal process occurs<br />Originating ba<br />Internal process occurs<br />INPUT<br />visions<br />challenges<br />activities<br />OUTPUT<br />New<br />individual<br />understanding<br />Experiencing <br />Emphatizing<br />NONAKA SECI MODEL<br />Tacit Knowledge<br />methusael cebrian<br />
    28. 28. Boyd and Nonaka’s Model Integration<br />While learning from the experience<br />DECIDE<br />Know whatto do<br />ACT<br />ORIENT<br />And be able to do it<br />Quickly understand what’s going on<br />OBSERVE<br />methusael cebrian<br />
    29. 29. Oinas-Kukkonen Model<br />Organizational Knowledge Creation and ManagementFramework<br /> According to Harri Oinas-Kukkonen, there are four phases or sub-processes in the knowledge creation process as shown in the Model below.<br />methusael cebrian<br />
    30. 30. Comprehension<br /> The author contends that learning begins with comprehension. He defined it as a process of surveying and interacting with the external environment, integrating the resulting intelligence with other project knowledge on an ongoing basis in order to identify problems, needs and opportunities; embodying explicit knowledge in tacit knowledge, “learning by doing”, re-experiencing. <br /> <br /> At this stage, the learner surveys the environment around him and interacts with it internally. <br />methusael cebrian<br />
    31. 31. Communication <br /> The Oinas-Kukkonen Model says that, communication is a process of sharing experiences between people and thereby creating tacit knowledge in the form of mental models and technical skills; produces dialog records, which emphasize the needs and opportunities, integrating the dialog along with resulting decisions with other project knowledge on an ongoing basis. <br /> At this stage, the learner gains new information through communication with other people this result to the creation of the tacit knowledge that is now shared by the people around the learner.<br /> <br />methusael cebrian<br />
    32. 32. Conceptualization <br /> According to the Oinas-Kukkonen Model, conceptualization is a collective reflection process articulating tacit knowledge to form explicit concepts and systemizing the concepts into a knowledge system; produces knowledge products of a project team, which form a more or less comprehensive picture of the project in hand and are iteratively and collaboratively developed; may include proposals, specifications, descriptions, work breakdown structures, milestones, timelines, staffing, facility requirements, budgets, etc.; rarely a one-shot effort.<br /> <br />methusael cebrian<br />
    33. 33. Collaboration<br /> With the new explicit knowledge, the learners are now ready to work together into putting their conceptualized information’s together using teamwork and demonstrate the new knowledge they have successfully created. All of these revolves around and is a product of collective intelligence of all the learners involved.<br /> <br />methusael cebrian<br />
    34. 34. In other words, the learners now create their own product thereby converting their developed tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge. The learners can effectively concretize their understanding in a piece of paper or project.<br /> <br />methusael cebrian<br />
    35. 35. Organizational Knowledge Creation Model by HarriOinas-Kukkonen<br />Communication<br />Comprehension<br />Conceptualization<br />Collective Intelligence<br />Collaboration<br />methusael cebrian<br />
    36. 36. Boyd, Nonaka and Kukkonen Model Integration<br />Conceptualization<br />Collective Intelligence<br />Collaboration<br />Communication<br />Comprehension<br />methusael cebrian<br />
    37. 37. Educational model derived from the integration of the OODA Loop, SECI Model and Oinas-Kukkonen.<br />methusaelcebrian<br />
    38. 38. Based on the model integration of the three different models on knowledge creation process, I am proposing a conceptual knowledge creation model that is tailored for classroom instructional application. My view is that the knowledge creation process can be simplified into 3 phases. These phases were derived from the integration of the models discussed earlier, thus the new Model was able to simplify the concepts and process and specifically designed for classroom learning.<br />methusael cebrian<br />
    39. 39. One of the reasons why there should be a dedicated model of knowledge creation process for classroom application is that, first and foremost the models we are using such as the SECI Model were specifically developed for a business type organizations.<br /> While both can be considered a learning organization. The classroom learning is largely different when compared to workplace learning.<br />methusael cebrian<br />
    40. 40. For one, unlike in the workplace environment. Students have their mind set that when they go to school they expect to learn. They carry their textbooks, notebooks, calculators, etc. , and perhaps have done their homework already before going to school. In school they expect to meet with professors and teachers to impart to them the knowledge. The students are motivated by the grades they earn from doing good in school.<br />This makes the students oriented to learn, because that is what they already expect before going to school.<br />methusael cebrian<br />
    41. 41. In the workplace environment, people have the mindset to perform their jobs and earn a living. They expect to work and not learn they way they did back in school. That is why they don’t carry textbooks, notebooks, calculators and other learning paraphernalia&apos;s and they don’t expect professors or teachers to lecture them on a certain subject.<br />Workers are oriented to work, that is why in order to make the workplace environment a learning organization, the Orientation or Externalization was included in the knowledge creation process. This is what differentiates the new model to the S.E.C.I. model that is popular in the business organizations and the academic world today<br />methusael cebrian<br />
    42. 42. The new Trilogy Model of knowledge creation process is composed of three processes the learner must undergo before he can develop and demonstrate his new knowledge. These are the Observation and Orientation, Adaptation and Absorption, and Manifestation and Substantiation.<br />methusael cebrian<br />
    43. 43. Trilogy Model of Knowledge Creation Process<br />Adaptation & Absorption (AA)<br />Explicit <br />Knowledge<br />Manifestation & Substantiation <br />(MS)<br />Explicit <br />Knowledge<br />Individual<br />Group<br />Classroom<br />Collective Intelligence<br />Observation & Orientation <br />(OO)<br />Tacit <br />Knowledge<br />Tacit <br />Knowledge<br />methusael cebrian<br />
    44. 44. Observation and Orientation<br /> This is the first phase in the trilogy model. My proposal is that the first process the learner undergoes is to observe the external variables around him such as new information as a result of interactions with the other learner in a collaborative environment and orients himself towards that new information resulting from interactions with various learners. the learners need not to externalize or orient themselves the way the models of Professor Nonaka, oinaskukonnen and boyd suggest since at the outset, the learners are already oriented toward learning and that the environment around the learner is specifically developed for instructional application and not a workplace environment.<br />methusael cebrian<br />
    45. 45. This is the time when the learner analyzes information and compares it with his own, and synthesizes this gathered information. This phase is critical in the knowledge creation, because this stage deals with the what, where, when and how’s in the learners mind. The new information’s gathered through interaction between the learners are tacit knowledge. After this stage, the learner is now ready to transfer that tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge.<br />methusael cebrian<br />
    46. 46. Adaptation and Absorption<br /> After the learner has completed the first phase, the learner at this point will adapt the information’s gathered from the first phase as his own and begins to concretize the information’s gathered and create new knowledge thereby turning the new tacit knowledge derived from observation and orientation into explicit knowledge. <br />methusael cebrian<br />
    47. 47. The learner adapts this new explicit knowledge as a part of his experience, the learner at this time is still in the process of absorbing this new tacit-explicit knowledge. The process of knowledge creation is not yet complete at this stage, in fact it is only half way through because the learner was just able to understand and create new knowledge but have not yet demonstrated such. As emphasized by Nonaka, unless the learners can make new strategies, plan for action and practice new skills, the learners haven’t learned yet. <br />methusael cebrian<br />
    48. 48. Manifestation and Substantiation<br /> This is the last stage in the Trilogy Model of knowledge creation, at this phase the learner is now capable of demonstrating his learning, complete with facts and evidences to support the new knowledge, and prepared to defend the new knowledge against questions coming from other learners and the teacher. Because the new knowledge will not be considered as new knowledge, if the learners who created it cannot manifest their learning, and substantiate it by providing facts and evidences to support the claim, unless the learners can perform such, they are only able to create a new idea, short of knowledge.<br />methusael cebrian<br />
    49. 49. All of these phases are part of the spiral process that revolves around the collective intelligences of the individuals, the group and the entire classroom. The way we utilize that collective intelligence is through collaboration, where the students can interact with other learners in an open environment that best encourages them to bring out their skills or talents and construct new meaningful knowledge and be able to reflect on their thinking. Astudent centered environment that uses a higher order intellectual quality curriculum and promotes academic engagement among the learners.<br />methusael cebrian<br />
    50. 50. Trilogy Model of Knowledge Creation Process<br />Adaptation & Absorption (AA)<br />Explicit <br />Knowledge<br />Manifestation & Substantiation <br />(MS)<br />Explicit <br />Knowledge<br />Individual<br />Group<br />Classroom<br />Collective Intelligence<br />Observation & Orientation <br />(OO)<br />Tacit <br />Knowledge<br />Tacit <br />Knowledge<br />methusael cebrian<br />
    51. 51. This diagram shows how and where the trilogy model fits into the O.O.D.A , S.E.C.I. AND Kukkonen Models.<br />methusael cebrian<br />
    52. 52. Explicit Knowledge<br />Adaptation & Absorption (AA)<br />Individual<br />Group<br />Classroom<br />Collective Intelligence<br />Manifestation & Substantiation <br />(MS)<br />Observation & Orientation <br />(OO)<br />Tacit Knowledge<br />methusael cebrian<br />