Web 2.0 tools in education

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3.10. Web 2.0 tools in education

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Web 2.0 tools in education

  1. 1. Co-funded by the European Union , through the Comenius Programme Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  2. 2. Structure <ul><li>Semantic Web </li></ul><ul><li>XML </li></ul><ul><li>RDF </li></ul><ul><li>Ontologies </li></ul><ul><li>OWL </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Web 2.0 Activity </li></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  3. 3. What is Web 2.0? <ul><li>Web 2.0 is a set of internet services and practices that give a voice to individual users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It implies a step-change in the structure of a whole environment of computer activity – namely, the World Wide Web * </li></ul></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education * Becta (2008) . Web 2.0 technologies for learning: The current landscape – opportunities, challenges and tensions
  4. 4. Semantic Web <ul><li>A collaborative effort led by W3C </li></ul><ul><li>B ased on the Resource Description Framework (RDF), which integrates a variety of applications using XML for syntax and URIs for naming </li></ul><ul><li>P roposed by World Wide Web inventor Tim Berners-Lee </li></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education * http://www.uen.org/core/edtech/glossary.shtml
  5. 5. Definition <ul><li>“ The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation.” * </li></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education *Tim Berners-Lee, James Hendler, Ora Lassila The Semantic Web, Scientific American, May 17, 2001
  6. 6. Scope <ul><li>The  Semantic Web  provides a common framework that allows  data  to be shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries * </li></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education * http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/
  7. 7. Semantic Web <ul><li>The Semantic Web is about two things : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C ommon formats for integration and combination of data drawn from diverse sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>L anguage for recording how the data relates to real world objects </li></ul></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  8. 8. Old Web <ul><li>Downloadable Resources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identified by URL's </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Links: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>href, src, ... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>limited, non-descriptive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>User: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exciting world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>semantics of the resource, however, gleaned from content </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Machine processable: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very little information available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>significance of the links only evident from the context around the anchor. </li></ul></ul></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education Eric Miller. Weaving Meaning : An Overview of The Semantic Web . 2003
  9. 9. Semantic Web <ul><li>Resources (any resource): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Globally Identified by URI's </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensible & Relational </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Links: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identified by URI's </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensible & Relational </li></ul></ul><ul><li>User: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even more exciting world, richer user experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Machine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More processable information is available (Data Web) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computers and people: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work, learn and exchange knowledge effectively </li></ul></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education Eric Miller. Weaving Meaning : An Overview of The Semantic Web . 2003
  10. 10. Semantics… “Now, that should clear up a few things around here…” <ul><li>http://carpentier.files.wordpress.com/2007/08/semanticweb.jpg </li></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  11. 11. Semantic Web Layer “Cake” <ul><li>http://www.w3c.org </li></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  12. 12. URI <ul><li>Every resource available on the Web has an address that may be encoded by a Uniform Resource Identifier , or “URI” </li></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  13. 13. What is XML? <ul><li>” A set of rules for defining and representing information as structured documents for applications on the Internet” * </li></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  14. 14. e X tensible M arkup L anguage <ul><li>Extensible : User tags can be defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports a variety of applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Markup : The user can “markup”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements , Attributes , Comments and Processing instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meta Language : Gives the rules for other languages to be implemented </li></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  15. 15. E-mail in XML <ul><li><message> </li></ul><ul><li><to> [email_address] </to> <from> [email_address] </from> <text> Is XML easy? I am giving a presentation... </text> </li></ul><ul><li></message> </li></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  16. 16. What is RDF? <ul><li>“ A framework for constructing logical languages that can work together in the Semantic Web. A way of using XML for data rather than just documents ” * </li></ul><ul><li>RDF extends XML by introducing subject – predicate – object expressions </li></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education http://www.w3c.org
  17. 17. RDF <ul><li>A general method for conceptual description or modeling of information that is implemented in web resources </li></ul><ul><li>Describes documents, images, videos, etc. </li></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  18. 18. RDF Schema <ul><li>“ Extensible knowledge representation language, providing basic elements for the description of ontologies” </li></ul><ul><li>Extends RDF offering ontology building capacity </li></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  19. 19. Ontologies <ul><li>“ An ontology is an explicit specification of a conceptualization ” * </li></ul><ul><li>The term is borrowed from philosophy, where an ontology is a systematic account of Existence </li></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education * Thomas Gruber, 1993
  20. 20. Conceptualization <ul><li>“ A conceptualization is an abstract, simplified view of the world that we wish to represent for some purpose” * </li></ul><ul><li>Ontologies provide controlled , consistent vocabularies to describe concepts and relationships </li></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education * Thomas Gruber, 1993
  21. 21. Ontology Constructs <ul><li>Class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human is a class, Man is a subclass of human </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attribute </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Height & weight are attributes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ isrelatedto ” can indicate relationships between men </li></ul></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education *Gruber, Encyclopedia of Database Systems , 2008
  22. 22. Sample Ontology Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education Human Man Woman George Mary ismarriedto class subclass subclass relationship Height: 1,90m Weight: 95kg attributes
  23. 23. OWL <ul><li>A family of knowledge representation languages for authoring ontologies </li></ul><ul><li>C ompatible with the architecture of the World Wide Web in general, and the Semantic Web in particular </li></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education * www.w3c.org
  24. 24. OWL extends RDF <ul><li>A dds more vocabulary for describing properties and classes . For example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R elations between classes , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C ardinality , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E quality, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Properties (and their characteristics) </li></ul></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education * www.w3c.org
  25. 25. Why OWL? <ul><li>OWL has more facilities for expressing meaning and semantics than : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RDF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RDF-S </li></ul></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education * www.w3c.org
  26. 26. Versions of OWL <ul><li>OWL Lite (decidable) </li></ul><ul><li>OWL DL (Description Logic) (Decidable) </li></ul><ul><li>OWL Full (Allows classes as instances) </li></ul><ul><li>From OWL Lite to OWL Full expressiveness and logical complexity increases </li></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  27. 27. OWL Constructs Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education * Introduction to Ontologies, Nick Drummond Person Country Class (concept) Animal Individual (instance) Belgium Greece Spain Italy Nick Tom Alex Kylie Kelly Cat Dog lives_in lives_in lives_in has_pet has_pet arrow = relationship label = Property has_pet
  28. 28. Classes <ul><li>E.g. Person, Animal, Job </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classes are sets of Individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Membership of a Class is dependent on its logical description , not its name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classes do not have to be named (they can be logical expressions ) </li></ul></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  29. 29. Properties <ul><li>E.g. hasPart, isMemberOf, owns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Properties are used to relate Individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We often say that Individuals are related along a given property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject – Predicate – Object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g.: Nikos – hasPet – Cat </li></ul></ul></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  30. 30. Individuals <ul><li>E.g. Nikos, me, this room, this cat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals are the objects (aka instances) in our domain of interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals can be members of multiple Classes </li></ul></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  31. 31. How are they linked? <ul><li>HTML and XML </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HTML uses predefined tags to tell a web browser how to display a web page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XML uses not-predefined tags to describe data in order to carry and not to display them </li></ul></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  32. 32. How are they linked? <ul><li>XML – RDF </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RDF also describes resources and is based on XML providing a model for data, and a syntax so that independent parties can exchange data </li></ul></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  33. 33. How are they linked? <ul><li>RDF – OWL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OWL is built on RDF and is based on XML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In a way, it extends RDF by allowing to create logical dependencies between structures </li></ul></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  34. 34. Are these linked to education? <ul><li>Semantic Web  Links learning objects (LOs) </li></ul><ul><li>  Links them to the real world </li></ul><ul><li>XML  Send around documents </li></ul><ul><li>RDF  Send more than docs (LOs) </li></ul><ul><li>Ontologies  Relationships between LOs </li></ul><ul><li>OWL  Defines relationships between LOs and is compatible with the Semantic Web </li></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  35. 35. Categories of educational Web 2.0 activity* <ul><li>Media Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Media Manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>Conversational Areas </li></ul><ul><li>Online games and virtual worlds </li></ul><ul><li>Social Networking </li></ul><ul><li>Blogging </li></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education * Becta (2008) . Web 2.0 technologies for learning: The current landscape – opportunities, challenges and tensions
  36. 36. Categories of educational Web 2.0 activity <ul><li>Social Bookmarking </li></ul><ul><li>Recommender Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative Editing </li></ul><ul><li>Wikis </li></ul><ul><li>Syndication </li></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  37. 37. Media Sharing <ul><li>Synchronize slides with video </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.zentation.com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storing and Sharing Class Notes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.notecentric.com/ </li></ul></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  38. 38. Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  39. 39. Media Manipulation <ul><li>Online Diagram Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.gliffy.com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Linking literature to geography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.googlelittrips.com / </li></ul></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  40. 40. Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  41. 41. Conversational Areas <ul><li>Educational conversations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://vyew.com/site/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International conversations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.thinkquest.org/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conversations for young learners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://b.whyville.net/smmk/nice </li></ul></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  42. 42. Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  43. 43. Social Networking & Blogging <ul><li>Casual talks around school interests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.goldstarcafe.net/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Educational Blogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://edublogs.org/ </li></ul></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  44. 44. Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  45. 45. Wikis <ul><li>School Wiki </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://school20.wikispaces.com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Educational Wikis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://wikisineducation.wetpaint.com/ </li></ul></ul>Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  46. 46. Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  47. 47. <ul><li>Dear user, </li></ul><ul><li>please take the time (5 minutes) to help us improve METASCHOOL modules! </li></ul><ul><li>Find the Module Questionnaire here: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>METASCHOOL Portal: http://lreforschools.eun.org/metaschool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find present module (ask your workshop leader, if you are unsure) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scroll to the end of the module description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fill in the Module Questionnaire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If you took part in a METASCHOOL Workshop and this is the last module of your workshop, please ALSO help us improve our METASCHOOL Workshops by completing the Workshop Questionnaire (10 minutes): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>METASCHOOL Portal: http://lreforschools.eun.org/metaschool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Click on a language: </li></ul></ul>Evaluation
  48. 48. Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education Informatics Laboratory Agricultural University of Athens http://infolab-dev.aua.gr/ Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education

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