Porphyrins

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The Distribution Pattern of Porphyrins in Urine Serves as a Functional “Fingerprint” of Toxicity

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Porphyrins

  1. 1. Porphyrins The Distribution Pattern of  Porphyrins in Urine Serves as a  Functional “Fingerprint” of Toxicity
  2. 2. What Are Porphyrins? •Porphyrins, measured in urine, serve as  biomarkers of the effects of toxins on the  biomarkers of the effects of toxins on the heme biosynthetic pathway. •Heme is essential for proper functioning of many  pp g y proteins including oxygen transport, energy  production, and detoxification
  3. 3. What Are Porphyrins? •Heme is a large iron‐binding protein and is  synthesized in most tissues, mainly liver  and bone marrow •The pathway to heme manufacture is a series of  intermediate compounds called  intermediate compounds called porphyrinogens
  4. 4. What Are  What Are Porphyrins? Metal Inserted into Protoporphyrin p py Resulting Compound g p Ring Magnesium Chlorophyll (green plants) Copper Hemocyanin (crustaceans) Cobalt Cobalamin (B12) Iron Heme
  5. 5. Why Evaluate Porphyrins? 1. The pathway is highly active, so any disturbance  tends to cause rapid and relatively large  accumulations of intermediates.  2. The enzymes of the porphyrin‐producing pathway  2 Th fh hi di h are widely distributed in human tissues and some  of them are highly sensitive to the presence of  of them are highly sensitive to the presence of various toxins. 3. Pathway makes heme and cytochomes (P 450  3 Pathway makes heme and cytochomes (P‐450 enzymes and mitochondrial function). Therefore  damage causes major effects on energetics and  detoxification
  6. 6. Porphyrins Testing Can… Testing Can…  • Identify Level of Biochemical Damage Caused by Toxicant  Exposure • Identify Level of Mercury’s Effect • Monitor Patients Before and During Chelation Therapy • Identify Toxicity of Therapeutic Drugs • Differentiate Type of Heavy Metal Toxicity yp y y
  7. 7. Toxicity Often  Contributes to…  C ib • Multiple Chemical Sensitivity • Behavioral and Learning Disorders Behavioral and Learning Disorders • Immune Dysfunctions • Chronic Fatigue • Neurological and Mental/Emotional Disorders
  8. 8. Effects  Effects of Toxic  Exposures:  Enzyme  Enzyme Interference
  9. 9. Effects of Inherited Porphyrias Effects of Inherited Porphyrias
  10. 10. Environmental  Toxin‐Induced  T i Id d Porphyrinurias
  11. 11. Levels of Three Porphyrins Following  Consecutive DMPS Injections Pingree SD, et al. Toxicol Sci. 2001;61(2):234‐240. SD, et al. Toxicol Sci. 2001;61(2):234‐
  12. 12. Hypothetical Relationship of  Body Levels of Mercury and Porphyrins
  13. 13. Pro‐Oxidant Reactivity of Metals  P O id R ii fM l and Other Toxic Chemicals Can: and Other Toxic Chemicals Can: • Inactivate porphyrinogenic enzymes  p py g y • Deplete glutathione and other antioxidants  • Increase oxidant stress Increase oxidant stress • In addition, porphyrinogens (precursors to In addition, porphyrinogens (precursors to  porphyrins in the reduced state) are easily  nonenzymatically oxidized to porphyrins by  y y p py y toxic metals.
  14. 14. Case Study 1 y A patient’s Porphyrins test was unremarkable,  except for a slightly elevated Copro except for a slightly elevated Copro I/Copro II II  ratio, which can be indicative of Arsenic  exposure Case Study 1 Case Study 1
  15. 15. The patient followed up with a whole blood  toxic element analysis and was found to have  toxic element analysis and was found to have slightly elevated Arsenic Case Study 1 Case Study 1
  16. 16. Case Study 2 Case Study 2 Clear Porphyrin Profile in Health Check. Clear Porphyrin Profile in Health Check Case Study 2 Case Study 2
  17. 17. Low Porphyrins Corroborated with  Low Toxic Minerals Low Toxic Minerals Case Study 2 Case Study 2
  18. 18. Case Study 3 Case Study 3 Known Mercury Exposure in Autistic Child Known Mercury Exposure in Autistic Child Case Study 3 Case Study 3
  19. 19. Child’s Challenged Urine Case Study 3 Case Study 3

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