What is Proxemics ? Is the study of mans transactions as he perceivesand uses intimate, personal, social and public space in various settings while following out of awareness dictates of cultural paradigms.
Edward T.Hall,the cultural anthropologist who coined the term in 1963 .
Proxemics involves the study of interpersonal interactions These interactions are viewedProxemics in a spatial context, defined by four “zones” The behavior is considered to be largely learned or culturally determined rather than innate biological or physiological processes.
PERSONAL SPACE Personal space is the distance we try tomaintain when we interact with other people.
four levels of social distance that occur in different situations:
Intimate distance - 6 to 18 inches: This level of physical distance often indicates a closer relationship or greater comfort between individuals. hugging whispering touching
Personal distance - 1.5 to 4 feet:Physical distance at this level usually occurs between people who are family members or close friends.The closer the people can comfortably stand while interacting can be an indicator of the intimacy of the relationship.
Social distance - 4 to 12 feetThis level of physical distance is often used with individuals who are acquaintances. a co-worker you see several times a week, you might feel more comfortable interacting at a closer distance.
Public distance - 12 to 25 feetPhysical distance at this level is often used in public speaking situations. Presentation at Presentation at President’s work school public speech
Personal distance of individuals can vary from culture to culture.E.g: People from Latin countries tend to feel more comfortable standingcloser to one another as they interact, while those from North America need more personal distance.
Where do people stand when there are only two or three people?If there are only two or three people on an elevator, each person usually leans against the walls.
What happens when the elevator becomes more crowded and there are now four or more people?Everyone turns to face the door. Hands, purses, and briefcases hang down in front of the body. People usually scrunch up, rounding their shoulders, so that they take up as little space as possible.
How close will people stand? What is allowed to "touch” ? People don’t touch each other in any way unless the elevatorbecomes very crowded, and then they only touch at the shoulders or upper arms. If you see an overcrowded elevator, you will probably choose to wait for the next one.
What do people look at in a crowded elevator? Everyone usuallylooks at the floor indicator located above the door.
When is it permissible to talk to the other people?People who do know each other will usually speak softly. When agroup of people enter the elevator and do not follow these rules, other occupants usually feel very uncomfortable.
Peter is violating what Ann has marked as her territory
If you regularly take the same seat in a class, that habit becomes a type of marker, signaling to others that a particular seat location is yours. Other students will often leave that seat empty because they have perceived it as yours.
Personal status We also can understand a person’s status in a group by noting where the person sits and theamount of space over which ownership is claimed.
E.g. In a well-established group, people withdiffering opinions will often choose to sit on opposite sides of the table, while allies will sit in adjacent spots.
Artifacts are the objects and possessions we use to decorate the physical space we control.When others enter our space, they lookaround and notice what objects we chooseto place in the space and how we arrangethem.Then they assign meaning to what they see.
FOR EXAMPLEKatie visited herboyfriend, Peter, atschool, the firstthing she noticedwas a picture on hisbulletin board ofhim hugging a cutewoman she did notrecognize.
The second thing she noticed was that thepicture she had given him of her before he leftfor school was nowhere to be found.From this, she concluded that Peter wasn’thonoring his promise not to see anyone atschool.
The way we arrange the artifacts in our space also can nonverbally communicate to others.Professors and businesspeople have learnedthat by choosing and arranging the artifactsin their space, they can influence interactions.
People choose artifacts not just fortheir function but also for the messagethat the objects convey about them.Lee got his first job,the first items hepurchased were alarge flat-screen TVand a couch withchair to impress hisolder and alreadysuccessful brother.
Whether the artifacts you choose areconscious attempts to impress or simplyreflect your taste, when others enteryour space, they will notice the artifactsand draw conclusions.
Use of time : ChronemicsChronemics is how we interpret use of time and is based largely on culturalcontext .Due to the differences of cultures, the way we use time for communicationcould be different.
People from Western cultures tend to be very time conscious. They carrydaily planners and wear digital watches so we can arrive at precisely the “right time”
For the Mexican, it’s rare to specify an exact time for guests to arrive for dinner.
American executives tend to get right down to business and ﬁnish quickly.
Japanese executives expect to devote time to social interaction ﬁrst
Monochronic and Polychronic :Moreover, people can have either a monochronic or a polychronicorientation to time.Monochronic time orientation : people tend to concentrate theirefforts on one task, and only when it is ﬁnished or when the time wehave allotted to it is over, do we move on to another task.Others of us with a polychronic time orientation tendto tackle multiple tasks at once.
Differences between monochronic and polychronic people Presenter: Minh Dang
Understand the differences between monochronic and polychronic time orientation• Proper understanding of the difference between these systems will be helpful in dealing with the time-flexible peoples in different cultures
Differences between monochronic and polychronic people MONOCHRONIC PEOPLE POLYCHRONIC PEOPLE• Do one thing at a time: stick • Do many things at once: to schedule have flexible schedule
MONOCHRONIC PEOPLE POLYCHRONIC PEOPLE• Concentrate on the job • Are highly distractible and subject to interruptions
MONOCHRONIC PEOPLE POLYCHRONIC PEOPLE• Adhere religiously to plans • Change plans often and easily
MONOCHRONIC PEOPLE POLYCHRONIC PEOPLE• Take time commitments • Consider time commitments (deadlines, schedules) an objective to be achieved, seriously if possible
MONOCHRONIC PEOPLE POLYCHRONIC PEOPLE• Are concerned about not • Are more concerned with disturbing others; follow those who are closely rules of privacy and related (family, friends, consideration close business associates) than with privacy
MONOCHRONIC PEOPLE POLYCHRONIC PEOPLE• Show great respect for • Borrow and lend things private property; seldom often and easily borrow or lend
MONOCHRONIC PEOPLE POLYCHRONIC PEOPLE• Are accustomed to short- • Have strong tendency to term relationships build lifetime relationship
MONOCHRONIC PEOPLE POLYCHRONIC PEOPLE• Are low-context • Are high-context
To sum upPeople in monochronic cultures such as the U.S.or Germany prefer promptness, careful planningand rigid commitment to plans. They also tendto be task-oriented whereas people frompolychronic cultures are people-oriented.Cultures such as Italy or Brazil are considered tobe polychronic since they prefer to havemultiple things happening at once. Polychroniccultures tend to prioritise relationships overtasks and do not consider time commitments tobe binding.
Summary MONOCHRONIC PEOPLE POLYCHRONIC PEOPLE• Clock time • Situational time• Appointment time • Flexitime• Segmented activities • Simultaneous activities• Task-oriented • People-oriented
Thank you for listening !Group 5 :1. M.Sang2. H.Lộc3. Ngân Giang4. Ngọc Cẩm5. M.Đăng6. Tố Ngân